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The Global Gender Equality Constitutional Database is a repository of gender equality related provisions in 195 constitutions from around the world. Experience its wealth and depth of information by starting your search now.

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Jurisdiction and Access

Spain, English

(1) The following are entitled to:
a) Lodge an appeal of unconstitutionality: the President of the Government, the Defender of the People, fifty Members of Congress, fifty Senators, the Executive body of a Autonomous Community and, where applicable, its Assembly.
b) Lodge an individual appeal for protection (recurso de amparo): any individual or body corporate with a legitimate interest, as well as the Defender of the People and the Public Prosecutor's Office.
(2) In all other cases, the organic act shall determine which persons and bodies shall have right of appeal to the Court. (Sec. 162)

Spain, Spanish

1. Están legitimados:
a) Para interponer el recurso de inconstitucionalidad, el Presidente del Gobierno, el Defensor del Pueblo, 50 Diputados, 50 Senadores, los órganos colegiados ejecutivos de las Comunidades Autónomas y, en su caso, las Asambleas de las mismas.
b) Para interponer el recurso de amparo, toda persona natural o jurídica que invoque un interés legítimo, así como el Defensor del Pueblo y el Ministerio Fiscal.
2. En los demás casos, la ley orgánica determinará las personas y órganos legitimados. (Art. 162)

Jurisdiction and Access

Spain, English

(1) The Constitutional Court has jurisdiction over the whole Spanish territory and is entitled to hear:
a) Appeals against the alleged unconstitutionality of acts and statutes having the force of an act. ...
b) Individual appeals for protection (recursos de amparo) against violation of the rights and liberties contained in section 53(2) of the Constitution, in the circumstances and manner to be laid down by law.
c) Conflicts of jurisdiction between the State and the Autonomous Communities or between the Autonomous Communities themselves.
d) Other matters assigned to it by the Constitution or by organic acts.
(2) The Government may appeal to the Constitutional Court against provisions and resolutions adopted by the bodies of the Autonomous Communities, which shall bring about the suspension of the contested provisions or resolutions, but the Court must either ratify or lift the suspension, as the case may be, within a period of not more than five months. (Sec. 161)

Spain, Spanish

1. El Tribunal Constitucional tiene jurisdicción en todo el territorio español y es competente para conocer:
a) Del recurso de inconstitucionalidad contra leyes y disposiciones normativas con fuerza de ley. …
b) Del recurso de amparo por violación de los derechos y libertades referidos en el artículo 53.2, de esta Constitución, en los casos y formas que la ley establezca.
c) De los conflictos de competencia entre el Estado y las Comunidades Autónomas o de los de éstas entre sí.
d) De las demás materias que le atribuyan la Constitución o las leyes orgánicas.
2. El Gobierno podrá impugnar ante el Tribunal Constitucional las disposiciones y resoluciones adoptadas por los órganos de las Comunidades Autónomas. La impugnación producirá la suspensión de la disposición o resolución recurrida, pero el Tribunal, en su caso, deberá ratificarla o levantarla en un plazo no superior a cinco meses. (Art. 161)

Jurisdiction and Access

Spain, English

If a judicial body considers, when hearing a case, that a regulation having the force of an act which is applicable thereto and upon the validity of which the judgment depends, might be contrary to the Constitution, it may bring the matter before the Constitutional Court in the circumstances, manner and subject to the consequences to be laid down by law, which shall in no case have a suspensive effect. (Sec. 163)

Spain, Spanish

Cuando un órgano judicial considere, en algún proceso, que una norma con rango de ley, aplicable al caso, de cuya validez dependa el fallo, pueda ser contraria a la Constitución, planteará la cuestión ante el Tribunal Constitucional en los supuestos, en la forma y con los efectos que establezca la ley, que en ningún caso serán suspensivos. (Art. 163)

