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The Global Gender Equality Constitutional Database is a repository of gender equality related provisions in 194 constitutions from around the world. The Database was updated in partnership with the International Bar Association's Human Rights Institute (IBAHRI) and with support from the Swedish International Development Agency (SIDA) and the Government of Japan. Experience its wealth and depth of information by starting your search now.

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About 199 results

Affirmative Action (Broadly)

Luxembourg, English


(2) Women and men are equal in rights and duties. The State sees to active promotion of elimination of impediments which may exist in matters of equality between women and men.
… (Art. 11)

Luxembourg, French


(2) Les femmes et les hommes sont égaux en droits et en devoirs. L’Etat veille à promouvoir activement l’élimination des entraves pouvant exister en matière d’égalité entre femmes et hommes.
… (Art. 11)

Affirmative Action (Broadly)

Solomon Islands, English

(1) Subject to the provisions of subsections (5), (6) and (9) of this section, no law shall make any provision that is discriminatory either of itself or in its effect.

(4) In this section, the expression “discriminatory” means affording different treatment to different persons attributable wholly or mainly to their respective descriptions by race, place of origin, political opinions, colour, creed or sex whereby persons of one such description are subjected to disabilities or restrictions to which persons of another such description are not made subject or are accorded privileges or advantages which are not accorded to persons of another such description.
(5) Subsection (1) of this section shall not apply to any law so far as that law makes provision-

(f) for the advancement of the more disadvantaged members of the community; or
(g) where persons of any such description as is mentioned in the preceding subsection may be subjected to any disability or restriction or may be accorded any privilege or advantage which, having regard to its nature and to special circumstances pertaining to those persons or to persons of any other such description, is reasonably justifiable in a democratic society.
… (Sec. 15)

Affirmative Action (Broadly)

Vanuatu, English

1. The Republic of Vanuatu recognises, that, subject to any restrictions imposed by law on non-citizens and holders of dual citizenship who are not indigenous or naturalised citizens, all persons are entitled to the following fundamental rights and freedoms of the individual without discrimination on the grounds of race, place of origin, religious or traditional beliefs, political opinions, language or sex but subject to respect for the rights and freedoms of others and to the legitimate public interest in defence, safety, public order, welfare and health-

k. equal treatment under the law or administrative action, except that no law shall be inconsistent with this sub-paragraph insofar as it makes provision for the special benefit, welfare, protection or advancement of females, children and young persons, members of under-privileged groups or inhabitants of less developed areas.
… (Art. 5)

Vanuatu, French

1) Sous réserve des restrictions que la Loi peut imposer aux non-citoyens et aux détenteurs de la double nationalité qui ne sont pas indigènes ou citoyens naturalisés et dans le respect des droits et libertés d'autrui et de l'intérêt public légitime en matière de défense, de sécurité, d'ordre public, de prospérité et de santé, la République de Vanuatu reconnaît que toute personne, sans distinction de race, lieu d'origine, croyances religieuses ou traditionnelles, opinions politiques, langue ou sexe jouit des droits fondamentaux et les libertés individuelles suivants:
...
k) un traitement égal devant la Loi ou l'action administrative, étant entendu qu'une loi ne contrevient pas aux dispositions du présent alinéa dans la mesure où elle prévoit des dispositions pour le bénéfice particulier, le bien-être, la protection ou l'amélioration des conditions des femmes, des enfants et des jeunes, des membres de catégories défavorisées, ou des habitants de zones moins développées.
... (Art. 5)

Affirmative Action (Broadly)

Sweden, English

No act of law or other provision may imply the unfavourable treatment of anyone on grounds of gender, unless the provision forms part of efforts to promote equality between men and women or relates to compulsory military service or other equivalent official duties. (Instrument of Government, Chapter 2, Art. 13)

Sweden, Swedish

Lag eller annan föreskrift får inte innebära att någon missgynnas på grund av sitt kön, om inte föreskriften utgör ett led i strävanden att åstadkomma jämställdhet mellan män och kvinnor eller avser värnplikt eller motsvarande tjänsteplikt. (Kungörelse (1974:152) om beslutad ny regeringsform, 2 kap,13§)

Affirmative Action (Broadly)

