The following tables demonstrate changes in constitutional rights over time, with particular emphasis on the last two decades. Each column corresponds to a constitutional event that changed the constitution, whether through amendment or the adoption of an entirely new or interim constitution. Expand the categories to read the related constitutional provisions for each time period.

Countries:
Bolivia, Egypt, Fiji, Kenya, Morocco, Nepal, Norway, Rwanda, Tunisia, Viet Nam, Zimbabwe

Bolivia

Provisions related
to category are:
  Not present
  Present
Added or changed

The Bolivian people approved a new constitution via national referendum in 2009, thereby replacing the previous constitution of 1967. The new constitution guarantees both women and men the exercise of sexual and reproductive rights, and is one of the few national constitutions that prohibits discrimination based on sexual orientation.

Constitution of 1967,
as amended to 1994
Amended
2002
New Constitution
2009
Affirmative Action (Broadly)
+
Political Constitution of the State of Bolivia 1967, as amended to 2002

IV. The State shall punish (sancionará) all forms of discrimination and shall implement positive measures to promote real equality among all persons. (Art. 6)

Political Constitution of the State of Bolivia 2009

II. The Law shall determine the general criteria for the election of members of the departmental assemblies, taking into account population, territorial, cultural identity and linguistic representation when there are rural native indigenous minorities, and parity and alternation of gender. The Statutes of Autonomy shall define its application in accordance with the specific reality and conditions of its jurisdiction. (Art. 278)

Equality and Non-Discrimination
+
Political Constitution of the State of Bolivia 1967, as amended to 1994

I. Every human being has legal personality and capacity, in accordance with the laws. He enjoys the rights, freedoms, and guarantees recognized by this Constitution, without distinction as to race, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, origin, economic or social condition, or any other.
II. The dignity and freedom of the person are inviolable. To respect them and protect them is a primary duty of the State. (Art. 6)

Bolivian men and women who are over eighteen years of age are citizens, regardless of their educational, occupational, or income levels. (Art. 41)

Political Constitution of the State of Bolivia 1967, as amended to 2002

I. Every human being possesses juridical personality and capacity, in accordance with the laws. Everyone enjoys the rights, freedoms and guarantees recognized by this Constitution, without distinction as to race, gender, language, religion, political or other views, origin, economic or social condition, or any other.
II. The fundamental rights of the person are inviolable. Their respect and protection constitute a primary duty of the State.
III. Women and men are equal under the Law and enjoy the same political, social, economic and cultural rights.
IV. The State shall punish (sancionará) all forms of discrimination and shall implement positive measures to promote real equality among all persons.b V. The fundamental rights and guarantees of the person shall be interpreted and applied in accordance with the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and the Treaties, Conventions, and Covenants ratified by Bolivia in this matter. (Art. 6)

Bolivian men and women who are over eighteen years of age are citizens, regardless of their educational, occupational, or income levels. (Art. 41)

Political Constitution of the State of Bolivia 2009

… A State based on respect and equality for all, on principles of sovereignty, dignity, interdependence, solidarity, harmony, and equity in the distribution and redistribution of the social wealth, … (Preamble)

II. The State is based on the values of unity, equality, inclusion, dignity, liberty, solidarity, reciprocity, respect, interdependence, harmony, transparency, equilibrium, equality of opportunity, social and gender equality in participation, common welfare, responsibility, social justice, distribution and redistribution of the social wealth and assets for well being. (Art. 8)

The following are essential purposes and functions of the State, in addition to those established in the Constitution and the law:
1. To construct a just and harmonious society, built on decolonization, without discrimination or exploitation, with full social justice, in order to strengthen the Pluri-National identities.
2. To guarantee the welfare, development, security and protection, and equal dignity of individuals, nations, peoples, and communities, and to promote mutual respect and intra-cultural, inter-cultural and plural language dialogue. … (Art. 9)

I. The Republic of Bolivia adopts a participatory democratic, representative and communal form of government, with equal conditions for men and women. … (Art. 11)

I. Every human being, without distinction, has legal status and capacity under the law and enjoys the rights recognized in this Constitution.
II. The State prohibits and punishes all forms of discrimination based on sex, color, age, sexual orientation, gender identity, origin, culture, nationality, citizenship, language, religious belief, ideology, political affiliation or philosophy, civil status, economic or social condition, type of occupation, level of education, disability, pregnancy, and any other discrimination that attempts to or results in the annulment of or harm to the equal recognition, enjoyment or exercise of the rights of all people.
III. The State guarantees everyone and all collectives, without discrimination, the free and effective exercise of the rights established in this Constitution, the laws and international human rights treaties.
… (Art. 14)

Gender Equality Machineries

No provisions.

Participation in Public Life and Institutions
+
Political Constitution of the State of Bolivia 1967, as amended to 1994

Citizenship consists of:
1. Participating as a voter or as an elected official in the formation or exercise of the public powers;
2. The right to hold public office, with no other requirement than that of fitness, save for exceptions established by law. (Art. 40)

Bolivian men and women who are over eighteen years of age are citizens, regardless of their educational, occupational, or income levels. (Art. 41)

Political Constitution of the State of Bolivia 1967, as amended to 2002

Citizenship consists of:
1. Participating, either as a voter or as a candidate for public office, in the formation or exercise of the public powers;
2. The right to hold public office save for the exceptions established by Law;
3. The right to participate in the management of the public affairs in accordance with the terms established by Law. (Art. 40)

Bolivian men and women who are over eighteen years of age are citizens, regardless of their educational, occupational, or income levels. (Art. 41)

Political Constitution of the State of Bolivia 2009

II. The State is based on the values of unity, equality, inclusion, dignity, liberty, solidarity, reciprocity, respect, interdependence, harmony, transparency, equilibrium, equality of opportunity, social and gender equality in participation, common welfare, responsibility, social justice, distribution and redistribution of the social wealth and assets for well being. (Art. 8)

I. The Republic of Bolivia adopts as its form of government the participatory, representative and communitarian democracy, with equivalent conditions among men and women.
... (Art. 11)

The duties of Bolivians are:

12. To serve in the military, which is obligatory for boys.
… (Art. 108)

I. All Bolivians are citizens and exercise their citizenship rights from the age of 18, whatever may be their level of education, occupation or income.
II. Citizenship rights consist of:
1. Taking part as an elector or being eligible to be part of and exercise functions in the bodies of popular power, and
2. The right to exercise public functions without any requisites, except those established by law.
… (Art. 144)

Political Participation Quotas: National level

No provisions.

Political Participation Quotas: Subnational levels

No provisions.

Sexual and Reproductive Rights
+
Political Constitution of the State of Bolivia 2009

Women and men are guaranteed the exercise of their sexual rights and their reproductive rights. (Art. 66)

Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity
+
Political Constitution of the State of Bolivia 2009

II. The State prohibits and punishes all forms of discrimination based on sex, color, age, sexual orientation, gender identity, origin, culture, nationality, citizenship, language, religious belief, ideology, political affiliation or philosophy, civil status, economic or social condition, type of occupation, level of education, disability, pregnancy, and any other discrimination that attempts to or results in the annulment of or harm to the equal recognition, enjoyment or exercise of the rights of all people.
… (Art. 14)

Women’s Rights

No provisions.

Egypt

Provisions related
to category are:
  Not present
  Present
Added or changed

Following the revolution of 2011, Egypt was briefly governed by a provisional constitution and then the short-lived constitution of 2012. A new constitution was adopted in 2014 which instituted a first-ever National Council for Women and expanded on many of the rights previously provided by the 1971 constitution.

Constitution of 1971,
as amended to 1980
Amended
2007
Interim
2011
New
2012
New
2014
Affirmative Action (Broadly)
+ +
Constitution of the Arab Republic of Egypt 1971, as amended to 1980

The State shall guarantee the proper coordination between the duties of woman towards the family and her work in the society, considering her equal with man in the fields of political, social, cultural and economic life without violation of the rules of Islamic jurisprudence. (Art. 11)

Interim Constitution of the Arab Republic of Egypt 2011

No provisions.

Constitution of the Arab Republic of Egypt 2012

The dignity of the individual is part and parcel of the dignity of the homeland and a country in which women are not respected has no dignity; for women are the sisters of men and partners in national gains and responsibilities. ... Equality and equal opportunities are for all: male and female citizens; for there is no discrimination, nepotism, or favoritism in rights and duties. ... (Preamble)

Constitution of the Arab Republic of Egypt 2014

The State shall ensure the achievement of equality between women and men in all civil, political, economic, social, and cultural rights in accordance with the provisions of this Constitution.
The State shall take the necessary measures to ensure the appropriate representation of women in the houses of representatives, as specified by Law. The State shall also guarantee women’s right of holding public and senior management offices in the State and their appointment in judicial bodies and authorities without discrimination. … (Art. 11)

Equality and Non-Discrimination
+ + +
Constitution of the Arab Republic of Egypt 1971, as amended to 1980

The State shall guarantee the proper coordination between the duties of woman towards the family and her work in the society, considering her equal with man in the fields of political, social, cultural and economic life without violation of the rules of Islamic jurisprudence. (Art. 11)

All citizens are equal before the law. They have equal public rights and duties without discrimination between them due to race, ethnic origin, language, religion or creed. (Art. 40)

Interim Constitution of the Arab Republic of Egypt 2011

Law applies equally to all citizens, and they are equal in rights and general duties. They may not be discriminated against due to race, origin, language, religion, or creed. (Art. 6)

Constitution of the Arab Republic of Egypt 2012

The dignity of the individual is part and parcel of the dignity of the homeland and a country in which women are not respected has no dignity; for women are the sisters of men and partners in national gains and responsibilities. ... Equality and equal opportunities are for all: male and female citizens; for there is no discrimination, nepotism, or favoritism in rights and duties. ... (Preamble)

The state commits to ensuring safety, security and equal opportunity for all citizens without discrimination. (Art. 9)

All citizens are equal before the law. They have equal public rights and duties. There can be no discrimination between them in that regard. (Art. 33)

Constitution of the Arab Republic of Egypt 2014

… We are drafting a Constitution that holds all of us equal in rights and duties without discrimination of any kind.
We the citizens, women and men, the Egyptian people, sovereigns in a sovereign homeland, this is the manifestation of our volition; this is the Constitution of our revolution. … (Preamble)

Sovereignty belongs only to the people, who shall exercise and protect it. The people are the source of powers, and safeguard their national unity that is based on the principles of equality, justice and equal opportunities among all citizens, as stated in the Constitution. (Art. 4)

The State shall ensure equal opportunities for all citizens without discrimination. (Art 9)

The State shall ensure the achievement of equality between women and men in all civil, political, economic, social, and cultural rights in accordance with the provisions of this Constitution. … (Art. 11)

All citizens are equal before the Law. They are equal in rights, freedoms and general duties, without discrimination based on religion, belief, sex, origin, race, color, language, disability, social class, political or geographic affiliation or any other reason.
Discrimination and incitement of hatred is a crime punished by Law.
The State shall take necessary measures for eliminating all forms of discrimination, and the Law shall regulate creating an independent commission for this purpose. (Art. 53)

Gender Equality Machineries
+
Constitution of the Arab Republic of Egypt 2014

The law shall specify the independent national councils, including the National Council for Human Rights, the National Council for Women, the National Council for Childhood and Motherhood, and the National Council for Disabled Persons. The law shall state the composition, mandates, and guarantees for the independence and neutrality of their respective members. Each council shall have the right to report to the competent authorities any violations pertaining to their fields of work. … (Art. 214)

Participation in Public Life and Institutions
+ +
Constitution of the Arab Republic of Egypt 1971, as amended to 1980

The State shall guarantee the proper coordination between the duties of woman towards the family and her work in the society, considering her equal with man in the fields of political, social, cultural and economic life without violation of the rules of Islamic jurisprudence. (Art. 11)

Public offices are the right of all citizens and an assignment for their occupants in the service of the people. ... (Art. 14)

Interim Constitution of the Arab Republic of Egypt 2011

No provisions.

Constitution of the Arab Republic of Egypt 2012

The dignity of the individual is part and parcel of the dignity of the homeland and a country in which women are not respected has no dignity; for women are the sisters of men and partners in national gains and responsibilities. ... Equality and equal opportunities are for all: male and female citizens; for there is no discrimination, nepotism, or favoritism in rights and duties. ... (Preamble)

... The state guarantees maternal and child services free of charge, and guarantees the reconciliation between the duties of a woman toward her family and her work. ... (Art.10)

Citizen participation in public life is a national duty. Every citizen has the right to vote, run for elections, and express opinions in referendums. The law organizes the direct application of these rights. ... (Art. 55)

Constitution of the Arab Republic of Egypt 2014

The State shall ensure the achievement of equality between women and men in all civil, political, economic, social, and cultural rights in accordance with the provisions of this Constitution.
The State shall take the necessary measures to ensure the appropriate representation of women in the houses of representatives, as specified by Law. The State shall also guarantee women’s right of holding public and senior management offices in the State and their appointment in judicial bodies and authorities without discrimination. … (Art. 11)

Public offices are a competence-based right for all citizens without bias or favoritism, and are deemed a mandate to serve the people. … (Art. 14)

Political Participation Quotas: National level
+ +
Constitution of the Arab Republic of Egypt 1971, as amended to 2007

Citizens shall have the right to vote and express their opinions in referendums in accordance with the provisions of the law.
Their participation in public life is a national duty. The law shall regulate the right to stand for election to the People’s Assembly, the Shura Council and the local councils in accordance with the electoral system it specifies. The law may adopt a system which combines the individual member system with the party list system on the basis of a ratio between the two systems to be determined by the law. It may also stipulate a minimum representation of women in the aforementioned councils. (Art. 62)

Interim Constitution of the Arab Republic of Egypt 2011

The law will govern the right of candidacy for the People's Assembly and Shoura Councils according to the determined electoral system including at a minimum the participation of women in both assemblies. (Art. 38)

Constitution of the Arab Republic of Egypt 2012

No provisions.

Political Participation Quotas: Subnational levels
+ +
Constitution of the Arab Republic of Egypt 1971, as amended to 2007

Citizens shall have the right to vote and express their opinions in referendums in accordance with the provisions of the law.
Their participation in public life is a national duty. The law shall regulate the right to stand for election to the People’s Assembly, the Shura Council and the local councils in accordance with the electoral system it specifies. The law may adopt a system which combines the individual member system with the party list system on the basis of a ratio between the two systems to be determined by the law. It may also stipulate a minimum representation of women in the aforementioned councils. (Art. 62)

Interim Constitution of the Arab Republic of Egypt 2011

No provisions.

Constitution of the Arab Republic of Egypt 2014

Every local unit shall elect a local council by direct and secret ballot for a term of four years. A candidate shall be at least twenty one (21) Gregorian years of age. The law shall regulate the other conditions for candidacy and procedures of election, provided that one quarter of the seats shall be allocated to youth under thirty five (35) years of age and one quarter shall be allocated for women, and that workers and farmers shall be represented by no less than 50 percent of the total number of seats, and these percentages shall include an appropriate representation of Christians and people with disability. … (Art. 180)

Sexual and Reproductive Rights

No provisions.

Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity

No provisions.

Women’s Rights
+
Constitution of the Arab Republic of Egypt 1971, as amended to 1980

The State shall guarantee the proper coordination between the duties of woman towards the family and her work in the society, considering her equal with man in the fields of political, social, cultural and economic life without violation of the rules of Islamic jurisprudence. (Art. 11)

Interim Constitution of the Arab Republic of Egypt 2011

No provisions.