Jurisdiction and Access

Greece, English

1. A Special Highest Court shall be established, the jurisdiction of which shall comprise:
a) The trial of objections in accordance with article 58.
b) Verification of the validity and returns of a referendum held in accordance with article 44 paragraph 2.
c) Judgment in cases involving the incompatibility or the forfeiture of office by a Member of Parliament, in accordance with article 55 paragraph 2 and article 57.
d) Settlement of any conflict between the courts and the administrative authorities, or between the Supreme Administrative Court and the ordinary administrative courts on one hand and the civil and criminal courts on the other, or between the Court of Audit and any other court.
e) Settlement of controversies on whether the content of a statute enacted by Parliament is contrary to the Constitution, or on the interpretation of provisions of such statute when conflicting judgments have been pronounced by the Supreme Administrative Court, the Supreme Civil and Criminal Court or the Court of Audit.
f) The settlement of controversies related to the designation of rules of international law as generally acknowledged in accordance with article 28 paragraph 1.

5. When a section of the Supreme Administrative Court or chamber of the Supreme Civil and Criminal Court or of the Court of Audit judges a provision of a statute to be contrary to the Constitution, it is bound to refer the question to the respective plenum, unless this has been judged by a previous decision of the plenum or of the Special Highest Court of this article. The plenum shall be assembled into judicial formation and shall decide definitively, as specified by law. This regulation shall also apply accordingly to the elaboration of regulatory decrees by the Supreme Administrative Court. (Art. 100)

Greece, Greek

1. Συνιστάται Aνώτατο Eιδικό Δικαστήριο στο οποίο υπάγονται:
α) H εκδίκαση ενστάσεων κατά το άρθρο 58.
β) O έλεγχος του κύρους και των αποτελεσμάτων δημοψηφίσματος που ενεργείται κατά το άρθρο 44 παράγραφος 2.
γ) H κρίση για τα ασυμβίβαστα ή την έκπτωση βουλευτή, κατά τα άρθρα 55 παράγραφος 2 και 57.
δ) H άρση των συγκρούσεων μεταξύ των δικαστηρίων και των διοικητικών αρχών ή μεταξύ του Συμβουλίου της Eπικρατείας και των τακτικών διοικητικών δικαστηρίων αφενός και των αστικών και ποινικών δικαστηρίων αφετέρου ή, τέλος, μεταξύ του Eλεγκτικού Συνεδρίου και των λοιπών δικαστηρίων.
ε) H άρση της αμφισβήτησης για την ουσιαστική αντισυνταγματικότητα ή την έννοια διατάξεων τυπικού νόμου, αν εκδόθηκαν γι' αυτές αντίθετες αποφάσεις του Συμβουλίου της Eπικρατείας, του Aρείου Πάγου ή του Eλεγκτικού Συνεδρίου.
στ) H άρση της αμφισβήτησης για το χαρακτηρισμό κανόνων του διεθνούς δικαίου ως γενι- κά παραδεγμένων κατά την παράγραφο 1 του άρθρου 28.

5. Όταν τμήμα του Συμβουλίου της Επικρατείας ή του Αρείου Πάγου ή του Ελεγκτικού Συνεδρίου κρίνει διάταξη τυπικού νόμου αντισυνταγματική παραπέμπει υποχρεωτικά το ζήτημα στην οικεία ολομέλεια, εκτός αν αυτό έχει κριθεί με προηγούμενη απόφαση της ολομέλειας ή του Ανώτατου Ειδικού Δικαστηρίου του άρθρου αυτού. Η ολομέλεια συγκροτείται σε δικαστικό σχηματισμό και αποφαίνεται οριστικά, όπως νόμος ορίζει. Η ρύθμιση αυτή εφαρμόζεται αναλόγως και κατά την επεξεργασία των κανονιστικών διαταγμάτων από το Συμβούλιο της Επικρατείας. ('Αρθρο 100)

Jurisdiction and Access

Kyrgyzstan, English

1. The Constitutional Chamber of the Supreme Court shall be a body which shall perform constitutional oversight.

6. The Constitutional Chamber of the Supreme Court:
1) shall declare unconstitutional laws and other regulatory legal acts in the event that they con¬tradict the Constitution;
2) shall conclude on the constitutionality of international treaties not entered into force and to which the Kyrgyz Republic is a party;
3) shall conclude on the draft law on changes to the present Constitution.
7. Everyone shall have the right to challenge the constitutionality of a law or another regulatory legal act in case he/she believes that these acts violate rights and freedoms recognized in the Constitution.
… (Art. 97)

Kyrgyzstan, Kyrgyz

1. Жогорку соттун Конституциялык палатасы конституциялык контролдоону жүзөгө ашыруучу орган болуп саналат.