Ethiopia, Amharic


3. ሴቶች በበታችነትና በልዩነት በመታየታቸው የደረሰባቸውን የታሪክ ቅርስ ከግምት ውስጥ በማስገባት ይህ ቅርስ እንዲታረምላቸው በተጨማሪ የድጋፍ እርምጃዎች ተጠቃሚ የመሆን መብት አላቸው፡፡ በዚህ በኩል የሚወሰዱት እርምጃዎች ዓላማ በፖለቲካዊ፣ በማኅበራዊና በኢኮኖሚያዊ መስኮች እንዲሁም በመንግሥት እና በግል ተቋሞች ውስጥ ሴቶች ከወንዶች ጋር በእኩልነት ተወዳዳሪና ተሳታፊ እንዲሆኑ ለማድረግ እንዲቻል ልዩ ትኩረት ለመስጠት ነው፡፡
… (አንቀጽ 35)

Ethiopia, English


3. The historical legacy of inequality and discrimination suffered by women in Ethiopia taken into account, women, in order to remedy this legacy, are entitled to affirmative measures. The purpose of such measures shall be to provide special attention to women so as to enable them to compete and participate on the basis of equality with men in political, social and economic life as well as in public and private institutions.
… (Art. 35)

Affirmative Action (Broadly)

Uganda, English

1. Women shall be accorded full and equal dignity of the person with men.

5. Without prejudice to article 32 of this Constitution, women shall have the right to affirmative action for the purpose of redressing the imbalances created by history, tradition or custom. (Art. 33)

Affirmative Action (Broadly)

Uganda, English

The State shall ensure gender balance and fair representation of marginalised groups on all constitutional and other bodies. (National Objectives and Directive Principles of State Policy, VI)

Affirmative Action (Broadly)

Uganda, English

1. Notwithstanding anything in this Constitution, the State shall take affirmative action in favour of groups marginalised on the basis of gender, age, disability or any other reason created by history, tradition or custom, for the purpose of redressing imbalances which exist against them.
2. Laws, cultures, customs and traditions which are against the dignity, welfare or interest of women or any other marginalised group to which clause (1) relates or which undermine their status, are prohibited by this Constitution.

5. Parliament shall make laws for the purpose of giving full effect to this article. (Art. 32)

Affirmative Action (Broadly)

Uganda, English

1. All persons are equal before and under the law in all spheres of political, economic, social and cultural life and in every other respect and shall enjoy equal protection of the law.
2. Without prejudice to clause (l) of this article, a person shall not be discriminated against on the ground of sex, race, colour, ethnic origin, tribe, birth, creed or religion, social or economic standing, political opinion or disability.
3. For the purposes of this article, “discriminate” means to give different treatment to different persons attributable only or mainly to their respective descriptions by sex, race, colour, ethnic origin, tribe, birth, creed or religion, social or economic standing, political opinion or disability.
4. Nothing in this article shall prevent Parliament from enacting laws that are necessary for-
a. implementing policies and programmes aimed at redressing social, economic, educational or other imbalance in society;
b. making such provision as is required or authorised to be made under this Constitution; or
… (Art. 21)

Affirmative Action (Broadly)

Egypt, Arabic

تكفل الدّولة تحقيق المساواة بين المرأة والرجل فى جميع الحقوق المدنية والسياسية والاقتصاديّة والاجتماعيّة والثقافيّة وفقا لأحكام هذا الدّستور.
وتعمل الدّولة على اتخاذ التّدابير الكفيلة بضمان تمثيل المرأة تمثيلاً مناسبا فى المجالس النيابية، على النحو الذي يحدّده القانون، كما تكفل للمرأة حقّها فى تولّى الوظائف العامّة ووظائف الإدارة العليا فى الدّولة والتّعيين فى الجهات والهيئات القضائية، دون تمييز ضدّها.
... (المادّة 11)

Egypt, English

The State shall ensure the achievement of equality between women and men in all civil, political, economic, social, and cultural rights in accordance with the provisions of this Constitution.
The State shall take the necessary measures to ensure the appropriate representation of women in the houses of representatives, as specified by Law. The State shall also guarantee women’s right of holding public and senior management offices in the State and their appointment in judicial bodies and authorities without discrimination.
… (Art. 11)