Constitution of the Arab Republic of Egypt 2014

The State shall ensure the achievement of equality between women and men in all civil, political, economic, social, and cultural rights in accordance with the provisions of this Constitution.
The State shall take the necessary measures to ensure the appropriate representation of women in the houses of representatives, as specified by Law. The State shall also guarantee women’s right of holding public and senior management offices in the State and their appointment in judicial bodies and authorities without discrimination.
The State shall protect women against all forms of violence and ensure enabling women to strike a balance between family duties and work requirements.
The State shall provide care to and protection of motherhood and childhood, female heads of families, and elderly and neediest women. (Art. 11)

Fiji

Provisions related
to category are:
  Not present
  Present
Added or changed
  (No active constitution)

Following the suspension of the constitution in 2009, Fiji lacked an active constitution until the president signed a new constitution into law in 2013. The new constitution restored many of the rights provided by the previous constitution and notably added provisions on reproductive health care.

Constitution of 1997,
as amended to 1998
No active constitution
2009–2012
New Constitution
2013
Affirmative Action (Broadly)
+
Constitution of the Republic of Fiji 1997, as amended to 1998

The people of the Fiji Islands recognise that, within the framework of this Constitution and the other laws of the State, the conduct of government is based on the following principles:
...
(k) affirmative action and social justice programs to secure effective equality of access to opportunities, amenities or services for the Fijian and Rotuman people, as well as for other communities, for women as well as men, and for all disadvantaged citizens or groups, are based on an allocation of resources broadly acceptable to all communities;
... (Sec. 6)

(1) Every person has the right to equality before the law.
(2) A person must not be unfairly discriminated against, directly or indirectly, on the ground of his or her:
(a) actual or supposed personal characteristics or circumstances, including race, ethnic origin, colour, place of origin, gender, sexual orientation, birth, primary language, economic status, age or disability;
... (Sec. 38)

The recruitment of persons to a state service, the promotion of persons within a state service and the management of a state service must be based on the following principles:
...
(c) men and women equally, and the members of all ethnic groups, should have adequate and equal opportunities for training and advancement;
... (Sec. 140)

Constitution of the Republic of Fiji 2013

(3) A person must not be unfairly discriminated against, directly or indirectly on the grounds of his or her—
(a) actual or supposed personal characteristics or circumstances, including race, culture, ethnic or social origin, colour, place of origin, sex, gender, sexual orientation, gender identity and expression, birth, primary language, economic or social or health status, disability, age, religion, conscience, marital status or pregnancy;

(7) Treating one person differently from another on any of the grounds prescribed under subsection (3) is discrimination, unless it can be established that the difference in treatment is not unfair in the circumstances.
… (Sec. 26)

Equality and Non-Discrimination
+
Constitution of the Republic of Fiji 1997, as amended to 1998

The people of the Fiji Islands recognise that, within the framework of this Constitution and the other laws of the State, the conduct of government is based on the following principles:
...
(e) as citizens, the members of all communities enjoy equal rights, including the right to make their permanent homes in the Fiji Islands;
...
(k) affirmative action and social justice programs to secure effective equality of access to opportunities, amenities or services for the Fijian and Rotuman people, as well as for other communities, for women as well as men, and for all disadvantaged citizens or groups, are based on an allocation of resources broadly acceptable to all communities;
... (Sec. 6)

(1) Every person has the right to equality before the law.
(2) A person must not be unfairly discriminated against, directly or indirectly, on the ground of his or her:
(a) actual or supposed personal characteristics or circumstances, including race, ethnic origin, colour, place of origin, gender, sexual orientation, birth, primary language, economic status, age or disability;
(b) opinions or beliefs, except to the extent that those opinions or beliefs involve harm to others or the diminution of the rights or freedoms of others;
or on any other ground prohibited by this Constitution.
... (Sec. 38)

Constitution of the Republic of Fiji 2013

… DECLARE that we are all Fijians united by common and equal citizenry; … (Preamble)

1. The Republic of Fiji is a sovereign democratic State founded on the values of—
(a) common and equal citizenry and national unity;

(d) equality for all and care for the less fortunate based on the values inherent in this section and in the Bill of Rights contained in Chapter 2;
… (Sec. 1)

(2) Subject to the provisions of this Constitution, all Fijians have equal status and identity, which means that they are equally—
(a) entitled to all the rights, privileges and benefits of citizenship; and
(b) subject to the duties and responsibilities of citizenship.
… (Sec. 5)

(1) Every person is equal before the law and has the right to equal protection, treatment and benefit of the law.
(2) Equality includes the full and equal enjoyment of all rights and freedoms recognised in this Chapter or any other written law.
(3) A person must not be unfairly discriminated against, directly or indirectly on the grounds of his or her—
(a) actual or supposed personal characteristics or circumstances, including race, culture, ethnic or social origin, colour, place of origin, sex, gender, sexual orientation, gender identity and expression, birth, primary language, economic or social or health status, disability, age, religion, conscience, marital status or pregnancy;
(b) opinions or beliefs, except to the extent that those opinions or beliefs involve harm to others or the diminution of the rights or freedoms of others,
or on any other ground prohibited by this Constitution.
(4) A law or an administrative action taken under a law may not directly or indirectly impose a limitation or restriction on any person on a prohibited ground.
(5) Every person has the right of access, membership or admission, without discrimination on a prohibited ground, to shops, hotels, lodging-houses, public restaurants, places of public entertainment, clubs, education institutions, public transportation services, taxis and public places.
(6) The proprietor of a place or service referred to in subsection (5) must facilitate reasonable access for persons with disabilities to the extent prescribed by law.
(7) Treating one person differently from another on any of the grounds prescribed under subsection (3) is discrimination, unless it can be established that the difference in treatment is not unfair in the circumstances.
(8) A law, or an administrative action taken under a law, is not inconsistent with the rights mentioned in this section on the ground that it—

(e) makes provision with respect to adoption, marriage, devolution of property on death, and pension;
(f) excludes persons from holding certain public offices; or
(g) to the extent necessary and without infringing the rights or freedoms set out in any other section of this Chapter, gives effect to the communal ownership of iTaukei, Rotuman and Banaban lands and access to marine resources, or the bestowing of iTaukei, Rotuman and Banaban chiefly title or rank. (Sec. 26)

Gender Equality Machineries

No provisions.

Participation in Public Life and Institutions
+
Constitution of the Republic of Fiji 1997, as amended to 1998

(4) Every person has the right of access, without discrimination on a prohibited ground, to shops, hotels, lodging-houses, public restaurants, places of public entertainment, public transport services, taxis and public places.
... (Sec. 38)

The recruitment of persons to a state service, the promotion of persons within a state service and the management of a state service must be based on the following principles:
...
(c) men and women equally, and the members of all ethnic groups, should have adequate and equal opportunities for training and advancement;
... (Sec. 140)

Constitution of the Republic of Fiji 2013

(3) A person must not be unfairly discriminated against, directly or indirectly on the grounds of his or her—
(a) actual or supposed personal characteristics or circumstances, including race, culture, ethnic or social origin, colour, place of origin, sex, gender, sexual orientation, gender identity and expression, birth, primary language, economic or social or health status, disability, age, religion, conscience, marital status or pregnancy;
(b) opinions or beliefs, except to the extent that those opinions or beliefs involve harm to others or the diminution of the rights or freedoms of others, or on any other ground prohibited by this Constitution.
(4) A law or an administrative action taken under a law may not directly or indirectly impose a limitation or restriction on any person on a prohibited ground.

(8) A law, or an administrative action taken under a law, is not inconsistent with the rights mentioned in this section on the ground that it—

(f) excludes persons from holding certain public offices;
… (Sec. 26)

Political Participation Quotas: National level

No provisions.

Political Participation Quotas: Subnational levels

No provisions.

Sexual and Reproductive Rights
+
Constitution of the Republic of Fiji 2013

(1) The State must take reasonable measures within its available resources to achieve the progressive realisation of the right of every person to health, and to the conditions and facilities necessary to good health, and to health care services, including reproductive health care.
… (Sec. 38)

Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity
+
Constitution of the Republic of Fiji 1997, as amended to 1998

(1) Every person has the right to equality before the law.
(2) A person must not be unfairly discriminated against, directly or indirectly, on the ground of his or her:
(a) actual or supposed personal characteristics or circumstances, including race, ethnic origin, colour, place of origin, gender, sexual orientation, birth, primary language, economic status, age or disability;
... (Sec. 38)

Constitution of the Republic of Fiji 2013

(3) A person must not be unfairly discriminated against, directly or indirectly on the grounds of his or her—
(a) actual or supposed personal characteristics or circumstances, including race, culture, ethnic or social origin, colour, place of origin, sex, gender, sexual orientation, gender identity and expression, birth, primary language, economic or social or health status, disability, age, religion, conscience, marital status or pregnancy;
… (Sec. 26)

Women’s Rights

No provisions.

Kenya

Provisions related
to category are:
  Not present
  Present
Added or changed

Kenya’s constitution of 2010 replaced the independence-era 1963 constitution and established detailed gender quotas for elected public bodies at both the national and subnational level.

Constitution of 1963,
as amended to 1999
New Constitution
2010
Affirmative Action (Broadly)
+
Constitution of the Republic of Kenya 1963, as amended to 1999

(1) Subject to this session, there shall be twelve nominated members of the National Assembly appointed by the President following a general election, to represent special interests.
(2) The persons to be appointed shall be persons who, if they had been nominated for a parliamentary election, would be qualified to be elected as members of the National Assembly.
(3) The persons to be appointed shall be nominated by the parliamentary parties according to the proportion of every parliamentary party in the National Assembly, taking into account the principle of gender equality.
...
(5) The names of the nominees of parliamentary parties shall be forwarded to the President through the Electoral Commission who shall ensure observance of the principle of gender equality in the nominations. (Art. 33)

Constitution of the Republic of Kenya 2010

(1) Every person is equal before the law and has the right to equal protection and equal benefit of the law.
(2) Equality includes the full and equal enjoyment of all rights and fundamental freedoms.
(3) Women and men have the right to equal treatment, including the right to equal opportunities in political, economic, cultural and social spheres.
(4) The State shall not discriminate directly or indirectly against any person on any ground, including race, sex, pregnancy, marital status, health status, ethnic or social origin, colour, age, disability, religion, conscience, belief, culture, dress, language or birth.
(5) A person shall not discriminate directly or indirectly against another person on any of the grounds specified or contemplated in clause (4).
(6) To give full effect to the realisation of the rights guaranteed under this Article, the State shall take legislative and other measures, including affirmative action programmes and policies designed to redress any disadvantage suffered by individuals or groups because of past discrimination.
(7) Any measure taken under clause (6) shall adequately provide for any benefits to be on the basis of genuine need.
(8) In addition to the measures contemplated in clause (6), the State shall take legislative and other measures to implement the principle that not more than two-thirds of the members of elective or appointive bodies shall be of the same gender. (Art. 27)

Parliament shall enact legislation to promote the representation in Parliament of—
(a) women;
(b) persons with disabilities;
(c) youth;
(d) ethnic and other minorities; and
(e) marginalised communities. (Art. 100)

(1) The Judicial Service Commission shall promote and facilitate the independence and accountability of the judiciary and the efficient, effective and transparent administration of justice and shall—
(a) recommend to the President persons for appointment as judges;

(2) In the performance of its functions, the Commission shall be guided by the following—
(a) competitiveness and transparent processes of appointment of judicial officers and other staff of the judiciary; and
(b) the promotion of gender equality. (Art. 172)

(11) The chairperson and vice-chairperson of a commission shall not be of the same gender.
… (Art. 250)

Equality and Non-Discrimination
+
Constitution of the Republic of Kenya 1963, as amended to 1999

(1) Subject to subsections (4), (5) and (8), no law shall make any provision that is discriminatory either of itself or in its effect.
(2) Subject to subsections (6), (8) and (9), no person shall be treated in a discriminatory manner by a person acting by virtue of any written law or in the performance of the functions of a public office or a public authority.
(3) In this section the expression “discriminatory” means affording different treatment to different persons attributable wholly or mainly to their respective descriptions by race, tribe, place of origin or residence or other local connection, political opinions, colour, creed or sex whereby persons of one such description are subjected to disabilities or restrictions to which persons of another such description are not made subject or are accorded privileges or advantages which are not accorded to persons of another such description.
...
(7) Subject to subsection (8), no person shall be treated in a discriminatory manner in respect of access to shops, hotels, lodging-houses, public restaurants, eating houses, beer halls or places of public entertainment or in respect of access to places of public resort maintained wholly or partly out of public funds or dedicated to the use of the general public.
... (Art. 82)

Constitution of the Republic of Kenya 2010

… RECOGNISING the aspirations of all Kenyans for a government based on the essential values of human rights, equality, freedom, democracy, social justice and the rule of law: … (Preamble)

(1) The national values and principles of governance in this Article bind all State organs, State officers, public officers and all persons whenever any of them—
(a) applies or interprets this Constitution;
(b) enacts, applies or interprets any law; or
(c) makes or implements public policy decisions.
(2) The national values and principles of governance include—

(b) human dignity, equity, social justice, inclusiveness, equality, human rights, non-discrimination and protection of the marginalised;
… (Art. 10)

(1) Every person is equal before the law and has the right to equal protection and equal benefit of the law.
(2) Equality includes the full and equal enjoyment of all rights and fundamental freedoms.
(3) Women and men have the right to equal treatment, including the right to equal opportunities in political, economic, cultural and social spheres.
(4) The State shall not discriminate directly or indirectly against any person on any ground, including race, sex, pregnancy, marital status, health status, ethnic or social origin, colour, age, disability, religion, conscience, belief, culture, dress, language or birth.
(5) A person shall not discriminate directly or indirectly against another person on any of the grounds specified or contemplated in clause (4).
(6) To give full effect to the realisation of the rights guaranteed under this Article, the State shall take legislative and other measures, including affirmative action programmes and policies designed to redress any disadvantage suffered by individuals or groups because of past discrimination.
(7) Any measure taken under clause (6) shall adequately provide for any benefits to be on the basis of genuine need.
(8) In addition to the measures contemplated in clause (6), the State shall take legislative and other measures to implement the principle that not more than two-thirds of the members of elective or appointive bodies shall be of the same gender. (Art. 27)

Gender Equality Machineries

No provisions.

Participation in Public Life and Institutions
+
Constitution of the Republic of Kenya 1963, as amended to 1999

(1) Subject to subsections (4), (5) and (8), no law shall make any provision that is discriminatory either of itself or in its effect.
(2) Subject to subsections (6), (8) and (9), no person shall be treated in a discriminatory manner by a person acting by virtue of any written law or in the performance of the functions of a public office or a public authority.
(3) In this section the expression “discriminatory” means affording different treatment to different persons attributable wholly or mainly to their respective descriptions by race, tribe, place of origin or residence or other local connection, political opinions, colour, creed or sex whereby persons of one such description are subjected to disabilities or restrictions to which persons of another such description are not made subject or are accorded privileges or advantages which are not accorded to persons of another such description.
...
(7) Subject to subsection (8), no person shall be treated in a discriminatory manner in respect of access to shops, hotels, lodging-houses, public restaurants, eating houses, beer halls or places of public entertainment or in respect of access to places of public resort maintained wholly or partly out of public funds or dedicated to the use of the general public.
... (Art. 82)

Constitution of the Republic of Kenya 2010

(3) Women and men have the right to equal treatment, including the right to equal opportunities in political, economic, cultural and social spheres.

