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The Global Gender Equality Constitutional Database is a repository of gender equality related provisions in 195 constitutions from around the world. Experience its wealth and depth of information by starting your search now.

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About 282 results

Customary Law

Kyrgyzstan, English

The citizens of the Kyrgyz Republic shall have the right to establish the courts of aksakaly [elders]. The competences, the procedures of establishment and the activity of the courts of aksakaly [elders] shall be defined by the law. (Art. 59)

Kyrgyzstan, Kyrgyz

Кыргыз Республикасында жарандар аксакалдар сотторун уюштурууга укуктуу. Аксакалдар сотторун уюштуруу тартиби, алардын ыйгарым укуктары жана иштеши мыйзам менен аныкталат.
(59-берене)

Kyrgyzstan, Russian

В Кыргызской Республике граждане вправе учреждать суды аксакалов. Порядок учреждения судов аксакалов, их полномочия и деятельность определяются законом. (Статья 59)

Customary Law

Kyrgyzstan, English

1. In the Kyrgyz Republic, folk customs and traditions which do not infringe upon human rights and freedoms shall be supported by the State.
… (Art. 37)

Kyrgyzstan, Kyrgyz

1. Кыргыз Республикасында адамдын укугу менен эркиндигин кемсинтпеген элдик үрп-адаттар, каада-салттар мамлекет тарабынан колдоого алынат.
… (37-берене)

Kyrgyzstan, Russian

1. В Кыргызской Республике народные обычаи и традиции, не ущемляющие права и свободы человека, поддерживаются государством.
… (Статья 37)

Customary Law

Armenia, Armenian

Յուրաքանչյուր ոք ունի իր ազգային եւ էթնիկական ինքնությունը պահպանելու իրավունք:
Ազգային փոքրամասնություններին պատկանող անձինք ունեն իրենց ավանդույթների, կրոնի, լեզվի եւ մշակույթի պահպանման ու զարգացման իրավունք: (Հոդված 41)

Armenia, English

Everyone shall have the right to preserve his or her national and ethnic identity.
Persons belonging to national minorities shall have the right to preservation and development of their traditions, religion, language and culture. (Art. 41)

Customary Law

Iraq, Arabic

اولاً :ـ تحرص الدولة على تعزيز دور مؤسسات المجتمع المدني، ودعمها وتطويرها واستقلاليتها، بما ينسجم مع الوسائل السلمية لتحقيق الأهداف المشروعة لها، وينظم ذلك بقانون.
ثانياً :ـ تحرص الدولة على النهوض بالقبائل والعشائر العراقية، وتهتم بشؤونها بما ينسجم مع الدين والقانون، وتعزز قيمها الإنسانية النبيلة، بما يساهم في تطوير المجتمع، وتمنع الاعراف العشائرية التي تتنافى مع حقوق الانسان. (المادة 45)

Iraq, English

Second: The State shall seek the advancement of the Iraqi clans and tribes, shall attend to their affairs in a manner that is consistent with religion and the law, and shall uphold their noble human values in a way that contributes to the development of society. The State shall prohibit the tribal traditions that are in contradiction with human rights. (Art. 45)

Customary Law

Cyprus, English

1. The Communal Chambers shall, in relation to their respective Community, have competence to exercise within the limits of this Constitution and subject to paragraph 3 of this Article, legislative power solely with regard to the following matters:—
a. all religious matters;
b. all educational, cultural and teaching matters;
c. personal status;
d. The composition and instances (βαθμούς δικαιοδοσίας - dereceleri) of courts dealing with civil disputes relating to personal status and to religious matters;
… (Art. 87)

Cyprus, Greek

Εκατέρα Κοινοτική Συνέλευσις έχει αρμοδιότητα, εν σχέσει προς την αντίστοιχον κοινότητα, να ασκεί, ενός των ορίων του Συντάγματος και υπό τους περιορισμούς της τρίτης παραγράφου του παρόντος άρθρου, νομοθετικήν εξουσίαν αποκλειστικώς και μόνον επί των κατωτέρω θεμάτων:
(α) επί πάντων των θρησκευτικών θεμάτων,
(β) επί πάντων των εκπαιδευτικών, μορφωτικών και διδακτικών θεμάτων,
(γ) επί του προσωπικού θεσμού,
(δ) επί της συνθέσεως και των βαθμών δικαιοδοσίας των δικαστηρίων, των εκδικαζόντων αστικάς διαφοράς, αναφερομένας εις τον προσωπικόν θεσμόν και εις θρησκευτικά ζητήματα,
... (ΑΡΘΡΟΝ 87)

Customary Law

Cyprus, English

1. A communal law made by the Communal Chamber concerned shall, subject to the provisions of this Constitution, provide for the establishment, composition and jurisdiction of courts to deal with civil disputes relating to personal status and to religious matters which are reserved for the competence of the Communal Chambers by the provisions of this Constitution.

