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The Global Gender Equality Constitutional Database is a repository of gender equality related provisions in 195 constitutions from around the world. Experience its wealth and depth of information by starting your search now.

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About 352 results

Judicial Protection

Estonia, English

Everyone whose rights and freedoms have been violated has the right of recourse to the courts. Everyone is entitled to petition the court that hears his or her case to declare unconstitutional any law, other legislative instrument or measure which is relevant in the case.
The courts observe the Constitution and declare unconstitutional any law, other legislative instrument or measure which violates any rights or freedoms provided in the Constitution or which otherwise contravenes the Constitution. (Sec. 15)

Estonia, Estonian

Igaühel on õigus pöörduda oma õiguste ja vabaduste rikkumise korral kohtusse. Igaüks võib oma kohtuasja läbivaatamisel nõuda mis tahes asjassepuutuva seaduse, muu õigusakti või toimingu põhiseadusevastaseks tunnistamist.
Kohus järgib põhiseadust ja tunnistab põhiseadusevastaseks mis tahes seaduse, muu õigusakti või toimingu, mis rikub põhiseaduses sätestatud õigusi ja vabadusi või on muul viisil põhiseadusega vastuolus. (§ 15)

Judicial Protection

Estonia, English

It is the duty of the legislature, the executive, the judiciary, and of local authorities, to guarantee the rights and freedoms provided in the Constitution. (Sec. 14)

Estonia, Estonian

Õiguste ja vabaduste tagamine on seadusandliku, täidesaatva ja kohtuvõimu ning kohalike omavalitsuste kohustus. (§ 14)

Judicial Protection

Mozambique, English

Every citizen shall have the right of recourse to the courts against acts that violate their rights and interests recognised by the Constitution and the laws. (Art. 70)

Mozambique, Portuguese

O cidadão tem o direito de recorrer aos tribunais contra os actos que violem os seus direitos e interesses reconhecidos pela Constituição e pela lei. (Art. 70)

Judicial Protection

Mozambique, English

1. It shall be the function of the courts to guarantee and strengthen the rule of law as an instrument of legal stability, to guarantee respect for the laws, to safeguard the rights and freedoms of citizens, as well as the vested interests of other bodies and entities that have legal existence.
… (Art. 212)

Mozambique, Portuguese

1. Os tribunais têm como objectivo garantir e reforçar a legalidade como factor da estabilidade jurídica, garantir o respeito pelas leis, assegurar os direitos e liberdades dos cidadãos, assim como os interesses jurídicos dos diferentes órgãos e entidades com existência legal.
... (Art. 212)

Judicial Protection

Sao Tome and Principe, English

2. In the administration of justice, it shall be incumbent upon the courts to assure the defense of the legally protected rights and interests of citizens, to settle disputes of public and private interest and to curtail the violations of laws.
… (Art. 120)

Sao Tome and Principe, Portuguese

2. Na administração da justiça incumbe aos Tribunais assegurar a defesa dos direitos e interesses legalmente protegidos dos cidadãos, dirimir os conflitos de interesse públicos e privados e reprimir a violação das leis.
… (Art. 120)

Judicial Protection

Sao Tome and Principe, English

Every citizen shall have the right to resort to the courts against acts that violate their rights recognized by the Constitution and by the law, and justice may not be denied because of an insufficiency of economic means. (Art. 20)

Sao Tome and Principe, Portuguese

Todo o cidadão tem direito de recorrer aos tribunais contra os actos que violem os seus direitos reconhecidos pela Constituição e pela lei, não podendo a justiça ser denegada por insuficiência de meios económicos. (Art. 20)

Judicial Protection

Guinea-Bissau, English

Every citizen shall have the right to appeal to jurisdictional organs against acts that violate their rights recognized by the Constitution and the law; justice may not be denied for reasons of insufficient economic means. (Art. 32)

Guinea-Bissau, Portuguese

Todo o cidadão tem o direito de recorrer aos órgãos jurisdicionais contra os actos que violem os seus direitos reconhecidos pela Constituição e pela lei, não podendo a justiça ser denegada por insuficiência de meios económicos. (Art. 32)

Judicial Protection

Lesotho, English

(1) In addition to the right of appeal accorded by section 47 of this Constitution, an appeal shall lie as of right to the Court of Appeal from decisions of the High Court in the following cases, that is to say:
...
(b) final decisions of the High Court in the determination of any question in respect of which a right of access to the High Court is guaranteed by section 17 of this Constitution and final decisions of the High Court under section 22 of this Constitution.
… (Sec. 129)

Judicial Protection

Lesotho, English

(1) If any person alleges that any of the provisions of sections 4 to 21 (inclusive)4 of this Constitution has been, is being or is likely to be contravened in relation to him (or, in the case of a person who is detained, if any other person alleges such a contravention in relation to the detained person), then, without prejudice to any other action with respect to the same matter which is lawfully available, that person (or that other person) may apply to the High Court for redress.
(2) The High Court shall have original jurisdiction—
(a) to hear and determine any application made by any person in pursuance of subsection (1); and
(b) to determine any question arising in the case of any person which is referred to it in pursuance of subsection (3), and may make such orders, issue such process and give such directions as it may consider appropriate for the purpose of enforcing or securing the enforcement of any of the provisions of sections 4 to 21 (inclusive) of this Constitution:
Provided that the High Court may decline to exercise its powers under this subsection if it is satisfied that adequate means of redress for the contravention alleged are or have been available to the person concerned under any other law.
(3) If in any proceedings in any subordinate court any question arises as to the contravention of any of the provisions of sections 4 to 21 (inclusive) of this Constitution, the person presiding in that court may, and shall if any party to the proceedings so requests, refer the question to the High Court unless, in his opinion, the raising of the question is merely frivolous or vexatious.
… (Sec. 22)

Judicial Protection

Tanzania, United Republic of, English

(3) Any person claiming that any provision in this Part of this Chapter or in any law concerning his right or duty owed to him has been, is being or is likely to be violated by any person anywhere in the United Republic, may institute proceedings for redress in the High Court.
(4) Subject to the other provisions of this Constitution, the High Court shall have original jurisdiction to hear and determine any matter brought before it pursuant to this Article; and the state authority may enact legislation for the purposes of -
(a) regulating procedure for instituting proceedings pursuant to this Article;
(b) specifying the powers of the High Court in relation to the hearing of proceedings instituted pursuant to this Article; and
(c) ensuring the effective exercise of the powers of the High Court, the preservation and enforcement of the rights, freedoms and duties in accordance with this Constitution.
(5) Where in any proceedings it is alleged that any law enacted or any action taken by the Government or any other authority abrogates or abridges any of the basic rights, freedoms and duties set out in Articles 12 to 29 of this Constitution, and the High Court is satisfied that the law or action concerned, to the extent that it conflicts with this Constitution, is void, or is inconsistent with this Constitution, then the High Court, if it deems fit, or if the circumstances or public interest so requires, instead of declaring that such law or action is void, shall have power to decide to afford the Government or other authority concerned an opportunity to rectify the defect found in the law or action concerned within such a period and in such manner as the High Court shall determine, and such law or action shall be deemed to be valid until such time the defect is rectified or the period determined by the High Court lapses, whichever is the earlier. (Art. 30)