(6) To give full effect to the realisation of the rights guaranteed under this Article, the State shall take legislative and other measures, including affirmative action programmes and policies designed to redress any disadvantage suffered by individuals or groups because of past discrimination.
(7) Any measure taken under clause (6) shall adequately provide for any benefits to be on the basis of genuine need.
(8) In addition to the measures contemplated in clause (6), the State shall take legislative and other measures to implement the principle that not more than two-thirds of the members of elective or appointive bodies shall be of the same gender. (Art. 27)

(1) There is established the Parliamentary Service Commission.
(2) The Commission consists of—
(a) the Speaker of the National Assembly, as chairperson;
(b) a vice-chairperson elected by the Commission from the members appointed under paragraph (c);
(c) seven members appointed by Parliament from among its members of whom—
(i) four shall be nominated equally from both Houses by the party or coalition of parties forming the national government, of whom at least two shall be women; and
(ii) three shall be nominated by the parties not forming the national government, at least one of whom shall be nominated from each House and at least one of whom shall be a woman; and
(d) one man and one woman appointed by Parliament from among persons who are experienced in public affairs, but are not members of Parliament.
… (Art. 127)

(1) There is established the Judicial Service Commission.
(2) The Commission shall consist of—
(a) the Chief Justice, who shall be the chairperson of the Commission;
(b) one Supreme Court judge elected by the judges of the Supreme Court;
(c) one Court of Appeal judge elected by the judges of the Court of Appeal;
(d) one High Court judge and one magistrate, one a woman and one a man, elected by the members of the association of judges and magistrates;
(e) the Attorney-General;
(f) two advocates, one a woman and one a man, each of whom has at least fifteen years’ experience, elected by the members of the statutory body responsible for the professional regulation of advocates;
(g) one person nominated by the Public Service Commission; and
(h) one woman and one man to represent the public, not being lawyers, appointed by the President with the approval of the National Assembly.
… (Art. 171)

(1) The Judicial Service Commission shall promote and facilitate the independence and accountability of the judiciary and the efficient, effective and transparent administration of justice and shall—
(a) recommend to the President persons for appointment as judges;

(2) In the performance of its functions, the Commission shall be guided by the following—
(a) competitiveness and transparent processes of appointment of judicial officers and other staff of the judiciary; and
(b) the promotion of gender equality. (Art. 172)

(1) This Article applies to conflicts between national and county legislation in respect of matters falling within the concurrent jurisdiction of both levels of government.
(2) National legislation prevails over county legislation if—
(a) the national legislation applies uniformly throughout Kenya and any of the conditions specified in clause (3) is satisfied; …
(3) The following are the conditions referred to in clause (2)(a)—

(c) the national legislation is necessary for—

(v) the promotion of equal opportunity or equal access to government services;
... (Art. 191)

(1) The values and principles of public service include—

(i) affording adequate and equal opportunities for appointment, training and advancement, at all levels of the public service, of—
(i) men and women;
(ii) the members of all ethnic groups; and
(iii) persons with disabilities.
… (Art. 232)

(11) The chairperson and vice-chairperson of a commission shall not be of the same gender.
… (Art. 250)

Political Participation Quotas: National level
+
Constitution of the Republic of Kenya 1963, as amended to 1999

(1) Subject to this session, there shall be twelve nominated members of the National Assembly appointed by the President following a general election, to represent special interests.
(2) The persons to be appointed shall be persons who, if they had been nominated for a parliamentary election, would be qualified to be elected as members of the National Assembly.
(3) The persons to be appointed shall be nominated by the parliamentary parties according to the proportion of every parliamentary party in the National Assembly, taking into account the principle of gender equality.
...
(5) The names of the nominees of parliamentary parties shall be forwarded to the President through the Electoral Commission who shall ensure observance of the principle of gender equality in the nominations. (Art. 33)

Constitution of the Republic of Kenya 2010

(6) To give full effect to the realisation of the rights guaranteed under this Article, the State shall take legislative and other measures, including affirmative action programmes and policies designed to redress any disadvantage suffered by individuals or groups because of past discrimination.
(7) Any measure taken under clause (6) shall adequately provide for any benefits to be on the basis of genuine need.
(8) In addition to the measures contemplated in clause (6), the State shall take legislative and other measures to implement the principle that not more than two-thirds of the members of elective or appointive bodies shall be of the same gender. (Art. 27)

The electoral system shall comply with the following principles—

(b) not more than two-thirds of the members of elective public bodies shall be of the same gender;

(d) universal suffrage based on the aspiration for fair representation and equality of vote;
… (Art. 81)

(1) Elections for the seats in Parliament provided for under Articles 97(1)(c) and 98(1)(b), (c) and (d), and for the members of county assemblies under article 177(1)(b) and (c), shall be on the basis of proportional representation by use of party lists.
(2) The Independent Electoral and Boundaries Commission shall be responsible for the conduct and supervision of elections for seats provided for under clause (1) and shall ensure that—

(b) except in the case of the seats provided for under Article 98(1)(b), each party list comprises the appropriate number of qualified candidates and alternates between male and female candidates in the priority in which they are listed;
… (Art. 90)

(1) The National Assembly consists of—

(b) forty-seven women, each elected by the registered voters of the counties, each county constituting a single member constituency;
… (Art. 97)

(1) The Senate consists of—

(b) sixteen women members who shall be nominated by political parties according to their proportion of members of the Senate elected under clause (a) in accordance with Article 90;
(c) two members, being one man and one woman, representing the youth;
(d) two members, being one man and one woman, representing persons with disabilities;
… (Art. 98)

Political Participation Quotas: Subnational levels
+
Constitution of the Republic of Kenya 2010

County governments established under this Constitution shall reflect the following principles—

(c) no more than two-thirds of the members of representative bodies in each county government shall be of the same gender. (Art. 175)

A county assembly consists of—
(a) members elected by the registered voters of the wards, each ward constituting a single member constituency, on the same day as a general election of Members of Parliament, being the second Tuesday in August, in every fifth year;
(b) the number of special seat members necessary to ensure that no more than two-thirds of the membership of the assembly are of the same gender;
… (Art. 177)

(1) Not more than two-thirds of the members of any county assembly or county executive committee shall be of the same gender.
… (Art. 197)

Sexual and Reproductive Rights
+
Constitution of the Republic of Kenya 2010

(1) Every person has the right to life.
(2) The life of a person begins at conception.
(3) A person shall not be deprived of life intentionally, except to the extent authorised by this Constitution or other written law.
(4) Abortion is not permitted unless, in the opinion of a trained health professional, there is need for emergency treatment, or the life or health of the mother is in danger, or if permitted by any other written law. (Art. 26)

1) Every person has the right—
(a) to the highest attainable standard of health, which includes the right to health care services, including reproductive health care;
… (Art. 43)

Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity

No provisions.

Women’s Rights

No provisions.

Morocco

Provisions related
to category are:
  Not present
  Present
Added or changed

Morocco adopted a new constitution by popular referendum in 2011, following a nationwide series of protests demanding political reforms. The 2011 constitution bolstered equality and non-discrimination rights, providing women with equal rights in civil, political, economic, social, and cultural matters.

Constitution of 1972,
as amended to 1996
New Constitution
2011
Affirmative Action (Broadly)
+ +
Constitution of the Kingdom of Morocco 2011

… The public powers work for the creation of the conditions permitting the effectiveness of liberty and of the equality of citizens [feminine] and citizens [masculine] to be made general [généraliser], as well as their participation in political, economic, cultural and social life. … (Art. 6)

… The State works for the realization of parity between men and women.
An Authority for parity and the struggle against all forms of discrimination is created, to this effect. (Art. 19)

All the citizens [feminine] and the citizens [masculine] of majority, enjoying their civil and political rights[,] are electors and eligible. The law provides [prévoit] the provisions of [a] nature encouraging the equal access of women and men to the elective functions. … (Art. 30)

An organic law establishes notably:
• the conditions of democratic management of their affairs by the regions and the other territorial collectivities, the number of members of their councils, the rules relative to the eligibility, to the incompatibilities and to the case of the interdiction of accumulation of mandates, as well as the electoral regime and the provisions designed [visant] to assure the better participation of women within these councils;
… (Art. 146)

Equality and Non-Discrimination
+
Constitution of the Kingdom of Morocco 1972, as amended to 1996

All Moroccans are equal before the law. (Art 5)

Men and Women enjoy equal political rights.
All citizens of age of both sexes are electors, provided they enjoy their civil and political rights. (Art. 8)

Constitution of the Kingdom of Morocco 2011

With fidelity to its irreversible choice to construct a democratic State of Law, the Kingdom of Morocco resolutely pursues the process of consolidation and of reinforcement of the institutions of a modern State, having as its bases the principles of participation, of pluralism and of good governance. It develops a society of solidarity where all enjoy security, liberty, equality of opportunities, of respect for their dignity and for social justice, within the framework of the principle of correlation between the rights and the duties of the citizenry.
… the Kingdom of Morocco, [a] united State, totally sovereign, belonging the Grand Maghreb, reaffirms that which follows and commits itself:

–To ban and combat all discrimination whenever it encounters it, for reason of sex, or color, of beliefs, of culture, of social or regional origin, of language, of handicap or whatever personal circumstance that may be;
… (Preamble)

The law is the supreme expression of the will of the Nation. All, physical or moral persons, and including the public powers, are equal before it and held to submit themselves to it.
The public powers work for the creation of the conditions permitting the effectiveness of liberty and of the equality of citizens [feminine] and citizens [masculine] to be made general [généraliser], as well as their participation in political, economic, cultural and social life. … (Art. 6)

The man and the woman enjoy, in equality, the rights and freedoms of civil, political, economic, social, cultural and environmental character, enounced in this Title and in the other provisions of the Constitution, as well as in the international conventions and pacts duly ratified by Morocco and this, with respect for the provisions of the Constitution, of the constants [constantes] of the Kingdom and of its laws.
The State works for the realization of parity between men and women.
An Authority for parity and the struggle against all forms of discrimination is created, to this effect. (Art. 19)

… The State looks to guarantee the equality of opportunities for all and [to] one specific protection for the socially disfavored categories. (Art. 35)

Gender Equality Machineries
+
Constitution of the Kingdom of Morocco 2011

The man and the woman enjoy, in equality, the rights and freedoms of civil, political, economic, social, cultural and environmental character, enounced in this Title and in the other provisions of the Constitution, as well as in the international conventions and pacts duly ratified by Morocco and this, with respect for the provisions of the Constitution, of the constants [constantes] of the Kingdom and of its laws.
The State works for the realization of parity between men and women.
An Authority for parity and the struggle against all forms of discrimination is created, to this effect. (Art. 19)

The authority charged with parity and with the struggle against all forms of discrimination, created by virtue of Article 19 of this Constitution, sees[,] notably[,] to the respect for the rights and freedoms specified in said Article, under reserve of the attributions devolved to the National Council of the Rights of Man. (Art. 164)

Participation in Public Life and Institutions
+
Constitution of the Kingdom of Morocco 1972, as amended to 1996

All citizens have access, under equal conditions, to public functions and public employment. (Art. 12)

Constitution of the Kingdom of Morocco 2011

… The public powers work for the creation of the conditions permitting the effectiveness of liberty and of the equality of citizens [feminine] and citizens [masculine] to be made general [généraliser], as well as their participation in political, economic, cultural and social life. … (Art. 6)

The man and the woman enjoy, in equality, the rights and freedoms of civil, political, economic, social, cultural and environmental character, enounced in this Title and in the other provisions of the Constitution, as well as in the international conventions and pacts duly ratified by Morocco and this, with respect for the provisions of the Constitution, of the constants [constantes] of the Kingdom and of its laws.
The State works for the realization of parity between men and women.
An Authority for parity and the struggle against all forms of discrimination is created, to this effect. (Art. 19)

The State, the public establishments and the territorial collectivities work for the mobilization of all the means available [disponibles] to facilitate the equal access of the citizens [feminine] and the citizens [masculine] to conditions that permit their enjoyment of the right:

- to access to the public functions according to the merits; … (Art. 31)

The Superior Council of the Judicial Power is presided over by the King. It is composed:
• of the First-President of the Court of Cassation in the status of President-Delegate [President-delegue];
• of the Procurator General of the King before the Court of Cassation;
• of the President of the First Chamber of the Court of Cassation;
• of 4 representatives elected, from among them, by the magistrates of the courts of appeal;
• of 6 representatives elected, from among them, by the magistrates of the jurisdictions of first instance [degre];
• a representation of [women] magistrates must be assured, from among the ten members elected, in proportion to their presence in the corps of the magistrature;
… (Art. 115)

Political Participation Quotas: National level

No provisions.

Political Participation Quotas: Subnational levels

No provisions.

Sexual and Reproductive Rights

No provisions.

Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity

No provisions.

Women’s Rights

No provisions.

Nepal

Provisions related
to category are:
  Not present
  Present
Added or changed

Nepal’s interim constitutional regime was replaced by a permanent constitution in 2015. The new constitution provides the most extensive gender equality provisions to date, and is one of the few national constitutions that protects sexual minorities.

Constitution
of 1990
Interim
2006
Amended
2007
Amended
2008
New
2015
Affirmative Action (Broadly)
+ + +
Constitution of Nepal 1990

(1) All citizens shall be equal before the law. No person shall be denied the equal protection of the laws.
(2) No discrimination shall be made against any citizen in the application of general laws on grounds of religion, race, sex, caste, tribe or ideological conviction or any of these.
(3) The State shall not discriminate among citizens on grounds of religion, race, sex, caste, tribe or ideological conviction or any of these:
Provided that special provisions may be made by law for the protection and advancement of the interests of women, children, the aged or those who are physically or mentally incapacitated or those who belong to a class which is economically, socially or educationally backward.
(4) No person shall, on the basis of caste, be discriminated against as untouchable, be denied access to any public place, or be deprived of the use of public utilities. Any contravention of this provision shall be punishable by law.
(5) No discrimination in regard to remuneration shall be made between men and women for the same work. (Art. 11)

(7) The State shall pursue a policy of making the female population participate, to a greater extent, in the task of national development by making special provisions for their education, health and employment.
... (Art. 26)

Interim Constitution of Nepal 2006

(1) All citizens shall be equal before the law. No person shall be denied the equal protection of the laws.
(2) No discrimination shall be made against any citizen in the application of general laws on grounds of religion, race, sex, caste, tribe, origin, language or ideological conviction or any of these.
(3) The State shall not discriminate among citizens on grounds of religion, race, caste, tribe, sex, origin, language or ideological conviction or any of these.
Provided that nothing shall be deemed to prevent the making of special provisions by law for the protection, empowerment or advancement of the interests of women, Dalit, indigenous ethnic tribes, Madhesi, or peasants, labourers or those who belong to a class which is economically, socially or culturally backward and children, the aged, disabled and those who are physically or mentally incapacitated.
(4) No discrimination in regard to remuneration and social security shall be made between men and women for the same work. (Art. 13)

(1) Women, Dalit, indigenous tribes, Madhesi community, oppressed group, the poor peasant and labourers, who are economically, socially or educationally backward, shall have the right to participate in the state mechanism on the basis of proportional inclusive principles. (Art. 21)

The State shall have the follows responsibilities:
...
(d) To carry out an inclusive, democratic and progressive restructuring of the State by eliminating its existing form of centralized and unitary structure in order to address the problems related to women, Dalits, indigenous tribes, Madhesis, oppressed and minority community and other disadvantaged groups, by eliminating class, caste, language, sex, culture, religion and regional discriminations.
... (Art. 33)

(8) The State shall pursue a policy of encouraging maximum participation of women in national development by making special provisions for their education, health and employment.
...
(14) The State shall pursue a policy of making special provision based on positive discrimination to the minorities, landless, squatters, bonded labourers, disabled, backward communities and sections, and the victims of conflict, including women, Dalits, indigenous tribes, Madhesis and Muslims.
... (Art. 35)

Interim Constitution of Nepal 2006, as amended to 2008

(1) All citizens shall be equal before the law. No person shall be denied the equal protection of the laws.
(2) No discrimination shall be made against any citizen in the application of general laws on grounds of religion, race, sex, caste, tribe, origin, language or ideological conviction or any of these.
(3) The State shall not discriminate among citizens on grounds of religion, race, caste, tribe, sex, origin, language or ideological conviction or any of these.
Provided that nothing shall be deemed to prevent the making of special provisions by law for the protection, empowerment or advancement of the interests of women, Dalit, indigenous ethnic tribes, Madhesi, or peasants, labourers or those who belong to a class which is economically, socially or culturally backward and children, the aged, disabled and those who are physically or mentally incapacitated.
(4) No discrimination in regard to remuneration and social security shall be made between men and women for the same work. (Art. 13)