6. Жогорку соттун Конституциялык палатасы:
1) мыйзамдар жана башка ченемдик укуктук актылар Конституцияга карама-каршы келген учурда аларды Конституцияга ылайык эмес деп табат;
2) Кыргыз Республикасы катышуучу болуп саналган күчүнө кирбеген эл аралык келишимдердин конституциялуулугу тууралуу корутунду берет;
3) ушул Конституцияга өзгөртүүлөр тууралуу мыйзамдын долбооруна корутунду берет.
7. Конституция тарабынан таанылган укуктар жана эркиндиктер алар тарабынан бузулуп жатат деп эсептелсе ар бир адам мыйзамдын жана башка ченемдик укук актыларынын конституциялуулугун талашууга укуктуу.
… (97-берене)

Kyrgyzstan, Russian

1.Конституционная палата Верховного суда является органом, осуществляющим конституционный контроль.

6. Конституционная палата Верховного суда:
1) признает неконституционными законы и иные нормативные правовые акты в случае их противоречия Конституции;
2) дает заключение о конституционности не вступивших в силу международных договоров, участницей которых является Кыргызская Республика;
3) дает заключение к проекту закона об изменениях в настоящую Конституцию.
7. Каждый вправе оспорить конституционность закона и иного нормативного правового акта, если считает, что ими нарушаются права и свободы, признаваемые Конституцией.
… (Статья 97)

Jurisdiction and Access

Kyrgyzstan, English

1. A court shall not have the right to apply a legal and regulatory act which is in contradiction with the present Constitution.
2. In the event that during examination of a case in any judicial instance, there arises a question concerning the constitutionality of the law or other legal and regulatory act on which ruling of the case shall be based, the court shall send an inquiry to the constitutional Chamber of the Supreme Court. (Art. 101)

Kyrgyzstan, Kyrgyz

1. Сот ушул Конституцияга каршы келген ченемдик укуктук актыны колдонууга укуксуз.
2. Эгерде ар кандай сот инстанциясында ишти кароодо иштин чечилиши көз каранды болгон мыйзамдын же башка ченемдик укуктук актынын конституциялуулугу жөнүндө маселе келип чыкса, анда сот Жогорку соттун Конституциялык палатасына суроо-талапты жиберет. (101-берене)

Kyrgyzstan, Russian

1. Суд не вправе применять нормативный правовой акт, противоречащий настоящей Конституции.
2. Если при рассмотрении дела в любой судебной инстанции возник вопрос о конституционности закона или иного нормативного правового акта, от которого зависит решение дела, суд направляет запрос в Конституционную палату Верховного суда. (Статья 101)

Jurisdiction and Access

Korea, Democratic People’s Republic of, English

The Presidium of the Supreme People’s Assembly has the following duties and authority to:

4) interpret the Constitution as well as current laws and regulations;
… (Art. 116)

Korea, Democratic People’s Republic of, Korean

최고인민회의 상임위원회는 다음과 같은 임무와 권한을 가진다.

4. 헌법과 현행부문법, 규정을 해석한다.
… (제 116조)

