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The Global Gender Equality Constitutional Database is a repository of gender equality related provisions in 194 constitutions from around the world. The Database was updated in partnership with the International Bar Association's Human Rights Institute (IBAHRI) and with support from the Swedish International Development Agency (SIDA) and the Government of Japan. Experience its wealth and depth of information by starting your search now.

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About 372 results

Judicial Protection

Congo, Democratic Republic of the, English

The judicial power is the guarantor of the individual freedoms and of the fundamental rights of the citizens.
… (Art. 150)

Congo, Democratic Republic of the, French

Le pouvoir judiciaire est le garant des libertés individuelles et des droits fondamentaux des citoyens.
… (Art. 150)

Judicial Protection

Eritrea, English


2. Any aggrieved person who claims that a fundamental right or freedom guaranteed by this Constitution has been denied or violated shall be entitled to petition a competent court for redress. Where it ascertains that such fundamental right or freedom has been denied or violated, the court shall have the power to make all such orders as shall be necessary to secure for such petitioner the enjoyment of such fundamental right or freedom, and where such applicant suffers damage, to include an award of monetary compensation. (Art. 28)

Judicial Protection

South Africa, English

...
(2) A provision of the Bill of Rights binds a natural or a juristic person if, and to the extent that, it is applicable, taking into account the nature of the right and the nature of any duty imposed by the right.
(3) When applying a provision of the Bill of Rights to a natural or juristic person in terms of subsection (2), a court-
(a) in order to give effect to a right in the Bill, must apply, or if necessary develop, the common law to the extent that legislation does not give effect to that right; and
(b) may develop rules of the common law to limit the right, provided that the limitation is in accordance with section 36 (1).
… (Sec. 8)

Judicial Protection

South Africa, English

Anyone listed in this section has the right to approach a competent court, alleging that a right in the Bill of Rights has been infringed or threatened, and the court may grant appropriate relief, including a declaration of rights. The persons who may approach a court are—
(a) anyone acting in their own interest;
(b) anyone acting on behalf of another person who cannot act in their own name;
(c) anyone acting as a member of, or in the interest of, a group or class of persons;
(d) anyone acting in the public interest; and
(e) an association acting in the interest of its members. (Sec. 38)

Judicial Protection

South Africa, English

(1) When interpreting the Bill of Rights, a court, tribunal or forum –
(a) must promote the values that underlie an open and democratic society based on human dignity, equality and freedom;
(b) must consider international law; and
(c) may consider foreign law.
(2) When interpreting any legislation, and when developing the common law or customary law, every court, tribunal or forum must promote the spirit, purport and objects of the Bill of Rights.
(3) The Bill of Rights does not deny the existence of any other rights or freedoms that are recognised or conferred by common law, customary law or legislation, to the extent that they are consistent with the Bill. (Sec. 39)

Judicial Protection

Malawi, English

1. Appropriate principles of interpretation of this Constitution shall be developed and employed by the courts to reflect the unique character and supreme status of this Constitution.
2. In interpreting the provisions of this Constitution a court of law shall—
a. promote the values which underlie an open and democratic society;
b. take full account of the provisions of Chapter III and Chapter IV5; and
c. where applicable, have regard to current norms of public international law and comparable foreign case law.
3. Where a court of law declares an act of executive or a law to be invalid, that court may apply such interpretation of that act or law as is consistent with this Constitution.
4. Any law that ousts or purports to oust the jurisdiction of the courts to entertain matters pertaining to this Constitution shall be invalid. (Sec. 11)

Judicial Protection

Malawi, English

1. The human rights and freedoms enshrined in this Chapter6 shall be respected and upheld by the executive, legislature, judiciary and all organs of the Government and its agencies and, where applicable to them, by all natural and legal persons in Malawi and shall be enforceable in the manner prescribed in this Chapter.
2. Any person or group of persons, natural or legal, with sufficient interest in the promotion, protection and enforcement of rights under this Chapter shall be entitled to the assistance of the courts, the Ombudsman, the Human Rights Commission and other organs of the Government to ensure the promotion, protection and enforcement of those rights and the redress of any grievances in respect of those rights. (Sec. 15)

Judicial Protection

Malawi, English


3. Every person shall have the right to an effective remedy by a court of law or tribunal for acts violating the rights and freedoms granted to him or her by this Constitution or any other law. (Sec. 41)

Judicial Protection

Malawi, English

...
2. Any person who claims that a right or freedom guaranteed by this Constitution has been infringed or threatened shall be entitled—
a. to make application to a competent court to enforce or protect such a right or freedom;

3. Where a court referred to in subsection (2)(a) finds that rights or freedoms conferred by this Constitution have been unlawfully denied or violated, it shall have the power to make any orders that are necessary and appropriate to secure the enjoyment of those rights and freedoms and where a court finds that a threat exists to such rights or freedoms, it shall have the power to make any orders necessary and appropriate to prevent those rights and freedoms from being unlawfully denied or violated.
4. A court referred to in subsection (2)(a) shall have the power to award compensation to any person whose rights or freedoms have been unlawfully denied or violated where it considers it to be appropriate in the circumstances of a particular case.
... (Sec. 46)

Judicial Protection

Sudan, Arabic

1.المحكمة الدستورية محكمه مستقلة ومنفصلة عن السلطة القضائيه، تختص برقابة دستورية القوانين والتدابير و حماية الحقوق والحريات والفصل في النزاعات الدستورية (الماده 31)

Sudan, English

(1) The Constitutional Court is an independent court, separate from the judicial authority. It is competent to oversee the constitutionality of laws and measures, protect rights and freedoms, and adjudicate constitutional disputes.
… (Art. 30)