(1) Women, Dalit, indigenous tribes, Madhesi community, oppressed group, the poor peasant and labourers, who are economically, socially or educationally backward, shall have the right to participate in the state mechanism on the basis of proportional inclusive principles. (Art. 21)

The State shall have the follows responsibilities:
...
(d) To carry out an inclusive, democratic and progressive restructuring of the State by eliminating its existing form of centralized and unitary structure in order to address the problems related to women, Dalits, indigenous tribes, Madhesis, oppressed and minority community and other disadvantaged groups, by eliminating class, caste, language, sex, culture, religion and regional discriminations.
(d1) to enable Madhesi, Dalits, indigenous ethnic groups [Adivasi Janajati], women, labourers, farmers, the physically impaired, disadvantaged classes and disadvantaged regions to participate in all organs of the State structure on the basis of proportional inclusion,
... (Art. 33)

(8) The State shall pursue a policy of encouraging maximum participation of women in national development by making special provisions for their education, health and employment.
...
(14) The State shall pursue a policy of making special provision based on positive discrimination to the minorities, landless, squatters, bonded labourers, disabled, backward communities and sections, and the victims of conflict, including women, Dalits, indigenous tribes, Madhesis and Muslims.
... (Art. 35)

Constitution of Nepal 2015

(1) All citizens shall be equal before law. No person shall be denied the equal protection of law.
(2) There shall be no discrimination in the application of general laws on the grounds of origin, religion, race, caste, tribe, sex, physical conditions, disability, health condition, matrimonial status, pregnancy, economic condition, language or geographical region, or ideology or any other such grounds.
(3) The state shall not discriminate among citizens on grounds of origin, religion, race, caste, tribe, sex, economic condition, language or geographical region, ideology and such other matters.
Provided that nothing shall be deemed to bar the making of special provisions by law for the protection, empowerment or advancement of the women lagging behind socially and culturally, Dalits, Adibasi, Madhesi, Tharus, Muslims, oppressed class, backward communities, minorities, marginalized groups, peasants, laborers, youths, children, senior citizens, sexual minorities, persons with disability, pregnant, incapacitated and the helpless persons, and of the citizens who belong to backward regions and financially deprived citizens including the Khas Arya.
… (Art. 18)

(4) Women shall have the right to access participate in all state structures and bodies on the basis of the principle of proportional inclusion.
(5) Women shall have the right to special opportunity in the spheres of education, health, employment and social security on the basis of positive discrimination.
… (Art. 38)

Equality and Non-Discrimination
+ + +
Constitution of Nepal 1990

... AND WHEREAS, it is expedient to promulgate and enforce this Constitution, made with the widest possible participation of the Nepalese people, to guarantee basic human rights to every citizen of Nepal; and also to consolidate the Adult Franchise, the Parliamentary System of Government, Constitutional Monarchy and the System of Multi Party Democracy by promoting amongst the people of Nepal the spirit of fraternity and the bond of unity on the basis of liberty and equality; and also to establish an independent and competent system of justice with a view to transforming the concept of the Rule of Law into a living reality; ... (Preamble)

(1) All citizens shall be equal before the law. No person shall be denied the equal protection of the laws.
(2) No discrimination shall be made against any citizen in the application of general laws on grounds of religion, race, sex, caste, tribe or ideological conviction or any of these.
(3) The State shall not discriminate citizens among citizens on grounds of religion, race, sex, caste, tribe or ideological conviction or any of these:
Provided that special provisions may be made by law for the protection and advancement of the interests of women, children, the aged or those who are physically or mentally incapacitated or those who belong to a class which is economically, socially or educationally backward.
(4) No person shall, on the basis of caste, be discriminated against as untouchable, be denied access to any public place, or be deprived of the use of public utilities. Any contravention of this provision shall be punishable by law.
(5) No discrimination in regard to remuneration shall be made between men and women for the same work. (Art. 11)

(3) The social objective of the State shall be to establish and develop, on the foundation of justice and morality, a healthy social life, by eliminating all types of economic and social inequalities and by establishing harmony amongst the various castes, tribes, religions, languages, races and communities.
... (Art. 25)

Interim Constitution of Nepal 2006

(1) All citizens shall be equal before the law. No person shall be denied the equal protection of the laws.
(2) No discrimination shall be made against any citizen in the application of general laws on grounds of religion, race, sex, caste, tribe, origin, language or ideological conviction or any of these.
(3) The State shall not discriminate among citizens on grounds of religion, race, caste, tribe, sex, origin, language or ideological conviction or any of these.
Provided that nothing shall be deemed to prevent the making of special provisions by law for the protection, empowerment or advancement of the interests of women, Dalit, indigenous ethnic tribes, Madhesi, or peasants, labourers or those who belong to a class which is economically, socially or culturally backward and children, the aged, disabled and those who are physically or mentally incapacitated.
(4) No discrimination in regard to remuneration and social security shall be made between men and women for the same work.
(Art. 13)

(1) No person shall, on the ground of caste, descent, community or occupation, be subject to racial discrimination and untouchability of any form. Such a discriminating act shall be liable to punishment and the victim shall be entitled to the compensation as provided by the law.
(2) No person shall, on the ground of caste or tribe, be deprived of the use of public services, conveniences or utilities, or be denied access to any public place, or public religious places, or be denied to perform any religious act.
(3) No person belonging to any particular caste or tribe shall, while producing or distributing any goods, services or conveniences, be prevented to purchase or acquire such goods, services or conveniences; or no such goods, services or conveniences shall be sold or distributed only to a person belonging to a particular caste or tribe.
(4) No one shall be allowed to demonstrate superiority or inferiority of any person or a group of persons belonging to any caste, tribe or origin; to justify social discrimination on the basis of cast and tribe, or to disseminate ideas based on caste superiority or hatred; or to encourage caste discrimination in any form.
(5) Any act contrary to the provisions of sub-clauses (2), (3) and (4) shall be punishable in accordance with law. (Art. 14)

(1) No one shall be discriminated in any form merely for being a woman.
(2) Every woman shall have the right to reproductive health and other reproductive matters.
(3) No physical, mental or any other form of violence shall be inflicted to any woman, and such an act shall be punishable by law.
(4) Son and daughter shall have equal rights to their ancestral property. (Art. 20)

The State shall have the follows responsibilities:
...
(d) To carry out an inclusive, democratic and progressive restructuring of the State by eliminating its existing form of centralized and unitary structure in order to address the problems related to women, Dalits, indigenous tribes, Madhesis, oppressed and minority community and other disadvantaged groups, by eliminating class, caste, language, sex, culture, religion and regional discriminations.
... (Art. 33)

(14) The State shall pursue a policy of making special provision based on positive discrimination to the minorities, landless, squatters, bonded labourers, disabled, backward communities and sections, and the victims of conflict, including women, Dalits, indigenous tribes, Madhesis and Muslims.
...
(Art. 35)

(1) Inclusive, democratic and progressive restructuring of the state shall be made to bring about an end of the discrimination based on class, caste, language, sex, culture, religion and region by eliminating the centralized and unitary form of the state.
(2) A High Level Commission shall be constituted to recommend for the restructuring of the State in accordance with clause (1) above. The composition, function, duty, power and terms of service of such Commission shall be as determined by the Government of Nepal.
... (Art. 138)

Interim Constitution of Nepal 2006, as amended to 2008

(1) All citizens shall be equal before the law. No person shall be denied the equal protection of the laws.
(2) No discrimination shall be made against any citizen in the application of general laws on grounds of religion, race, sex, caste, tribe, origin, language or ideological conviction or any of these.
(3) The State shall not discriminate among citizens on grounds of religion, race, caste, tribe, sex, origin, language or ideological conviction or any of these.
Provided that nothing shall be deemed to prevent the making of special provisions by law for the protection, empowerment or advancement of the interests of women, Dalit, indigenous ethnic tribes, Madhesi, or peasants, labourers or those who belong to a class which is economically, socially or culturally backward and children, the aged, disabled and those who are physically or mentally incapacitated.
(4) No discrimination in regard to remuneration and social security shall be made between men and women for the same work.
(Art. 13)

(1) No person shall, on the ground of caste, descent, community or occupation, be subject to racial discrimination and untouchability of any form. Such a discriminating act shall be liable to punishment and the victim shall be entitled to the compensation as provided by the law.
(2) No person shall, on the ground of caste or tribe, be deprived of the use of public services, conveniences or utilities, or be denied access to any public place, or public religious places, or be denied to perform any religious act.
(3) No person belonging to any particular caste or tribe shall, while producing or distributing any goods, services or conveniences, be prevented to purchase or acquire such goods, services or conveniences; or no such goods, services or conveniences shall be sold or distributed only to a person belonging to a particular caste or tribe.
(4) No one shall be allowed to demonstrate superiority or inferiority of any person or a group of persons belonging to any caste, tribe or origin; to justify social discrimination on the basis of cast and tribe, or to disseminate ideas based on caste superiority or hatred; or to encourage caste discrimination in any form.
(5) Any act contrary to the provisions of sub-clauses (2), (3) and (4) shall be punishable in accordance with law. (Art. 14)

(1) No one shall be discriminated in any form merely for being a woman.
(2) Every woman shall have the right to reproductive health and other reproductive matters.
(3) No physical, mental or any other form of violence shall be inflicted to any woman, and such an act shall be punishable by law.
(4) Son and daughter shall have equal rights to their ancestral property. (Art. 20)

The State shall have the follows responsibilities:
...
(d) To carry out an inclusive, democratic and progressive restructuring of the State by eliminating its existing form of centralized and unitary structure in order to address the problems related to women, Dalits, indigenous tribes, Madhesis, oppressed and minority community and other disadvantaged groups, by eliminating class, caste, language, sex, culture, religion and regional discriminations.
(d1) to enable Madhesi, Dalits, indigenous ethnic groups [Adivasi Janajati], women, labourers, farmers, the physically impaired, disadvantaged classes and disadvantaged regions to participate in all organs of the State structure on the basis of proportional inclusion,
... (Art. 33)

(14) The State shall pursue a policy of making special provision based on positive discrimination to the minorities, landless, squatters, bonded labourers, disabled, backward communities and sections, and the victims of conflict, including women, Dalits, indigenous tribes, Madhesis and Muslims.
...
(Art. 35)

(1) Inclusive, democratic and progressive restructuring of the state shall be made to bring about an end of the discrimination based on class, caste, language, sex, culture, religion and region by eliminating the centralized and unitary form of the state.
(1A) Accepting the aspirations of indigenous ethnic groups and the people of the backward and other regions, and the people of Madhes, for autonomous provinces, Nepal shall be a Federal Democratic Republic. The provinces shall be autonomous with full rights. The Constituent Assembly shall determine the number, boundary, names and structures of the autonomous provinces and the distribution of powers and resources, while maintaining the sovereignty, unity and integrity of Nepal.
(2) A High Level Commission shall be constituted to recommend for the restructuring of the State in accordance with clause (1) and (1A) above. The composition, function, duty, power and terms of service of such Commission shall be as determined by the Government of Nepal.
... (Art. 138)

Constitution of Nepal 2015

We, the people of Nepal, in exercise of the sovereign powers inherent in us, …
Ending all forms of discriminations and oppression created by the feudal, autocratic, centralized and unitary system,
Embracing multi-caste, multi-lingual, multi-cultural and diverse geographical specificities, by ending discriminations relating to class, caste, region, language, religion and gender discrimination including all forms of racial untouchability, in order to protect and promote unity in diversity, social and cultural solidarity, tolerance and harmonious attitudes, we also express our determination to create an egalitarian society on the basis of the principles of proportional inclusion and participation, to ensure equitable economy, prosperity and social justice, … (Preamble)

(1) All citizens shall be equal before law. No person shall be denied the equal protection of law.
(2) There shall be no discrimination in the application of general laws on the grounds of origin, religion, race, caste, tribe, sex, physical conditions, disability, health condition, matrimonial status, pregnancy, economic condition, language or geographical region, or ideology or any other such grounds.
(3) The state shall not discriminate among citizens on grounds of origin, religion, race, caste, tribe, sex, economic condition, language or geographical region, ideology and such other matters.
Provided that nothing shall be deemed to bar the making of special provisions by law for the protection, empowerment or advancement of the women lagging behind socially and culturally, Dalits, Adibasi, Madhesi, Tharus, Muslims, oppressed class, backward communities, minorities, marginalized groups, peasants, laborers, youths, children, senior citizens, sexual minorities, persons with disability, pregnant, incapacitated and the helpless persons, and of the citizens who belong to backward regions and financially deprived citizens including the Khas Arya.
… (Art. 18)

(1) No person shall be treated with any kind of untouchability or discrimination in any private or public place on grounds of caste, ethnicity, origin, community, occupation, or physical condition.
(2) No person belonging to a particular caste or ethnicity shall be prevented from buying an object or getting services or facilities in the process of production of such objects or in the distribution or delivery of services, or no such objects shall be sold to, or facilities or services distributed or delivered to persons belonging to a particular caste or ethnicity only.
(3) Racial discriminations shall not be encouraged in any way, or there shall not be any behavioral attitude to exhibit high or low status on grounds of a particular caste, ethnicity or community, or physical condition of a person, or there shall not be any behavioral attitude that justifies social discrimination based on caste, ethnicity, or untouchability, or encouragement for the propagation of attitudes based on caste superiority and untouchability, or hatred.
(4) There shall not be any racial discrimination in the workplace by indulging or not indulging in untouchability.
(5) All forms of untouchability or discrimination contrary to this provision shall be punishable by law as a serious social crime, and the victim of such an act shall have the right to compensation as provided for by law. (Art. 24)

(1) It shall be the political objective of the State to strengthen a federal democratic republican system to ensure an atmosphere where democratic rights are exercised by acknowledging sovereignty, independence and integrity of the country to be of utmost importance; by protecting freedom, equality, property and all citizens through rule of law; by embracing the norms and values of fundamental rights and human rights, gender equality, proportional inclusion, participation and social justice; and by maintaining a just system in all spheres of national life in order to establish a government system aimed at public welfare, while maintaining relations between federal units on the basis of cooperation between them, and internalizing the principle of inclusion in the governance system on the basis of local autonomy and decentralization,
(2) It shall be the socio-cultural objective of the State to build a civilized and egalitarian society by ending all forms of discrimination, oppression and injustice based on religion, culture, cultural practices, customs, traditional practices, or on any other grounds; develop socio-cultural values based on national pride, democracy, people orientation, dignity of labor, entrepreneurship, discipline, dignity and tolerance, by respecting cultural diversity and maintaining communal harmony, solidarity and amity.
… (Art. 50)

(6) The Federation, provinces and local levels shall protect Nepal’s independence, sovereignty, territorial integrity, autonomy, national interests, overall development, multi-party competitive democratic republic and federal system of governance, human rights and fundamental rights, rule of law, separation of powers and check and balance, equitable society based on plurality and equality, and inclusive representation and identity. (Art. 56)

Gender Equality Machineries
+ +
Interim Constitution of Nepal 2006

The Government of Nepal may form necessary commissions to safeguard and promote the rights and interests of different sectors of the country including women, Dalits, indigenous ethnic groups [Adivasi Janajati], Madhesi, disabled, labourers or farmers. The provisions for the formation, functions, duties and powers of such commissions shall be as determined by the law. (Art. 154)

Constitution of Nepal 2015

(1) There shall be a National Women Commission in Nepal consisting of a Chairperson and four other members.

