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The Global Gender Equality Constitutional Database is a repository of gender equality related provisions in 194 constitutions from around the world. The Database was updated in partnership with the International Bar Association's Human Rights Institute (IBAHRI) and with support from the Swedish International Development Agency (SIDA) and the Government of Japan. Experience its wealth and depth of information by starting your search now.

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Women’s Rights

Ethiopia, Amharic

1. ሴቶች ይህ ሕገ መንግሥት በአረጋገጣቸው መብቶችና ጥበቃዎች በመጠቀም ረገድ ከወንዶች ጋር እኩል መብት አላቸው፡፡
2. ሴቶች በዚህ ሕገ መንግሥት በተደነገገው መሰረት በጋብቻ ከወንዶች ጋር እኩል መብት አላቸው፡፡
3. ሴቶች በበታችነትና በልዩነት በመታየታቸው የደረሰባቸውን የታሪክ ቅርስ ከግምት ውስጥ በማስገባት ይህ ቅርስ እንዲታረምላቸው በተጨማሪ የድጋፍ እርምጃዎች ተጠቃሚ የመሆን መብት አላቸው፡፡ በዚህ በኩል የሚወሰዱት እርምጃዎች ዓላማ በፖለቲካዊ፣ በማኅበራዊና በኢኮኖሚያዊ መስኮች እንዲሁም በመንግሥት እና በግል ተቋሞች ውስጥ ሴቶች ከወንዶች ጋር በእኩልነት ተወዳዳሪና ተሳታፊ እንዲሆኑ ለማድረግ እንዲቻል ልዩ ትኩረት ለመስጠት ነው፡፡
4. ሴቶች ከጐጂ ባሕል ተጽዕኖ የመላቀቅ መብታቸውን መንግሥት ማስከበር አለበት፡፡ ሴቶችን የሚጨቁኑ ወይም በአካላቸው ወይም በአዕምሮአቸው ላይ ጉዳት የሚያስከትሉ ሕጐች፣ ወጐችና ልማዶች የተከለከሉ ናቸው፡፡
5. ሀ/ ሴቶች የወሊድ ፈቃድ ከሙሉ የደመወዝ ክፍያ ጋር የማግኘት መብት አላቸው፡፡ የወሊድ ፈቃድ ርዝመት ሴቷ የምትሠራውን ሥራ ሁኔታ፣የሴቷን ጤንነት፣ የሕጻኑንና የቤተሰቡን ደህንነት ከግምት ውስጥ በማስገባት በሕግ ይወሰናል፡፡
ለ/ የወሊድ ፈቃድ በሕግ በሚወሰነው መሰረት ከሙሉ የደመወዝ ክፍያ ጋር የሚሰጥ የእርግዝና ፈቃድን ሊጨምር ይችላል፡፡
6. ሴቶች በብሔራዊ የልማት ፖሊሲዎች ዕቅድና በኘሮጀክቶች ዝግጅትና አፈጻጸም፣በተለይ የሴቶችን ጥቅም በሚነኩ ኘሮጀክቶች ሐሳባቸውን በተሟላ ሁኔታ እንዲሰጡ የመጠየቅ መብት አላቸው፡፡
7. ሴቶች ንብረት የማፍራት፣ የማስተዳደር፣ የመቆጣጠር፣ የመጠቀምና የማስተላለፍ መብት አላቸው፡፡ በተለይም መሬትን በመጠቀም፣ በማስተላለፍ፣ በማስተዳደርና በመቆጣጠር ረገድ ከወንዶች ጋር እኩል መብት አላቸው፡፡ እንዲሁም ውርስን በሚመለከት በእኩልነት የመታየት መብት አላቸው፡፡
8. ሴቶች የቅጥር፣ የሥራ እድገት፣ የእኩል ክፍያና ጡረታን የማስተላለፍ እኩል መብት አላቸው፡፡
9. ሴቶች በእርግዝናና በወሊድ ምክንያት የሚደርስባቸውን ጉዳት ለመከላከልና ጤንነታቸውን ለማስጠበቅ የሚያስችል የቤተሰብ ምጣኔ ትምህርት፣ መረጃ እና አቅም የማግኘት መብት አላቸው፡፡ (አንቀጽ 35)