Jurisdiction and Access

Romania, English

The Constitutional Court has the following powers:
a) it adjudicates on the constitutionality of laws before promulgation, upon referral by the President of Romania, the President of either of the Chambers, the Government, the High Court of Cassation and Justice, the Advocate of the People, at least 50 Deputies or at least 25 Senators, as well as ex officio, on any initiative purporting a revision of the Constitution;
b) it adjudicates on the constitutionality of treaties or other international agreements, upon referral by the President of either of the Chambers, at least 50 Deputies or at least 25 Senators;
c) it adjudicates on the constitutionality of the Standing Orders of Parliament upon referral by the President of either of the Chambers, a parliamentary group or at least 50 Deputies or at least 25 Senators;
d) it rules upon objections as to the unconstitutionality of laws and ordinances which are raised before the courts of law or commercial arbitration; a plea of unconstitutionality may also be brought up directly by the Advocate of the People;
e) it decides on legal disputes of a constitutional nature between public authorities, at the request of the President of Romania, the President of either of the Chambers, the Prime Minister, or the President of the Superior Council of Magistracy;
f) it sees to the observance of the procedure for the election of the President of Romania and confirms the ballot returns;
g) it ascertains any circumstance as may justify the interim in the exercise of office of President of Romania, and it reports its findings to Parliament and to Government;
h) it gives advisory opinion on the proposal to suspend the President of Romania from office;
i) it sees to the observance of the procedure for the organisation and holding of a referendum, and confirms its returns;
j) it verifies whether conditions are met for the citizens' exercise of their legislative initiative;
k) it rules upon challenges as to the unconstitutionality of a political party;
l) it also fulfils other prerogatives as provided by the Court's organic law. (Art. 146)

Romania, Romanian

Curtea Constituţională are următoarele atribuţii:
a) se pronunţă asupra constituţionalităţii legilor, înainte de promulgarea acestora, la sesizarea Preşedintelui României, a unuia dintre preşedinţii celor două Camere, a Guvernului, a Înaltei Curţi de Casaţie şi Justiţie, a Avocatului Poporului, a unui număr de cel puţin 50 de deputaţi sau de cel puţin 25 de senatori, precum şi, din oficiu, asupra iniţiativelor de revizuire a Constituţiei;
b) se pronunţă asupra constituţionalităţii tratatelor sau altor acorduri internaţionale, la sesizarea unuia dintre preşedinţii celor două Camere, a unui număr de cel puţin 50 de deputaţi sau de cel puţin 25 de senatori;
c) se pronunţă asupra constituţionalităţii regulamentelor Parlamentului, la sesizarea unuia dintre preşedinţii celor două Camere, a unui grup parlamentar sau a unui număr de cel puţin 50 de deputaţi sau de cel puţin 25 de senatori;
d) hotărăşte asupra excepţiilor de neconstituţionalitate privind legile şi ordonanţele, ridicate în faţa instanţelor judecătoreşti sau de arbitraj comercial; excepţia de neconstituţionalitate poate fi ridicată şi direct de Avocatul Poporului;
e) soluţionează conflictele juridice de natură constituţională dintre autorităţile publice, la cererea Preşedintelui României, a unuia dintre preşedinţii celor două Camere, a primului-ministru sau a preşedintelui Consiliului Superior al Magistraturii;
f) veghează la respectarea procedurii pentru alegerea Preşedintelui României şi confirmă rezultatele sufragiului;
g) constată existenţa împrejurărilor care justifică interimatul în exercitarea funcţiei de Preşedinte al României şi comunică cele constatate Parlamentului şi Guvernului;
h) dă aviz consultativ pentru propunerea de suspendare din funcţie a Preşedintelui României;
i) veghează la respectarea procedurii pentru organizarea şi desfăşurarea referendumului şi confirmă rezultatele acestuia;
j) verifică îndeplinirea condiţiilor pentru exercitarea iniţiativei legislative de către cetăţeni;
k) hotărăşte asupra contestaţiilor care au ca obiect constituţionalitatea unui partid politic;
l) îndeplineşte şi alte atribuţii prevăzute de legea organică a Curţii. (Art. 146)

Jurisdiction and Access

Romania, English

(1) The Constitutional Court shall be the guarantor for the supremacy of the Constitution.
… (Art. 142)

Romania, Romanian

(1) Curtea Constituţională este garantul supremaţiei Constituţiei.
… (Art. 142)

Jurisdiction and Access

Montenegro, English

… Constitutionality and legality shall be protected by the Constitutional Court. … (Art. 11)

Montenegro, Montenegrin

… Ustavnost i zakonitost štiti Ustavni sud. … (Član 11)