(6) Any person who possesses the following qualifications is eligible to be appointed as the Chairperson or member of National Women Commission:-
(a) a woman who has made a significant contribution for the rights, interest of women or gender justice or women development or in the field of human rights and law for at least ten years,
(b) holds a Bachelor's Degree from a recognized university in case of the Chairperson,
(c) has attained the age of forty-five,
(d) is not a member of any political party immediately before the appointment, and
(e) possesses high moral character,
… (Art. 252)

(1) Functions, duties and powers of the Federal Women Commission shall be as follows:-
(a) To formulate policies and programs regarding women welfare for the Government of Nepal and forward them to the Government for implementation,
(b) To review whether or not statutes related to women’s welfare are executed, and whether the international covenant signed by Nepal, as a signatory, has been executed, and to forward a recommendation to the Government of Nepal in case they are found not to have been executed,
(c) To monitor, review and evaluate policies and programs implemented by the State to bring women into the mainstream of national development such as proportionate representation in all of the state agencies, and to forward a recommendation to the Government of Nepal for an effective implementation of those provisions,
(d) To carry out research and studies regarding gender equality, women empowerment, other legal provisions concerning women, and to forward a recommendation to the concerned bodies regarding the areas to be amended in those laws, and to monitor the same,
(e) To monitor the government regarding report to be submitted by the Government of Nepal in matters related to international covenant and treaties to which Nepal is a party,
(f) To forward a recommendation to concerned authority to lodge a petition in the court, in accordance with the law, in matters related with gender violence, and women deprived of women rights due to social malpractices,
(2) The National Women Commission may delegate, some of its rights to the Chairperson of the Commission, member, or an officer of the Government of Nepal, to be exercised in compliance with the conditions specified.
(3) Other functions, duties and powers of the National Women Commission shall be as specified in Federal law. (Art. 253)

Participation in Public Life and Institutions
+ + +
Constitution of Nepal 1990

(7) The State shall pursue a policy of making the female population participate, to a greater extent, in the task of national development by making special provisions for their education, health and employment.
… (Art. 26)

Interim Constitution of Nepal 2006

(1) Women, Dalit, indigenous tribes, Madhesi community, oppressed group, the poor peasant and labourers, who are economically, socially or educationally backward, shall have the right to participate in the state mechanism on the basis of proportional inclusive principles. (Art. 21)

The State shall have the follows responsibilities:
...
(c) To adopt a political system which is fully abides by the universally accepted concept of fundamental human rights, multi-party competitive democratic system, sovereign authority inherent in the people and supremacy of the people, constitutional balance and check, rule of law, social justice and equality, independence of judiciary, periodical election, monitoring by the civil society, full independence of press, right to information of the people, transparency and accountability in the activities of political parties, people’s participation, neutral, competent and clean administration and to maintain good governance by eliminating corruption and impunity.
(d) To carry out an inclusive, democratic and progressive restructuring of the State by eliminating its existing form of centralized and unitary structure in order to address the problems related to women, Dalits, indigenous tribes, Madhesis, oppressed and minority community and other disadvantaged groups, by eliminating class, caste, language, sex, culture, religion and regional discriminations.
... (Art. 33)

(2) It shall be the objective of the State to maintain conditions suitable to the enjoyment of the benefits of democracy through maximum participation of the people in the governance of the country by the means of self-governance tribal, linguistic cultural or regional and to promote general welfare by making provisions for the protection and promotion of human rights, by maintaining tranquility and order in the society.
... (Art. 34)

(8) The State shall pursue a policy of encouraging maximum participation of women in national development by making special provisions for their education, health and employment.
...
(16) The State shall pursue a policy of making basic infrastructure to impart technical education, training and orientation for the development of a class of people dependent on labour including peasants and labourers, to seek their participation in the development process of the country.
... (Art 35)

Interim Constitution of Nepal 2006, as amended to 2008

(1) Women, Dalit, indigenous tribes, Madhesi community, oppressed group, the poor peasant and labourers, who are economically, socially or educationally backward, shall have the right to participate in the state mechanism on the basis of proportional inclusive principles. (Art. 21)

The State shall have the follows responsibilities:
...
(c) To adopt a political system which is fully abides by the universally accepted concept of fundamental human rights, multi-party competitive democratic system, sovereign authority inherent in the people and supremacy of the people, constitutional balance and check, rule of law, social justice and equality, independence of judiciary, periodical election, monitoring by the civil society, full independence of press, right to information of the people, transparency and accountability in the activities of political parties, people’s participation, neutral, competent and clean administration and to maintain good governance by eliminating corruption and impunity.
(d) To carry out an inclusive, democratic and progressive restructuring of the State by eliminating its existing form of centralized and unitary structure in order to address the problems related to women, Dalits, indigenous tribes, Madhesis, oppressed and minority community and other disadvantaged groups, by eliminating class, caste, language, sex, culture, religion and regional discriminations.
(d1) to enable Madhesi, Dalits, indigenous ethnic groups [Adivasi Janajati], women, labourers, farmers, the physically impaired, disadvantaged classes and disadvantaged regions to participate in all organs of the State structure on the basis of proportional inclusion,
... (Art. 33)

(2) It shall be the objective of the State to maintain conditions suitable to the enjoyment of the benefits of democracy through maximum participation of the people in the governance of the country by the means of self-governance tribal, linguistic cultural or regional and to promote general welfare by making provisions for the protection and promotion of human rights, by maintaining tranquility and order in the society.
... (Art. 34)

(8) The State shall pursue a policy of encouraging maximum participation of women in national development by making special provisions for their education, health and employment.
...
(16) The State shall pursue a policy of making basic infrastructure to impart technical education, training and orientation for the development of a class of people dependent on labour including peasants and labourers, to seek their participation in the development process of the country.
... (Art 35)

(4) In the case of formulating and implementing the action plan pursuant to clause (3), determination of the appropriate number of the Nepal Army, its democratic structure and national and inclusive character shall be developed, and training shall be imparted to the army in accordance with the norms and values of democracy and human rights.
(4A) In order to give the Nepal Army a national character and make it inclusive, enlisting of Madhesi, indigenous ethnic groups, Dalits, women, and people from backward regions into the armed forces on the basis of the principles of equality and inclusiveness shall be ensured by law.
... (Art. 144)

Constitution of Nepal 2015

(4) Women shall have the right to access participate in all state structures and bodies on the basis of the principle of proportional inclusion.
… (Art. 38)

(1) Socially backward women, Dalits, Adibasi, Janajati, Adibasi Janajati, Madhesi, Tharu, minority groups, persons with disability, marginalized groups, Muslim, backward classes, gender and sexually minority groups, youths, peasants, laborers, the oppressed and the citizens of backward regions, and economically poor Khas Arya shall have the right to employment in state structures on the basis of the principle of inclusion.
… (Art. 42)

(1) There shall be an organization of Nepal Army, committed to democratic principles, inclusive in character and national in form, for the protection of Nepal’s independence, sovereignty, territorial integrity, autonomy and national unity.

(3) The entry of women, Dalit, indigenous community, Khash Arya, Madhesi, Tharu, Muslim, people of backward class and backward region shall be ensured in Nepal Army, based on the principle of equality and principles of inclusion as provided for in the Federal law.
… (Art. 267)

Political Participation Quotas: National level
+ + +
Constitution of Nepal 1990

(1) The National Assembly shall consist of sixty members as follows:—
(a) ten members to be nominated by His Majesty from amongst persons of high reputation who have rendered prominent service in various fields of national life,
(b) thirty five members, including at least three women members, to be elected by the House of Representatives in accordance with the provisions of law, on the basis of the system of proportional representation by means of the single transferable vote, and
(c) fifteen members, three from each of the Development Regions, to be elected in accordance with law on the basis of the system of single transferable vote by an electoral college consisting of the Chief and the Deputy Chief of the Village and Town level Local Authorities and the Chief, Deputy Chief and the members of the District level Local Authorities:
Provided that until elections are held for the Local Authorities, such electoral college shall, for the first time, consist of the members of the House of Representatives elected from the concerned Development Region.
... (Art. 46)

For the purposes of elections to the House of Representatives, at least five percent of the total number of candidates contesting an election from any organisation or party must be women candidates. (Art. 114)

Interim Constitution of Nepal 2006

No provisions.

Interim Constitution of Nepal 2006, as amended to 2007

(1) There shall be a unicameral Legislature-Parliament in Nepal which shall consist of the following 330 members as set out in schedule 2
(a) 209 members of the seven political parties and other parties who were sitting as elected members of the House of Representatives and National Assembly immediately before the commencement of this Constitution,
...
(b) 73 members on behalf of Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist),
(c) 48 members nominated by consensus from the Samyukta Bam Morcha, people-based and professional organizations, oppressed communities, backward regions, indigenous ethnic groups [Adivasi Janajati], and from among women and various political personalities.
... (Art. 45)

Interim Constitution of Nepal 2006, as amended to 2008

(1) A Constituent Assembly shall be constituted to formulate a new Constitution by the Nepali people themselves, subject to the provisions of this Constitution.
...
(3) In accordance with the law, there will be the following members of the CA, elected and nominated according to the mixed electoral system, taking account of the equality of population, geographical convenience and special characteristics, and, in the case of Madhes on the basis of percentage of the population -
(a) One member elected, under the first-past-the-post system, from each geographical constituency, two hundred and forty as determined by the Constituency Delimitation Commission under Article 154(a), based on the national census preceding the Constituent Assembly elections, and as far as possible maintaining the same relationship between number of members and population for all the administrative districts, while retaining the same administrative districts as hitherto.
(b) Three hundred and thirty-five members to be elected according to the proportional representation system, with voting being for political parties, and treating the whole country as a single constituency.
(c) Twenty-six members nominated by the Council of Ministers on the basis of consensus from among distinguished persons and persons from among ethnic and indigenous groups who fail to be represented as a result of elections under sub clause (a) and (b) who have made significant contributions to national life.
...
(4) The principle of inclusiveness shall be taken into consideration by political parties while selecting candidates pursuant to sub-clause (a) of clause (3), and, while making the lists of the candidates pursuant to sub-clause (b), the political parties shall ensure the proportional representation of women, Dalits, oppressed communities/indigenous groups, backward regions, Madhesis and other groups, in accordance with the law.
... (Art. 63)

Constitution of Nepal 2015

(1) The House of Representatives shall consist of two hundred and seventy five members as follows:-
(a) One hundred and sixty five members elected through the first-past-the-post electoral system consisting of one member from each of the one hundred and sixty five electoral constituencies formed by dividing Nepal into 165 constituencies based on geography, and population.
(b) One hundred and ten members elected from proportional representation electoral system where voters vote for parties, while treating the whole country as a single electoral constituency.
(2) Provision shall be made according to Federal law for the representation of political parties to file candidacy for the election of the House of Representatives for proportional representation system through closed list of women, Dalit, Adibasi Janajati, Khas Arya, Madhesi, Tharu, Muslim, and backward regions. Balance in geography and province shall be considered for such candidacy.
Explanation: For the purpose of this provision, Khas Arya means Chhetri, Brahmin, Thakuri and Sannyasi (Dasnami) community.

(8) Notwithstanding anything contained elsewhere in this Article, women should account for at least one third of total members elected from each party in Federal Parliament. In case, one-third percentage of women are not elected while being elected under section (a) of clause (1), and section (a), clause (2) of Article 84, the party that fails to ensure one-third representation shall have to elect at least one-third of total numbers as woman in the Federal Parliament while electing members under section (b) of clause (1).
… (Art. 84)

(1) National Assembly shall be a permanent house.
(2) There shall be fifty-nine members in the National Assembly as follows:-
(a) Fifty six members elected from an Electoral College comprising members of Provincial Assembly and chairpersons and vice-chairpersons of Village councils and Mayors and Deputy Mayors of Municipal councils, with different weights of votes for each, with eight members from each province, including at least three women, one Dalit, one person with disability or minority;
(b) Three members, including at least one woman, to be nominated by the President on the recommendation of Government of Nepal.
… (Art. 86)

(1) The House of Representatives shall, within fifteen days of commencement of first meeting, elect a Speaker and a Deputy Speaker from among its members.
(2) While electing Speaker and Deputy Speaker as per clause (1), either Speaker or Deputy Speaker shall be a woman and belong to different parties.
… (Art. 91)

(1) After the commencement of its first session, the National Assembly shall, within fifteen days of commencement of first meeting, elect a Chairperson and Vice chairperson from among its members.
(2) While electing as per clause (1), either Chairperson or Vice chairperson Chairman of the National Assembly shall be a woman.
… (Art. 92)

Political Participation Quotas: Subnational levels
+
Constitution of Nepal 2015

(1) Every Provincial Assembly shall consist of the following number of members: -
(a) Members equal to double the number of members to be elected through the first-past-the-post (FPTP) election system to the House of Representatives from the concerned province,
(b) The number of members to be elected through the Proportional Representation (PR) election system equal to the number equivalent to the remaining forty per cent when the number of members maintained pursuant to section (a) is regarded as sixty per cent.

(6) The representation of women, Dalit, indigenous, indigenous nationalities, Khas Arya, Madhesi, Muslim, backward region and minorities community on the basis of geography and population in the nominations filed by the political parties for the election to be held for the Provincial Assembly through the proportional representation (PR) election system shall be made on the basis of closed list in accordance with Federal law.
Explanation: ‘Khas Arya’ shall mean Chettri, Brahman, Thakuri, Sanyasi (Dashanami) community.

(9) Notwithstanding anything contained elsewhere in this Article, at least one third of the total number of members to be elected from each political party to the Provincial Assembly shall have to be women. In case at least one third of the candidates elected from a political party pursuant to section (a) of clause (1) are not women, the political party shall have to make provision of electing at least one third women while electing members pursuant to section (b) of the same clause.
… (Art. 176)

(1) The Provincial Assembly shall elect a Speaker and a Deputy Speaker from among its members within fifteen days of the first meeting of the Assembly.
(2) While electing speaker and deputy speaker as per clause (1), either of Speaker or Deputy Speaker shall be woman and they shall belong to different parties. … (Art. 182)

(1) There shall be a Head of Village executive in every Village Council. The Village executive shall be formed under her/his chairpersonship.
(2) The Village executive, pursuant to Clause (1), shall have a Deputy Head and ward chairpersons elected from each ward and members elected as per clause (4) below.
(3) The election of the Head and Deputy Head shall be held through secret ballot based on one person one vote according to the first-past-the-post electoral system by the voters of the concerned Village Council area.
Explanation: For the purpose of this Article, ‘Head and Deputy Head’ shall mean the Head and Deputy Head of the Village executive.
(4) Four women members that are elected by the Village Assembly members from among themselves and two persons elected from the Dalit or minority community with qualifications pursuant to Clause (5) below shall also be members of the Village executive and this election shall be held within 15 days following the final result of the election of Village Assembly as per Article 222.
… (Art. 215)

(1) There shall be a Mayor of the Municipal Executive in every municipality. The municipal executive shall be formed under her/his chair.
(2) The Municipal Executive, pursuant to Clause (1), shall have a Deputy Mayor, ward chairperson elected from each ward and members elected as per clause (4) below.
(3) The election of the Mayor and Deputy Mayor shall be held through secret ballot based on one person one vote according to the first-past-the-post electoral system by the voters of the concerned Municipal Council area.
Explanation: For the purpose of this Article, ‘Mayor and Deputy Mayor’ shall mean the Head and Deputy Head of the Municipal executive.
(4) Five women members that are elected by the Municipal Assembly members from among themselves and three persons elected from the Dalit or minority community with qualifications pursuant to Clause (5) below shall also be members of the Municipal executive and this election shall be held within 15 days following the final result of the election of Municipal Assembly as per Article 223.
… (Art. 216)

(3) The District Assembly shall, pursuant to Provincial laws, elect a District Coordination Committee with a maximum of nine members including a Head, a Deputy Head, at least three women and at least one person from the Dalit or minority community. The District Coordination Committee shall execute all tasks to be carried out on behalf of the District Assembly.
… (Art. 220)

(1) There shall be a Village Assembly in each Village Council.
(2) The Village Assembly referred to in clause (1) shall comprise a village executive Head, a Deputy Head and four members elected from every Ward of the Village council and member of the village executive elected from the Dalit or minority community pursuant to clause (4) of Article 215.
(3) The Village Assembly to be constituted pursuant to Clause (1) shall have the representation of at least two women from every Ward of the Village Council.
… (Art. 222)

(1) There shall be one Municipal Assembly in each Municipality.
(2) The Municipal Assembly referred to in clause (1) shall comprise the Mayor and Deputy Mayor, ward Chairperson and four members elected from every Ward of the Municipal council and member of the Municipal executive elected from the Dalit or minority community pursuant to clause (4) of Article 216.
(3) The Municipal Assembly to be constituted pursuant to Clause (1) shall have the representation of at least two women from every Ward of the Municipality.
… (Art. 223)

Sexual and Reproductive Rights
+ +
Interim Constitution of Nepal 2006

(1) No one shall be discriminated in any form merely for being a woman.
(2) Every woman shall have the right to reproductive health and other reproductive matters.
(3) No physical, mental or any other form of violence shall be inflicted to any woman, and such an act shall be punishable by law.
(4) Son and daughter shall have equal rights to their ancestral property. (Art. 20)

Constitution of Nepal 2015

The State shall pursue the following policies:

(h) Policies regarding the basic needs of citizens:

(10) It shall be the policy of the State to increase general life expectancy by decreasing maternity-infant mortality rate by encouraging family planning population management based on the need and capacity of the country.