Ethiopia, English

1. Women shall, in the enjoyment of rights and protections provided for by this Constitution, have equal right with men.
2. Women have equal rights with men in marriage as prescribed by this Constitution.
3. The historical legacy of inequality and discrimination suffered by women in Ethiopia taken into account, women, in order to remedy this legacy, are entitled to affirmative measures. The purpose of such measures shall be to provide special attention to women so as to enable them to compete and participate on the basis of equality with men in political, social and economic life as well as in public and private institutions.
4. The State shall enforce the right of women to eliminate the influences of harmful customs. Laws, customs and practices that oppress or cause bodily or mental harm to women are prohibited.
5. a. Women have the right to maternity leave with full pay. The duration of maternity leave shall be determined by law taking into account the nature of the work, the health of the mother and the well-being of the child and family.
b. Maternity leave may, in accordance with the provisions of law, include prenatal leave with full pay.
6. Women have the right to full consultation in the formulation of national development policies, the designing and execution of projects, and particularly in the case of projects affecting the interests of women.
7. Women have the right to acquire, administer, control, use and transfer property. In particular, they have equal rights with men with respect to use, transfer, administration and control of land. They shall also enjoy equal treatment in the inheritance of property.
8. Women shall have a right to equality in employment, promotion, pay, and the transfer of pension entitlements.
9. To prevent harm arising from pregnancy and childbirth and in order to safeguard their health, women have the right of access to family planning education, information and capacity. (Art. 35)

Women’s Rights

Uganda, English

The State shall recognise the significant role that women play in society. (National Objectives and Directive Principles of State Policy, XV)

Women’s Rights

Uganda, English

1. Women shall be accorded full and equal dignity of the person with men.
2. The State shall provide the facilities and opportunities necessary to enhance the welfare of women to enable them to realise their full potential and advancement.
3. The State shall protect women and their rights, taking into account their unique status and natural maternal functions in society.
4. Women shall have the right to equal treatment with men and that right shall include equal opportunities in political, economic and social activities.
5. Without prejudice to article 32 of this Constitution, women shall have the right to affirmative action for the purpose of redressing the imbalances created by history, tradition or custom. (Art. 33)

Women’s Rights

Egypt, Arabic

تكفل الدّولة تحقيق المساواة بين المرأة والرّجل فى جميع الحقوق المدنيّة والسياسيّة والاقتصاديّة والاجتماعية والثقافيّة وفقا لأحكام الدستور.
وتعمل الدولة على اتخاذ التدابير الكفيلة بضمان تمثيل المرأة تمثيلاً مناسبا فى المجالس النيابية، على النحو الذي يحدده القانون،كما تكفل للمرأة حقها فى تولى الوظائف العامة ووظائف الإدارة العليا فى الدولة والتعيين فى الجهات والهيئات القضائية، دون تمييز ضدها.
وتلتزم الدولة بحماية المرأة ضد كل أشكال العنف، وتكفل تمكين المرأة من التوفيق بين واجبات الأسرة ومتطلبات العمل.
كما تلتزم بتوفير الرعاية والحماية للأمومة والطفولة والمرأة المعيلة والمسنة والنساء الأشد احتياجا. (المادّة 11)

Egypt, English

The State shall ensure the achievement of equality between women and men in all civil, political, economic, social, and cultural rights in accordance with the provisions of this Constitution.
The State shall take the necessary measures to ensure the appropriate representation of women in the houses of representatives, as specified by Law. The State shall also guarantee women’s right of holding public and senior management offices in the State and their appointment in judicial bodies and authorities without discrimination.
The State shall protect women against all forms of violence and ensure enabling women to strike a balance between family duties and work requirements.
The State shall provide care to and protection of motherhood and childhood, female heads of families, and elderly and neediest women. (Art. 11)