3. Any such court as aforesaid in the exercise of its jurisdiction, shall apply the laws made by the Communal Chamber concerned: Provided that nothing in this paragraph contained shall preclude a court of the Republic from applying in a case, where an issue relating to personal status or to religious matters is raised incidentally, the relevant communal law. (Art. 160)

Cyprus, Greek

1. Tηρουμένων των διατάξεων του Συντάγματος, κοινοτικός νόμος, ψηφιζόμενος υπό Kοινοτικής Συνελεύσεως, θέλει προβλέψει περί της ιδρύσεως, της συνθέσεως και της δικαιοδοσίας δικαστηρίων, άτινα θα δικάζωσι τας αστικάς διαφοράς, τας αφορώσας εις τον προσωπικόν θεσμόν και εις θρησκευτικά ζητήματα, τα οποία υπάγονται κατά τας διατάξεις του Συντάγματος εις την αρμοδιότητα των Kοινοτικών Συνελεύσεων.

3. Eν τη ενασκήσει της δικαιοδοσίας αυτών τα ανωτέρω δικαστήρια εφαρμόζουσι τούς υπέρ της οικείας Kοινοτικής Συνελεύσεως ψηφιζομένους νόμους’ αι διατάξεις όμως της παραγράφου ταύτης δεν αποκλείουσι το δικαίωμα δικαστηρίου της Δημοκρατίας να εφαρμόση τον σχετικόν κοινοτικόν νόμον επί υποθέσεως, καθ’ ην παρεμπιπτόντως εγείρεται ζήτημα προσωπικού θεσμού ή θρησκευτικόν ζήτημα. (APΘPON 160)

Customary Law

Cyprus, English

Subject to paragraph 3 of Article 160 the courts of the Republic shall have power to apply also the relevant communal laws other than those relating to personal status and to religious matters. (Art. 161)

Cyprus, Greek

Tηρουμένων των διατάξεων της τρίτης παραγράφου του άρθρου 160 τα δικαστήρια της Δημοκρατίας έχουσιν εξουσίαν να εφαρμόζωσι και τους οικείους κοινοτικούς νόμους πλην των περί προσωπικού θεσμού και των θρησκευτικών θεμάτων νόμων. (APΘPON 161)

Customary Law

Singapore, English

(1) In this Constitution, unless it is otherwise provided or the context otherwise requires —

“law” includes written law and any legislation of the United Kingdom or other enactment or instrument whatsoever which is in operation in Singapore and the common law in so far as it is in operation in Singapore and any custom or usage having the force of law in Singapore;
… (Art. 2)

Customary Law

China, Chinese

... 各民族都有使用和发展自己的语言文字的自由,都有保持或者改革自己的风俗习惯的自由(第四条)

China, English

… All nationalities have the freedom to use and develop their own spoken and written languages and to preserve or reform their own folkways and customs. (Art. 4)

Customary Law

Malaysia, English

(1) Parliament may make laws with respect to any matter enumerated in the State List, but only as follows, that is to say:
(a) for the purpose of implementing any treaty, agreement or convention between the Federation and any other country, or any decision of an international organization of which the Federation is a member;
(b) for the purpose of promoting uniformity of the laws of two or more States; or
(c) if so requested by the Legislative Assembly of any State.
(2) No law shall be made in pursuance of paragraph (a) of Clause (1) with respect to any matters of Islamic law or the custom of the Malays or to any matters of native law or custom in the States of Sabah and Sarawak and no Bill for a law under that paragraph shall be introduced into either House of Parliament until the Government of any State concerned has been consulted.
… (Art. 76)

Malaysia, Malay

(1) Parlimen boleh membuat undang-undang mengenai apaapa perkara yang disebut satu persatu dalam Senarai Negeri, tetapi hanya seperti yang berikut sahaja, iaitu:
(a) bagi maksud melaksanakan apa-apa triti, perjanjian atau konvensyen antara Persekutuan dengan mana-mana negara lain, atau apa-apa keputusan sesuatu organisasi antarabangsa yang dianggotai oleh Persekutuan; atau
(b) bagi maksud menggalakkan keseragaman undangundang antara dua Negeri atau lebih; atau
(c) jika diminta sedemikian oleh Dewan Undangan manamana Negeri.
(2) Tiada undang-undang boleh dibuat menurut perenggan (a) Fasal (1) mengenai apa-apa perkara mengenai hukum Syarak atau adat orang Melayu atau mengenai apa-apa perkara tentang undang-undang atau adat anak negeri di Negeri Sabah dan Sarawak dan tiada Rang Undang-Undang bagi suatu undangundang di bawah perenggan itu boleh dibawa di dalam manamana satu Majlis Parlimen sehingga Kerajaan mana-mana Negeri yang berkenaan telah dirundingi.
… (Perkara 76)