(j) Policies regarding social justice and inclusion:

(3) Ensuring the use of necessary services and facilities during the reproductive stage
… (Art. 51)

10. Planning, family planning and population management
… (Schedule 7, List of Concurrent (federal and provincial) Powers/Jurisdiction)

Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity
+
Constitution of Nepal 2015

(3) The state shall not discriminate among citizens on grounds of origin, religion, race, caste, tribe, sex, economic condition, language or geographical region, ideology and such other matters.
Provided that nothing shall be deemed to bar the making of special provisions by law for the protection, empowerment or advancement of the women lagging behind socially and culturally, Dalits, Adibasi, Madhesi, Tharus, Muslims, oppressed class, backward communities, minorities, marginalized groups, peasants, laborers, youths, children, senior citizens, sexual minorities, persons with disability, pregnant, incapacitated and the helpless persons, and of the citizens who belong to backward regions and financially deprived citizens including the Khas Arya.
… (Art. 18)

(1) Socially backward women, Dalits, Adibasi, Janajati, Adibasi Janajati, Madhesi, Tharu, minority groups, persons with disability, marginalized groups, Muslim, backward classes, gender and sexually minority groups, youths, peasants, laborers, the oppressed and the citizens of backward regions, and economically poor Khas Arya shall have the right to employment in state structures on the basis of the principle of inclusion.
… (Art. 42)

Women’s Rights
+ +
Interim Constitution of Nepal 2006

(1) No one shall be discriminated in any form merely for being a woman.
(2) Every woman shall have the right to reproductive health and other reproductive matters.
(3) No physical, mental or any other form of violence shall be inflicted to any woman, and such an act shall be punishable by law.
(4) Son and daughter shall have equal rights to their ancestral property. (Art. 20)

Constitution of Nepal 2015

(1) Every woman shall have equal right to lineage without any gender discriminations.
(2) Every woman shall have the right relating to safe motherhood and reproductive health.
(3) There shall not be any physical, mental, sexual or psychological or any other kind of violence against women, or any kind of oppression based on religious, social and cultural tradition, and other practices. Such an act shall be punishable by law and the victim shall have the right to be compensation as provided for in law.
(4) Women shall have the right to access participate in all state structures and bodies on the basis of the principle of proportional inclusion.
(5) Women shall have the right to special opportunity in the spheres of education, health, employment and social security on the basis of positive discrimination.
(6) Both the spouses shall have equal rights in property and family affairs. (Art. 38)

The Government of Nepal shall review and revise, along with census of every ten years, the provisions regarding special rights of the women and Dalit community and its implementation and effectiveness based on human development index. (Art. 281)

Norway

Provisions related
to category are:
  Not present
  Present
Added or changed

The constitution of Norway is one of the oldest living constitutions in the world, dating back to 1814. An amendment in 2014 added the explicit guarantee of equality for all.

Constitution of 1814,
as amended to 1995
Amended
2014
Affirmative Action (Broadly)

No provisions.

Equality and Non-Discrimination
+
Constitution of the Kingdom of Norway 1814, as amended to 2015

All are equals before the law.
No person must be subject to unfair or unreasonable discrimination. (Art. 98)

Gender Equality Machineries

No provisions.

Participation in Public Life and Institutions
Constitution of the Kingdom of Norway 1814, as amended to 1995

To senior official posts in the State may be appointed only Norwegian citizens, men or women, who speak the language of the Country, and who at the same time:
a. either were born in the Realm of parents who were then subjects of the State;
b. or were born in a foreign country of Norwegian parents who were not at that time subjects of another State;
c. or hereafter have resided for ten years in the Realm;
d. or have been naturalized by the Storting.
Others may, however, be appointed as teachers at the university and institutions of higher learning, as medical practitioners and as consuls in places abroad. (Art. 92)

Constitution of the Kingdom of Norway 1814, as amended to 2015

To senior official posts in the State may be appointed only Norwegian citizens, men or women, who speak the language of the Country, and who at the same time:
a. either were born in the Realm of parents who were then subjects of the State;
b. or were born in a foreign country of Norwegian parents who were not at that time subjects of another State;
c. or hereafter have resided for ten years in the Realm;
d. or have been naturalized by the Storting.
Others may, however, be appointed as teachers at the university and institutions of higher learning, as medical practitioners and as consuls in places abroad. (Art. 114)

Political Participation Quotas: National level

No provisions.

Political Participation Quotas: Subnational levels

No provisions.

Sexual and Reproductive Rights

No provisions.

Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity

No provisions.

Women’s Rights

No provisions.

Rwanda

Provisions related
to category are:
  Not present
  Present
Added or changed

Many of the rights constitutionally guaranteed to women in Rwanda have remained present in the constitution since its inception in 2003. Notably, women are guaranteed at least 30% of the seats in decision making organs, including each chamber of the national legislature.

Constitution
of 2003
Amended
2005
Amended
2008
Amended
2010
Affirmative Action (Broadly)
Constitution of the Republic of Rwanda 2003

The State of Rwanda commits itself to conform to the following fundamental principles and to promote and enforce the respect thereof:

4. building a state governed by the rule of law, a pluralistic democratic government, equality of all Rwandans and between women and men reflected by ensuring that women are granted at least thirty per cent of posts in decision making organs;
… (Art. 9)

Equality and Non-Discrimination
Constitution of the Republic of Rwanda 2003

10. Committed to ensuring equal rights between Rwandans and between women and men without prejudice to the principles of gender equality and complementarity in national development;
… (Preamble)

The State of Rwanda commits itself to conform to the following fundamental principles and to promote and enforce the respect thereof:

4. building a state governed by the rule of law, a pluralistic democratic government, equality of all Rwandans and between women and men reflected by ensuring that women are granted at least thirty per cent of posts in decision making organs;
… (Art. 9)

All Rwandans are born and remain free and equal in rights and duties. Discrimination of whatever kind based on, inter alia, ethnic origin, tribe, clan, colour, sex, region, social origin, religion or faith, opinion, economic status, culture, language, social status, physical or mental disability or any other form of discrimination is prohibited and punishable by Law. (Art. 11)

All human beings are equal before the law. They shall enjoy, without any discrimination, equal protection of the Law. (Art. 16)

Every citizen has the duty to relate to other persons without discrimination and to maintain relations conducive to safeguarding, promoting and reinforcing mutual respect, solidarity and tolerance. (Art. 46)

Gender Equality Machineries
+
Constitution of the Republic of Rwanda 2003

A Gender Monitoring Office is hereby established.
The Gender Monitoring Office shall be an independent public institution whose responsibilities include the following:
1. to monitor and supervise on a permanent basis compliance with gender indicators of the program for ensuring gender equality in the context of the vision of sustainable development and to serve as a reference point on matters relating to gender equality for equal opportunity and equity;
2. to submit to various organs recommendations relating to the program for the promotion of gender equality for national development.
The gender Monitoring Office shall submit each year its program and activity report to the Government and submits copies thereof to other State organs determined by law.
The law shall determine its functions, organization and operation. (Art. 185)

There is hereby established a National Council of Women.
The law shall determine its organization, functions, operation and its relations with other State organs. (Art. 187)

Constitution of the Republic of Rwanda 2003, as amended to 2010

Gender Monitoring Office is an independent public institution.
Gender Monitoring Office shall submit each year its program and activity report to the Cabinet and provide a copy thereof to other State organs as may be determined by the Law.
A Law shall determine the responsibilities, organisation and functioning of this Office. (Art. 185)

The National Women Council is an independent institution in its management.
A Law shall determine the responsibilities, organization and functioning of the Council and its relationship with other State organs. (Art. 187)

Participation in Public Life and Institutions
Constitution of the Republic of Rwanda 2003

The State of Rwanda commits itself to conform to the following fundamental principles and to promote and enforce the respect thereof:

4. building a state governed by the rule of law, a pluralistic democratic government, equality of all Rwandans and between women and men reflected by ensuring that women are granted at least thirty per cent of posts in decision making organs;
… (Art. 9)

All citizens have the right to participate in the government of the country, whether directly or through freely chosen representatives in accordance with the Law.
All citizens have the right of equal access to public service in accordance with their competence and abilities. (Art. 45)

Public servants shall be recruited, posted and promoted in conformity with the principle of equality of citizens, through an objective, impartial and transparent system on the basis of the competence, merit and integrity of applicants of both sexes. … (Art. 126)

Political Participation Quotas: National level
+ + +
Constitution of the Republic of Rwanda 2003

The Chamber of Deputies is composed of eighty (80) members as follows:
1. fifty-three (53) are elected in accordance with the provisions of Article 77 of this Constitution;
2. twenty-four (24) women; that is: two from each Province and the City of Kigali. These shall be elected by a joint assembly composed of members of the respective District, Municipality, Town or Kigali City Councils and members of the Executive Committees of women’s organizations at the Province, Kigali City, District, Municipalities, Towns and Sector levels;
3. two (2) members elected by the National Youth Council;
4. one (1) member elected by the Federation of the Associations of the Disabled. (Art. 76)

The Senate is composed of twenty-six (26) members serving for a term of eight (8) years and at least thirty per cent (30%) of whom are women. In addition, the former Heads of State become members of the Senate upon their request as provided for in paragraph 4 of this article.
These twenty-six (26) members are elected or appointed as follows:
1. twelve (12) members representing each Province and the City of Kigali are elected through secret ballot by members of the Executive Committees of Sectors and District, Municipality, Town or City Councils of each Province and the City of Kigali;
2. eight (8) members appointed by the President of the Republic who shall ensure the representation of historically marginalized (plus défavorisée) communities;
3. four (4) members designated by the Forum of Political organizations’;
4. one (1) university lecturer of at least the academic rank of Associate Professor elected by the academic and research staff of public universities and institutions of higher learning;
5. one (1) university lecturer of at least the rank of Associate Professor elected by the academic and research staff of private universities and institutions of higher learning.
The organs responsible for the nomination of Senators shall take into account national unity and equal representation of both sexes.
... (Art. 82)

Constitution of the Republic of Rwanda 2003, as amended to 2005

The Chamber of Deputies shall be composed of eighty (80) members as follows:
1. fifty three (53) are elected in accordance with the provisions of article 77 of the Constitution of June 4, 2003 as Amended date;
2. twenty four (24) women are elected by specific councils in accordance with the administrative entities;
3. two (2) members elected by the National Youth Council;
4. one (1) member elected by the Federation of the Associations of the Disabled.
... (Art. 76)

The Senate shall be composed of twenty six (26) members serving for a term of eight (8) years and at least thirty per cent (30 %) of whom are women. In addition, former Heads of State become members of the Senate upon their request to the Supreme Court but they must have honourably completed their terms or voluntarily resigned from office.
Those twenty six (26) members are elected or appointed as follows:
1. twelve (12) members elected by the specific councils in accordance with the administrative entities;
2. eight (8) members appointed by the President of the Republic, who shall ensure the representation of historically marginalized communities;
3. four (4) members designated by the Forum of Political organizations;
4. one (1)university lecturer of at least the rank of Associate Professor or a researcher, elected by the academic and research staff of public universities and institutions of higher learning;
5. one (1) university lecturer of at least the rank of Associate Professor or researcher, elected by the academic and research staff of private universities and institutions of higher learning.
An Organic Law determines the election of members of the Senate.
The organs responsible for the nomination of Senators shall take into account national unity and equal representation of both sexes.
... (Art. 82)

Constitution of the Republic of Rwanda 2003, as amended to 2008

The Chamber of Deputies shall be composed of eighty (80) members who shall include the following:
1. fifty three (53) elected in accordance with the provisions of article 77 of the Constitution;
2. twenty four (24) women elected by specific councils in accordance with the State administrative entities;
3. two (2) members elected by the National Youth Council;
4. one (1) member elected by the Federation of the Associations of the Disabled Persons.
... (Art. 76)

The Senate shall be composed of twenty six (26) members serving for a term of eight (8) years and at least thirty per cent (30 %) of whom are women. In addition, former Heads of State become members of the Senate upon their request to the Supreme Court but they must have honourably completed their terms or voluntarily resigned from office.
Those twenty six (26) members are elected or appointed as follows:
1. twelve (12) members elected by the specific councils in accordance with the administrative entities;
2. eight (8) members appointed by the President of the Republic, who shall ensure the representation of historically marginalized communities;
3. four (4) members designated by the Forum of Political organizations;
4. one (1)university lecturer of at least the rank of Associate Professor or a researcher, elected by the academic and research staff of public universities and institutions of higher learning;
5. one (1) university lecturer of at least the rank of Associate Professor or researcher, elected by the academic and research staff of private universities and institutions of higher learning.
An Organic Law determines the election of members of the Senate.
The organs responsible for the nomination of Senators shall take into account national unity and equal representation of both sexes.
... (Art. 82)

Constitution of the Republic of Rwanda 2003, as amended to 2010

The Chamber of Deputies shall be composed of eighty (80) Deputies who shall include the following:
1. fifty-three (53) Deputies elected in accordance with the provisions of Article 77 of this Constitution;
2. twenty- four (24) women elected by specific councils in accordance with the State administrative entities;
3. two (2) Deputies elected by the National Youth Council;
4. one (1) Deputy elected by the National Council of Persons with Disabilities.
… (Art. 76)

The Senate shall be composed of twenty-six (26) Senators serving for a term of eight (8) years and at least thirty per cent (30 %) of them shall be women. In addition, former Heads of State become members of the Senate upon their request to the Supreme Court but they must have honourably completed their terms of office or voluntarily resigned from office.
The twenty-six (26) Senators shall be elected or appointed as follows:
1. twelve (12) Senators elected by specific organs in accordance with the administrative entities;
2. eight (8) Senators appointed by the President of the Republic, who shall particularly consider the principle of national unity among Rwandans, the representation of historically marginalized communities and other national public interests;
3. four (4) Senators designated by the National Consultative Forum of Political Organisations;
4. one (1) lecturer or researcher from public Universities and Institutions of higher learning who has at least the rank of Associate Professor, elected by the academic and research staff of such institutions;
5. one (1) lecturer or researcher from private Universities and Institutions of higher learning who has at least the rank of Associate Professor, elected by the academic and research staff of such institutions.
Modalities for the election of Senators are determined by the Law relating to elections.
The organs responsible for the nomination of Senators shall take into account national unity and equal representation of both sexes.
… (Art. 82)

Political Participation Quotas: Subnational levels

No provisions.