Women’s Rights

South Sudan, English

1. Women shall be accorded full and equal dignity of the person with men.
2. Women shall have the right to equal pay for equal work and other related benefits with men.
3. Women shall have the right to participate equally with men in public life.
4. All levels of government shall:
a. promote women participation in public life and their representation in the legislative and executive organs by at least twenty-five per cent13 as an affirmative action to redress imbalances created by history, customs, and traditions;
b. enact laws to combat harmful customs and traditions which undermine the dignity and status of women; and
c. provide maternity and child care and medical care for pregnant and lactating women.
5. Women shall have the right to own property and share in the estates of their deceased husbands together with any surviving legal heir of the deceased. (Art. 16)

Women’s Rights

Niger, English

The State sees to the elimination of all forms of discrimination concerning [à l’égard de] women, young girls and handicapped persons. The public policies in all the domains assure their full development and their participation in the national development.
The State takes, among others, measures to combat the violence done to women and children in public and private life.
It assures to them an equitable representation within the public institutions through the national policy [concerning] gender and the respect for the quotas. (Art. 22)

Niger, French

L'Etat veille à l'élimination de toute forme de discrimination à l'égard de la femme, de la jeune fille et des personnes handicapées. Les politiques publiques dans tous les domaines assurent leur plein épanouissement et leur participation au développement national.
L'Etat prend, en outre, les mesures de lutte contre les violences faites aux femmes et aux enfants dans la vie publique et privée.
Il leur assure une représentation équitable dans les institutions publiques à travers la politique nationale du genre et le respect des quotas. (Art. 22)

Women’s Rights

Zambia, English

In this Constitution, unless the context otherwise requires—

• “gender” means female or male and the role individuals play in society as a result of their sex and status;
… (Art. 266)

Women’s Rights

Zimbabwe, English

(1) Every woman has full and equal dignity of the person with men and this includes equal opportunities in political, economic and social activities.
(2) Women have the same rights as men regarding the custody and guardianship of children, but an Act of Parliament may regulate how those rights are to be exercised.
(3) All laws, customs, traditions and cultural practices that infringe the rights of women conferred by this Constitution are void to the extent of the infringement. (Sec. 80)

Women’s Rights

Mozambique, English

1. The State shall promote, support and value the development of women, and shall encourage their growing role in society, in all spheres of political, economic, social and cultural life of the country.
2. The State shall recognise and hold in high esteem the participation of women in the national liberation struggle and in the defence of sovereignty and democracy. (Art. 122)

Mozambique, Portuguese

1. O Estado promove, apoia e valoriza o desenvolvimento da mulher e incentiva o seu papel crescente na sociedade, em todas as esferas da actividade política, económica, social e cultural do país.
2. O Estado reconhece e valoriza a participação da mulher na luta de libertação nacional, pela defesa da soberania e pela democracia. (Art. 122)

Women’s Rights

Malawi, English

1. Women have the right to full and equal protection by the law, and have the right not to be discriminated against on the basis of their gender or marital status which includes the right—
a. to be accorded the same rights as men in civil law, including equal capacity—
i. to enter into contracts;
ii. to acquire and maintain rights in property, independently or in association with others, regardless of their marital status;
iii. to acquire and retain custody, guardianship and care of children and to have an equal right in the making of decisions that affect their upbringing; and
iv. to acquire and retain citizenship and nationality.
b. on the dissolution of marriage, howsoever entered into—
i. to a fair disposition of property that is held jointly with a husband; and
ii. to fair maintenance, taking into consideration all the circumstances and, in particular, the means of the former husband and the needs of any children.
2. Any law that discriminates against women on the basis of gender or marital status shall be invalid and legislation shall be passed to eliminate customs and practices that discriminate against women, particularly practices such as—
a. sexual abuse, harassment and violence;
b. discrimination in work, business and public affairs; and
c. deprivation of property, including property obtained by inheritance. (Sec. 24)