Sexual and Reproductive Rights

No provisions.

Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity

No provisions.

Women’s Rights

No provisions.

Tunisia

Provisions related
to category are:
  Not present
  Present
Added or changed

A new permanent Tunisian constitution was established in 2014, replacing the interim constitutional order that was established during the Arab Spring uprisings of 2011. The 2014 constitution enshrined a number of women’s rights in the constitution for the first time and established a state duty to achieve gender parity in elected bodies.

Constitution of 1959,
as amended to 1999
Interim Constitution
2011
New Constitution
2014
Affirmative Action (Broadly)
+
Constitution of the Republic of Tunisia 2014

… The state seeks to guarantee women’s representation in elected bodies. (Art. 34)

The state commits to protect women’s accrued rights and work to strengthen and develop those rights.
The state guarantees the equality of opportunities between women and men to have access to all levels of responsibility in all domains.
The state works to attain parity between women and men in elected Assemblies. … (Art. 46)

Equality and Non-Discrimination
+
Constitution of the Republic of Tunisia 1959, as amended to 1999

We proclaim that the republican regime constitutes :
...
-the best guarantee for the respect of human rights, for the establishment of equality among citizens in terms of rights and duties, and for the achievement of the country's prosperity through economic development and use of the nation's riches for the benefit of the people; ... (Preamble)

All citizens have the same rights and obligations. All are equal before the law. (Art. 6)

Interim Constitution of the Republic of Tunisia 2011

No provisions.

Constitution of the Republic of Tunisia 2014

... With a view to building a participatory, democratic, republican system, in the framework of a civil state founded on the law and on the sovereignty of the people, exercised through the peaceful alternation of power through free elections. A political system founded on the principle of the separation and balance of powers, which guarantees the freedom of association in conformity with the principles of pluralism, an impartial administration, and good governance, which are the foundations of political competition, a system that guarantees respect for human rights and freedoms, independence of the judiciary, equality of rights and duties between all citizens, male and female, and equality between all regions; … (Preamble)

All citizens, male and female, have equal rights and duties, and are equal before the law without any discrimination.
The state guarantees freedoms and individual and collective rights to all citizens, and provides all citizens the conditions for a dignified life.
(Art. 21)

The state commits to protect women’s accrued rights and work to strengthen and develop those rights.
The state guarantees the equality of opportunities between women and men to have access to all levels of responsibility in all domains.
The state works to attain parity between women and men in elected Assemblies.
The state shall take all necessary measures in order to eradicate violence against women.
(Art. 46)

Gender Equality Machineries

No provisions.

Participation in Public Life and Institutions
+
Constitution of the Republic of Tunisia 2014

The state commits to protect women’s accrued rights and work to strengthen and develop those rights.
The state guarantees the equality of opportunities between women and men to have access to all levels of responsibility in all domains. … (Art. 46)

Political Participation Quotas: National level
+
Constitution of the Republic of Tunisia 2014

… The state works to attain parity between women and men in elected Assemblies. … (Art. 46)

Political Participation Quotas: Subnational levels
+
Constitution of the Republic of Tunisia 2014

… The state works to attain parity between women and men in elected Assemblies. … (Art. 46)

Sexual and Reproductive Rights

No provisions.

Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity

No provisions.

Women’s Rights
+
Constitution of the Republic of Tunisia 2014

The state commits to protect women’s accrued rights and work to strengthen and develop those rights.
The state guarantees the equality of opportunities between women and men to have access to all levels of responsibility in all domains.
The state works to attain parity between women and men in elected Assemblies.
The state shall take all necessary measures in order to eradicate violence against women. (Art. 46)

Viet Nam

Provisions related
to category are:
  Not present
  Present
Added or changed

The constitution of Viet Nam, which was adopted in 1992, was significantly amended in 2013. Many of the previously guaranteed rights, including the explicit right to gender equality, are present in the amended constitution in a modified form.

Constitution
of 1992
Amended
2013
Affirmative Action (Broadly)
+
Constitution of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam 1992

Citizens of both sexes will have equal rights in all political, economic, cultural, social, and familial aspects. All forms of behavior which discriminate against women and offend their dignity are strictly forbidden. Workers of both sexes shall receive equal pay for equal work. Women workers are entitled to maternity policy benefits. Women state employees and wage earners are entitled to fully paid pre- and post-natal leave as stipulated by law.
The state and society will create conditions for women to raise the level of their knowledge and develop their role in society. It will take care of developing maternity homes, pediatrics, creches, and other social welfare facilities to alleviate family burdens and create conditions for women to produce, work, study, receive medical treatment, rest, and fulfill their duty as mothers. (Art. 63)

Constitution of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam 1992, as amended to 2013

1. Male and female citizens have equal rights in all fields. The State shall adopt policies to guarantee the right to and opportunities for gender equality.
2. The State, society and family shall create the conditions for women to develop comprehensively and to advance their role in society.
3. Gender discrimination is prohibited. (Art. 26)

Equality and Non-Discrimination
+
Constitution of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam 1992

The SRV state is a unified state of the people of various nationalities who live on Vietnamese territory. It implements the policy of equality, solidarity, and mutual assistance among all nationalities, and strictly forbids all discriminatory and divisive behavior among nationalities.
... (Art. 5)

All citizens are equal before the law. (Art. 52)

Citizens of both sexes will have equal rights in all political, economic, cultural, social, and familial aspects. All forms of behavior which discriminate against women and offend their dignity are strictly forbidden. Workers of both sexes shall receive equal pay for equal work. Women workers are entitled to maternity policy benefits. Women state employees and wage earners are entitled to fully paid pre- and post-natal leave as stipulated by law.
The state and society will create conditions for women to raise the level of their knowledge and develop their role in society. It will take care of developing maternity homes, pediatrics, creches, and other social welfare facilities to alleviate family burdens and create conditions for women to produce, work, study, receive medical treatment, rest, and fulfill their duty as mothers. (Art. 63)

Constitution of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam 1992, as amended to 2013

1. All people are equal before law.
2. No one is subject to discriminatory treatment in political, civil, economic, cultural or social life. (Art. 16)

1. Male and female citizens have equal rights in all fields. The State shall adopt policies to guarantee the right to and opportunities for gender equality.
2. The State, society and family shall create the conditions for women to develop comprehensively and to advance their role in society.
3. Gender discrimination is prohibited. (Art. 26)

Gender Equality Machineries

No provisions.

Participation in Public Life and Institutions
+
Constitution of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam 1992

Citizens exercise their right to mastery at the grass-roots level through their participation in the handling of state and social affairs. They are dutybound to protect public property and the people's legitimate rights and interests and must help with the maintenance of national security, public safety, and social order as well as with the organization of public life. (Art. 11)

Citizens have the right to participate in the administration of the state and society, and in debating the common issues of the entire country and localities, to petition to state agencies, and to vote when the state organizes a referendum. (Art. 53)

Citizens of both sexes will have equal rights in all political, economic, cultural, social, and familial aspects. All forms of behavior which discriminate against women and offend their dignity are strictly forbidden. Workers of both sexes shall receive equal pay for equal work. Women workers are entitled to maternity policy benefits. Women state employees and wage earners are entitled to fully paid pre- and post-natal leave as stipulated by law.
The state and society will create conditions for women to raise the level of their knowledge and develop their role in society. It will take care of developing maternity homes, pediatrics, creches, and other social welfare facilities to alleviate family burdens and create conditions for women to produce, work, study, receive medical treatment, rest, and fulfill their duty as mothers. (Art. 63)

Defending the fatherland is the citizens' sacred duty and noble right. Citizens are dutybound to perform their military service and participate in building the all-people national defense. (Art. 77)

Constitution of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam 1992, as amended to 2013

1. Male and female citizens have equal rights in all fields. The State shall adopt policies to guarantee the right to and opportunities for gender equality.
2. The State, society and family shall create the conditions for women to develop comprehensively and to advance their role in society.
… (Art. 26)

1. Citizens have the right to participate in the management of the State and management of society, and to discuss and propose to state agencies issues about their base units, localities and the whole country.
2. The State shall create the conditions for citizens to participate in the management of the State and society; and shall publicly and transparently receive and respond to the opinions and petitions of citizens. (Art. 28)

Political Participation Quotas: National level

No provisions.

Political Participation Quotas: Subnational levels

No provisions.

Sexual and Reproductive Rights
+
Constitution of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam 1992

The state, society, families, and citizens shall be dutybound to provide health care and protection to mothers and children and to carry out population and family planning programs. (Art. 40)

Citizens of both sexes will have equal rights in all political, economic, cultural, social, and familial aspects. All forms of behavior which discriminate against women and offend their dignity are strictly forbidden. Workers of both sexes shall receive equal pay for equal work. Women workers are entitled to maternity policy benefits. Women state employees and wage earners are entitled to fully paid pre- and post-natal leave as stipulated by law.
The state and society will create conditions for women to raise the level of their knowledge and develop their role in society. It will take care of developing maternity homes, pediatrics, creches, and other social welfare facilities to alleviate family burdens and create conditions for women to produce, work, study, receive medical treatment, rest, and fulfill their duty as mothers. (Art. 63)

Constitution of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam 1992, as amended to 2013

2. The State, society and family are responsible for protecting and caring for the health of mothers and children, and for family planning. (Art. 58)

Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity

No provisions.

Women’s Rights
+
Constitution of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam 1992

Citizens of both sexes will have equal rights in all political, economic, cultural, social, and familial aspects. All forms of behavior which discriminate against women and offend their dignity are strictly forbidden. Workers of both sexes shall receive equal pay for equal work. Women workers are entitled to maternity policy benefits. Women state employees and wage earners are entitled to fully paid pre- and post-natal leave as stipulated by law. The state and society will create conditions for women to raise the level of their knowledge and develop their role in society. It will take care of developing maternity homes, pediatrics, creches, and other social welfare facilities to alleviate family burdens and create conditions for women to produce, work, study, receive medical treatment, rest, and fulfill their duty as mothers. (Art. 63)

Constitution of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam 1992, as amended to 2013

1. Male and female citizens have equal rights in all fields. The State shall adopt policies to guarantee the right to and opportunities for gender equality.
2. The State, society and family shall create the conditions for women to develop comprehensively and to advance their role in society.
3. Gender discrimination is prohibited. (Art. 26)

Zimbabwe

Provisions related
to category are:
  Not present
  Present
Added or changed

In 2013, Zimbabwe adopted a new constitution that replaced the previous constitution of 1979. The new constitution expanded on the gender equality provisions of the previous constitution and added several new rights, including the right to reproductive health care.

Constitution of 1979,
as amended to 2000
Amended
2005
Amended
2009
New
2013
Affirmative Action (Broadly)
+ +
Constitution of the Republic of Zimbabwe 1979, as amended to 2005

(1) Subject to the provisions of this section—
(a) no law shall make any provision that is discriminatory either of itself or in its effect; and
(b) no person shall be treated in a discriminatory manner by any person acting by virtue of any written law or in the performance of the functions of any public office or any public authority.
...
(5) Nothing contained in or done under the authority of any law that discriminates between persons on the ground of their sex or gender shall be held to be in contravention of subsection (1)(a) or (b) to the extent that the law in question—
(a) gives effect to section 7(2) or any other provision of this Constitution; or
(b) takes due account of physiological differences between persons of different gender; or
(c) makes provision in the interests of defence, public safety or public morality; ... (Sec. 23)

Constitution of the Republic of Zimbabwe 2013

(1) The State and all institutions and agencies of government at every level must endeavour to facilitate rapid and equitable development, and in particular must take measures to—
(a) promote private initiative and self-reliance;
(b) foster agricultural, commercial, industrial, technological and scientific development;
(c) foster the development of industrial and commercial enterprises in order to empower Zimbabwean citizens; and
(d) bring about balanced development of the different areas of Zimbabwe, in particular a proper balance in the development of rural and urban areas.
(2) Measures referred to in this section must involve the people in the formulation and implementation of development plans and programmes that affect them.
(3) Measures referred to in this section must protect and enhance the right of the people, particularly women, to equal opportunities in development.
… (Sec. 13)

(1) The State and all institutions and agencies of government at every level must endeavour to facilitate and take measures to empower, through appropriate, transparent, fair and just affirmative action, all marginalised persons, groups and communities in Zimbabwe.
(2) At all times the State and all institutions and agencies of government at every level must ensure that appropriate and adequate measures are undertaken to create employment for all Zimbabweans, especially women and youths. (Sec. 14)

(1) The State must promote full gender balance in Zimbabwean society, and in particular—
(a) the State must promote the full participation of women in all spheres of Zimbabwean society on the basis of equality with men;
(b) the State must take all measures, including legislative measures, needed to ensure that—
(i) both genders are equally represented in all institutions and agencies of government at every level; and
(ii) women constitute at least half the membership of all Commissions and other elective and appointed governmental bodies established by or under this Constitution or any Act of Parliament;
and
(c) the State and all institutions and agencies of government at every level must take practical measures to ensure that women have access to resources, including land, on the basis of equality with men.
(2) The State must take positive measures to rectify gender discrimination and imbalances resulting from past practices and policies. (Sec. 17)

(3) Every person has the right not to be treated in an unfairly discriminatory manner on such grounds as their nationality, race, colour, tribe, place of birth, ethnic or social origin, language, class, religious belief, political affiliation, opinion, custom, culture, sex, gender, marital status, age, pregnancy, disability or economic or social status, or whether they were born in or out of wedlock.

(6) The State must take reasonable legislative and other measures to promote the achievement of equality and to protect or advance people or classes of people who have been disadvantaged by unfair discrimination, and—
(a) such measures must be taken to redress circumstances of genuine need;
(b) no such measure is to be regarded as unfair for the purposes of subsection (3). (Sec. 56)

Appointments to the judiciary must reflect broadly the diversity and gender composition of Zimbabwe. (Sec. 184)

Equality and Non-Discrimination
+ +
Constitution of the Republic of Zimbabwe 1979, as amended to 2000

(1) Subject to the provisions of this section—
(a) no law shall make any provision that is discriminatory either of itself or in its effect; and
(b) no person shall be treated in a discriminatory manner by any person acting by virtue of any written law or in the performance of the functions of any public office or any public authority.
(2) For the purposes of subsection (1), a law shall be regarded as making a provision that is discriminatory and a person shall be regarded as having been treated in a discriminatory manner if, as a result of that law or treatment, persons of a particular description by race, tribe, place of origin, political opinions, colour, creed or gender are prejudiced—
(a) by being subjected to a condition, restriction or disability to which other persons of another such description are not made subject; or
(b) by the according to persons of another such description of a privilege or advantage which is not accorded to persons of the first-mentioned description;
and the imposition of that condition, restriction or disability or the according of that privilege or advantage is wholly or mainly attributable to the description by race, tribe, place of origin, political opinions, colour, creed or gender of the persons concerned.
... (Sec 23)

Constitution of the Republic of Zimbabwe 1979, as amended to 2009

(1) There is a common Zimbabwean citizenship and all citizens are equal, that is to say citizens are entitled, subject to this Constitution, to the rights, privileges and benefits of citizenship and are subject to the duties and obligations of citizenship. ... (Sec. 4)

(1) Subject to the provisions of this section—
(a) no law shall make any provision that is discriminatory either of itself or in its effect; and
(b) no person shall be treated in a discriminatory manner by any person acting by virtue of any written law or in the performance of the functions of any public office or any public authority.
(2) For the purposes of subsection (1), a law shall be regarded as making a provision that is discriminatory and a person shall be regarded as having been treated in a discriminatory manner if, as a result of that law or treatment, persons of a particular description by race, tribe, place of origin, political opinions, colour, creed or gender are prejudiced—
(a) by being subjected to a condition, restriction or disability to which other persons of another such description are not made subject; or
(b) by the according to persons of another such description of a privilege or advantage which is not accorded to persons of the first-mentioned description;
and the imposition of that condition, restriction or disability or the according of that privilege or advantage is wholly or mainly attributable to the description by race, tribe, place of origin, political opinions, colour, creed or gender of the persons concerned.
... (Sec 23)

... Acknowledging that we have an obligation to establish a framework of working together in an inclusive government;
...
Acknowledging the need for gender parity, particularly the need to appoint women to strategic Cabinet posts; (Eighth Schedule, Framework for a New Government, Sec. 1)

... Acknowledging that it is the fundamental right and duty of the Zimbabwean people to make a constitution by themselves and for themselves;
Aware that the process of making this constitution must be owned and driven by the people and must be inclusive and democratic;
...
Determined to create conditions for our people to write a constitution for themselves; and Mindful of the need to ensure that the new Constitution deepens our democratic values and principles and the protection of the equality of all citizens, particularly the enhancement of full citizenship and equality of women. (Tenth Schedule)

Constitution of the Republic of Zimbabwe 2013

… United in our diversity by our common desire for freedom, justice and equality, and our heroic resistance to colonialism, racism and all forms of domination and oppression, ...
Cherishing freedom, equality, peace, justice, tolerance, prosperity and patriotism in search of new frontiers under a common destiny, ...
Resolve by the tenets of this Constitution to commit ourselves to build a united, just and prosperous nation, founded on values of transparency, equality, freedom, fairness, honesty and the dignity of hard work, … (Preamble)

(1) Zimbabwe is founded on respect for the following values and principles—

(f) recognition of the equality of all human beings;
(g) gender equality;
… (Sec. 3)

(1) The State must promote full gender balance in Zimbabwean society, and in particular—
(a) the State must promote the full participation of women in all spheres of Zimbabwean society on the basis of equality with men;
(b) the State must take all measures, including legislative measures, needed to ensure that—
(i) both genders are equally represented in all institutions and agencies of government at every level; and
(ii) women constitute at least half the membership of all Commissions and other elective and appointed governmental bodies established by or under this Constitution or any Act of Parliament;
and
(c) the State and all institutions and agencies of government at every level must take practical measures to ensure that women have access to resources, including land, on the basis of equality with men.
(2) The State must take positive measures to rectify gender discrimination and imbalances resulting from past practices and policies. (Sec. 17)

(1) When interpreting this Chapter, a court, tribunal, forum or body—

(b) must promote the values and principles that underlie a democratic society based on openness, justice, human dignity, equality and freedom, and in particular, the values and principles set out in section 3;

in addition to considering all other relevant factors that are to be taken into account in the interpretation of a Constitution.
… (Sec. 46)

(1) All persons are equal before the law and have the right to equal protection and benefit of the law.
(2) Women and men have the right to equal treatment, including the right to equal opportunities in political, economic, cultural and social spheres.
(3) Every person has the right not to be treated in an unfairly discriminatory manner on such grounds as their nationality, race, colour, tribe, place of birth, ethnic or social origin, language, class, religious belief, political affiliation, opinion, custom, culture, sex, gender, marital status, age, pregnancy, disability or economic or social status, or whether they were born in or out of wedlock.
(4) A person is treated in a discriminatory manner for the purpose of subsection (3) if—
(a) they are subjected directly or indirectly to a condition, restriction or disability to which other people are not subjected; or
(b) other people are accorded directly or indirectly a privilege or advantage which they are not accorded.
(5) Discrimination on any of the grounds listed in subsection (3) is unfair unless it is established that the discrimination is fair, reasonable and justifiable in a democratic society based on openness, justice, human dignity, equality and freedom.
(6) The State must take reasonable legislative and other measures to promote the achievement of equality and to protect or advance people or classes of people who have been disadvantaged by unfair discrimination, and—
(a) such measures must be taken to redress circumstances of genuine need;
(b) no such measure is to be regarded as unfair for the purposes of subsection (3). (Sec. 56)

(1) Every woman has full and equal dignity of the person with men and this includes equal opportunities in political, economic and social activities.
… (Sec. 80)

Gender Equality Machineries
+
Constitution of the Republic of Zimbabwe 2013

The following are the independent Commissions—

(c) the Zimbabwe Gender Commission;
… (Sec. 232)

(1) There is a commission to be known as the Zimbabwe Gender Commission consisting of—
(a) a chairperson appointed by the President after consultation with the Committee on Standing Rules and Orders; and
(b) eight other members , of whom—
(i) seven are appointed by the President from a list of not fewer than twelve nominees submitted by the Committee on Standing Rules and Orders; and
(ii) one is a nominee of the National Council of Chiefs, appointed by the President.
(2) Members of the Zimbabwe Gender Commission must be chosen for their integrity and their knowledge and understanding of gender issues in social, cultural, economic and political spheres, and the genders must be equally represented on the Commission. (Sec. 245)

The Zimbabwe Gender Commission has the following functions—
(a) to monitor issues concerning gender equality to ensure gender equality as provided in this Constitution;
(b) to investigate possible violations of rights relating to gender;
(c) to receive and consider complaints from the public and to take such action in regard to the complaints as it considers appropriate;
(d) to conduct research into issues relating to gender and social justice, and to recommend changes to laws and practices which lead to discrimination based on gender;
(e) to advise public and private institutions on steps to be taken to ensure gender equality;
(f) to recommend affirmative action programmes to achieve gender equality;
(g) to recommend prosecution for criminal violations of rights relating to gender;
(h) to secure appropriate redress where rights relating to gender have been violated; and
(i) to do everything necessary to promote gender equality. (Sec. 246)

In addition to the report it is required to submit in terms of section 323, the Zimbabwe Gender Commission may, through the appropriate Minister, submit reports to Parliament on particular matters relating to gender issues which, in the Commission’s opinion, should be brought to the attention of Parliament. (Sec. 247)

Participation in Public Life and Institutions
+ + +
Constitution of the Republic of Zimbabwe 1979, as amended to 2005

(1) There shall be a commission to be known as the Zimbabwe Electoral Commission which shall consist of—
(a) a chairman who shall be a judge of the High Court or the Supreme Court or a person qualified to be appointed as a judge of the High Court or the Supreme Court appointed by the President after consultation with the Judicial Service Commission; and
(b) six other members, at least three of whom shall be women, appointed by the President from a list of nine nominees submitted by the Committee on Standing Rules and Orders.
... (Sec 61)

Constitution of the Republic of Zimbabwe 1979, as amended to 2009

(1) There is a Zimbabwe Electoral Commission consisting of—
(a) a chairperson appointed by the President after consultation with the Judicial Service Commission and the Committee on Standing Rules and Orders; and
(b) eight other members appointed by the President from a list of not fewer than twelve nominees submitted by the Committee on Standing Rules and Orders.
(2) The chairperson of the Zimbabwean Electoral Commission must be a judge or former judge of the Supreme Court or the High Court, or a person qualified for appointment as such a judge.
(3) At least four members of the Zimbabwean Electoral Commission, apart from the chairperson, must be women.
... (Sec. 100B)

(1) There is a commission to be known as the Zimbabwe Human Rights Commission which shall consist of—
(a) a chairman who has been qualified for at least five years to practise as a legal practitioner and who is appointed by the President after consultation with the Judicial Service Commission and the Committee on Standing Rules and Orders; and
(b) eight other members, at least four of whom shall be women, appointed by the President from a list of sixteen nominees submitted by the Committee on Standing Rules and Orders.
... (Sec. 100R)

... Acknowledging that it is the fundamental right and duty of the Zimbabwean people to make a constitution by themselves and for themselves;
Aware that the process of making this constitution must be owned and driven by the people and must be inclusive and democratic;
... (Tenth Schedule)

Constitution of the Republic of Zimbabwe 2013

(1) The State and all institutions and agencies of government at every level must endeavour to facilitate rapid and equitable development, and in particular must take measures to—
(a) promote private initiative and self-reliance;
(b) foster agricultural, commercial, industrial, technological and scientific development;
(c) foster the development of industrial and commercial enterprises in order to empower Zimbabwean citizens; and
(d) bring about balanced development of the different areas of Zimbabwe, in particular a proper balance in the development of rural and urban areas.
(2) Measures referred to in this section must involve the people in the formulation and implementation of development plans and programmes that affect them.
(3) Measures referred to in this section must protect and enhance the right of the people, particularly women, to equal opportunities in development.
… (Sec. 13)

(1) The State must promote full gender balance in Zimbabwean society, and in particular—
(a) the State must promote the full participation of women in all spheres of Zimbabwean society on the basis of equality with men;
(b) the State must take all measures, including legislative measures, needed to ensure that—
(i) both genders are equally represented in all institutions and agencies of government at every level; and
(ii) women constitute at least half the membership of all Commissions and other elective and appointed governmental bodies established by or under this Constitution or any Act of Parliament;
… (Sec. 17)

(2) Women and men have the right to equal treatment, including the right to equal opportunities in political, economic, cultural and social spheres.
… (Sec. 56)

(1) Every woman has full and equal dignity of the person with men and this includes equal opportunities in political, economic and social activities.
… (Sec. 80)

Appointments to the judiciary must reflect broadly the diversity and gender composition of Zimbabwe. (Sec. 184)

(1) Public administration in all tiers of government, including institutions and agencies of the State, and government-controlled entities and other public enterprises, must be governed by the democratic values and principles enshrined in this Constitution, including the following principles—

(j) public administration must be broadly representative of the diverse communities of Zimbabwe;
(k) employment, training and advancement practices must be based on merit, ability, objectivity, fairness, the equality of men and women and the inclusion of persons with disabilities;
and the State must take measures, including legislative measures, to promote these values and principles.
(2) Appointments to offices in all tiers of government, including government institutions and agencies and government-controlled entities and other public enterprises, must be made primarily on the basis of merit. (Sec. 194)

(1) Except as otherwise provided in this Constitution, every member of a Commission is appointed for a term of five years which is renewable for one additional term only.

(4) Where a Commission has a chairperson and a deputy chairperson, they must be of different genders.
… (Sec. 320)

Political Participation Quotas: National level
+
Constitution of the Republic of Zimbabwe 2013

(1) The State must promote full gender balance in Zimbabwean society, and in particular—

(b) the State must take all measures, including legislative measures, needed to ensure that—
(i) both genders are equally represented in all institutions and agencies of government at every level; and
(ii) women constitute at least half the membership of all Commissions and other elective and appointed governmental bodies established by or under this Constitution or any Act of Parliament;
… (Sec. 17)

(1) The Senate consists of eighty Senators, of whom—
(a) six are elected from each of the provinces into which Zimbabwe is divided, by a system of proportional representation conforming with subsection (2);
(b) sixteen are Chiefs, of whom two are elected by the provincial assembly of Chiefs from each of the provinces, other than the metropolitan provinces, into which Zimbabwe is divided;
(c) the President and Deputy President of the National Council of Chiefs;
and
(d) two are elected in the manner prescribed in the Electoral Law to represent persons with disabilities.
(2) Elections of Senators must be conducted in accordance with the Electoral Law, which must ensure that he Senators referred to in subsection (1)(a) are elected under a party-list system of proportional representation—
(a) which is based on the votes cast for candidates representing political parties in each of the provinces in the general election for Members of the National Assembly; and
(b) in which male and female candidates are listed alternately, every list being headed by a female candidate. (Sec. 120)

(1) The National Assembly consists of—
(a) two hundred and ten members elected by secret ballot from the two hundred and ten constituencies into which Zimbabwe is divided; and
(b) for the life of the first two Parliaments after the effective date, an additional sixty women members, six from each of the provinces into which Zimbabwe is divided, elected under a party-list system of proportional representation based on the votes cast for candidates representing political parties in a general election for constituency members in the provinces.
… (Sec. 124)

Political Participation Quotas: Subnational levels
+
Constitution of the Republic of Zimbabwe 2013

(1) The State must promote full gender balance in Zimbabwean society, and in particular—

(b) the State must take all measures, including legislative measures, needed to ensure that—
(i) both genders are equally represented in all institutions and agencies of government at every level; and
(ii) women constitute at least half the membership of all Commissions and other elective and appointed governmental bodies established by or under this Constitution or any Act of Parliament;
… (Sec. 17)

(1) There is a provincial council for each province, except the metropolitan provinces, consisting of—
(a) a chairperson of the council, elected in terms of section 272;
(b) the senators elected from the province concerned;
(c) the two Senator Chiefs elected from the province concerned in terms of section 120(1)(b);
(d) the president and deputy president of the National Council of Chiefs, where their areas fall within the province concerned;
(e) all the Members of the National Assembly whose constituencies fall within the province concerned;
(f) the women Members of the National Assembly who are elected in terms of section 124( 1 )(b) from the province concerned;
(g) the mayors and chairpersons, by whatever title they are called, of all urban and rural local authorities in the province concerned; and
(h) ten persons elected by a system of proportional representation referred to in subsection (3).
(2) A person is qualified to be elected to a provincial council in terms of subsection (1)(h) if he or she is qualified for election as a Member of the National Assembly.
(3) Elections to provincial councils must be conducted in accordance with the Electoral Law, which must ensure that the persons referred to in subsection (1)(h) are elected under a party-list system of proportional representation—
(a) which is based on the votes cast for candidates representing political parties in the province concerned in the general election for Members of the National Assembly; and
(b) in which male and female candidates are listed alternately, every list being headed by a female candidate.
… (Sec. 268)

(1) For each of the metropolitan provinces there is a metropolitan council consisting of—
(a) in the case of Bulawayo, the mayor of the City of Bulawayo, who is the chairperson of the Bulawayo Metropolitan Council;
(b) in the case of Harare—
(i) the mayor of the City of Harare, who is the chairperson of the Harare Metropolitan Council; and
(ii) the mayor or chairperson of the second-largest urban local authority within the province, who is the deputy chairperson of the Harare Metropolitan Council;
(c) all the Members of the National Assembly whose constituencies fall within the metropolitan province concerned;
(d) the women Members of the National Assembly who are elected in terms of section 124(1)(b) from the metropolitan province concerned;
(e) the Senators elected from the metropolitan province concerned; and
(f) the mayors and deputy mayors and the chairpersons and deputy chairpersons, by whatever title they are called, of all local authorities in the metropolitan province concerned.
… (Sec. 269)

(2) The Electoral Law must make provision, consistent with this Chapter, for the filling of vacancies in the seats of the members of provincial councils referred to in section 268(1)(f) and in the offices of chairpersons of provincial councils, which vacancies must be filled—
(a) by persons belonging to the same political parties as those who previously held the seats or offices; and
(b) except in the case of chairpersons, by a person of the same gender as the persons who previously held the seats. (Sec. 273)

Sexual and Reproductive Rights
+
Constitution of the Republic of Zimbabwe 2013

(3) An Act of Parliament must protect the lives of unborn children, and that Act must provide that pregnancy may be terminated only in accordance with that law. (Sec. 48)

Every person has the right to bodily and psychological integrity, which includes the right—

(b) subject to any other provision of this Constitution, to make decisions concerning reproduction;
… (Sec. 52)

(1) Every citizen and permanent resident of Zimbabwe has the right to have access to basic health-care services, including reproductive health-care services.
… (Sec. 76)

Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity
+
Constitution of the Republic of Zimbabwe 2013

(3) Persons of the same sex are prohibited from marrying each other. (Sec. 78)

Women’s Rights
+
Constitution of the Republic of Zimbabwe 2013

(1) Every woman has full and equal dignity of the person with men and this includes equal opportunities in political, economic and social activities.
(2) Women have the same rights as men regarding the custody and guardianship of children, but an Act of Parliament may regulate how those rights are to be exercised.
(3) All laws, customs, traditions and cultural practices that infringe the rights of women conferred by this Constitution are void to the extent of the infringement. (Sec. 80)