Constitution of the Republic of Liberia 1986


Citizenship and Nationality

a. All persons who, on the coming into force of this Constitution were lawfully citizens of Liberia shall continue to be Liberian citizens.
b. In order to preserve, foster and maintain the positive Liberian culture, values and character, only persons who are Negroes or of Negro descent shall qualify by birth or by naturalization to be citizens of Liberia.
c. The Legislature shall, adhering to the above standard, prescribe such other qualification criteria for the procedures by which naturalization may be obtained. (Art. 27)

Citizenship and Nationality

Any person, at least one of whose parents was a citizen of Liberia at the time of the Person’s birth, shall be a citizen of Liberia; provided that any such person shall upon reaching maturity renounce any other citizenship acquired by virtue of one parent being a citizen of another country. No citizen of the Republic shall be deprived of citizenship or nationality except as provided by law; and no person shall be denied the right to change citizenship or nationality. (Art. 28)

Citizenship and Nationality

The Legislature shall have the power:

d. to establish laws for citizenship, naturalization and residence;
… (Art. 34)

Jurisdiction and Access

… The Supreme Court, pursuant to its power of judicial review, is empowered to declare any inconsistent laws unconstitutional. (Art. 2)

Jurisdiction and Access

Where any person or any association alleges that any of the rights granted under this Constitution or any legislation or directives are constitutionally contravened, that person or association may invoke the privilege and benefit of court direction, order or writ, including a judgment of unconstitutionality; and anyone injured by an act of the Government or any person acting under its authority, whether in property, contract, tort or otherwise, shall have the right to bring suit for appropriate redress. All such suits brought against the Government shall originate in a Claims Court; appeals from judgment of the Claims Court shall lie directly to the Supreme Court. (Art. 26)

Jurisdiction and Access

The Supreme Court shall be final arbiter of constitutional issues and shall exercise final appellate jurisdiction in all cases whether emanating from courts of record, courts not of record, administrative agencies, autonomous agencies or any other authority, both as to law and fact except cases involving ambassadors, ministers, or cases in which a country is a party. In all such cases, the Supreme Court shall exercise original jurisdiction. The Legislature shall make no law nor create any exceptions as would deprive the Supreme Court of any of the powers granted herein. (Art. 66)

Education

The Republic shall, because of the vital role assigned to the individual citizen under this Constitution for the social, economic and political well being of Liberia, provide equal access to educational opportunities and facilities for all citizens to the extent of available resources. Emphasis shall be placed on the mass education of the Liberian people and the elimination of illiteracy. (Art. 6)

Employment Rights and Protection

The Republic shall direct its policy towards ensuring for all citizens, without discrimination, opportunities for employment and livelihood under just and humane conditions, and towards promoting safety, health and welfare facilities in employment. (Art. 8)

Employment Rights and Protection

All Liberian citizens shall have equal opportunity for work and employment regardless of sex, creed, religion, ethnic background, place of origin or political affiliation, and all shall be entitled to equal pay for equal work. (Art. 18)

Equality and Non-Discrimination

… Exercising our natural, inherent and inalienable rights to establish a framework of government for the purpose of promoting unity, liberty, peace, stability, equality, justice and human rights under the rule of law, with opportunities for political, social, moral, spiritual and cultural advancement of our society, for ourselves and for our posterity; … (Preamble)

Equality and Non-Discrimination

a. All persons are born equally free and independent and have certain natural, inherent and inalienable rights, among which are the right of enjoying and defending life and liberty, of pursuing and maintaining and security of the person and of acquiring, possessing and protecting property, subject to such qualifications as provided for in this Constitution.
b. All persons, irrespective of ethnic background, race, sex, creed, place of origin or political opinion, are entitled to the fundamental rights and freedoms of the individual, subject to such qualifications as provided for in this Constitution.
c. All persons are equal before the law and are therefore entitled to the equal protection of the law. (Art. 11)

Obligations of the State

… Exercising our natural, inherent and inalienable rights to establish a framework of government for the purpose of promoting unity, liberty, peace, stability, equality, justice and human rights under the rule of law, with opportunities for political, social, moral, spiritual and cultural advancement of our society, for ourselves and for our posterity; … (Preamble)

Obligations of the State

a. All persons are born equally free and independent and have certain natural, inherent and inalienable rights, among which are the right of enjoying and defending life and liberty, of pursuing and maintaining and security of the person and of acquiring, possessing and protecting property, subject to such qualifications as provided for in this Constitution.
… (Art. 11)

Judicial Protection

Where any person or any association alleges that any of the rights granted under this Constitution or any legislation or directives are constitutionally contravened, that person or association may invoke the privilege and benefit of court direction, order or writ, including a judgment of unconstitutionality; and anyone injured by an act of the Government or any person acting under its authority, whether in property, contract, tort or otherwise, shall have the right to bring suit for appropriate redress. All such suits brought against the Government shall originate in a Claims Court; appeals from judgment of the Claims Court shall lie directly to the Supreme Court. (Art. 26)

Limitations and/or Derogations

a. All persons are born equally free and independent and have certain natural, inherent and inalienable rights, among which are the right of enjoying and defending life and liberty, of pursuing and maintaining and security of the person and of acquiring, possessing and protecting property, subject to such qualifications as provided for in this Constitution.
… (Art. 11)

Limitations and/or Derogations

a. The President may, in consultation with the Speaker of the House of Representatives and the President Pro Tempore of the Senate, proclaim and declare and the existence of a state of emergency in the Republic or any part thereof. Acting pursuant thereto, the President may suspend or affect certain rights, freedoms and guarantees contained in this Constitution and exercise such other emergency powers as may be necessary and appropriate to take care of the emergency, subject, however, to the limitations contained in this Chapter.
b. A state of emergency may be declared only where there is a threat or outbreak of war or where there is civil unrest affecting the existence, security or well-being of the Republic amounting to a clear and present danger.
(Art. 86)

Limitations and/or Derogations

a. Emergency powers do not include the power to suspend or abrogate the Constitution, dissolve the Legislature, or suspend or dismiss the Judiciary; and no constitutionals amendment shall be promulgated during a state of emergency. Where the Legislature is not in session, it must be convened immediately in special session and remain in session during the entire period of the state of emergency.
b. The writ of habeas corpus shall remain available and exercisable at all times and shall not be suspended on account of any state of emergency. It shall be enjoyed in the most free, easy, inexpensive, expeditious and ample manner. Any person who suffers from a violation of this right may challenge such violation in a court of competent jurisdiction. (Art. 87)

Marriage and Family Life

No person shall be subjected to interference with his privacy of person, family, home or correspondence except by order of a court of competent jurisdiction. (Art. 16)

Marriage and Family Life

a. The property which a person possesses at the time of marriage or which may afterwards be acquired as a result of one’s own labors shall not be held for or otherwise applied to the liquidation of the debts or other obligations of the spouse, whether contracted before or after marriage; nor shall the property which by law is to be secured to a man or a woman be alienated or be controlled by that person’s spouse save by free and voluntary consent.
b. The Legislature shall enact laws to govern the devolution of estates and establish rights of inheritance and descent for spouses of both statutory and customary marriages so as to give adequate protection to surviving spouses and children of such marriages. (Art. 23)

Political Rights and Association

All persons, at all times, in an orderly and peaceable manner, shall have the right to assemble and consult upon the common good, to instruct their representatives, to petition the Government or other functionaries for the redress of grievances and to associate fully with others or refuse to associate in political parties, trade unions and other organizations. (Art. 17)

Political Rights and Association

b. All elections shall be by secret ballot as may be determined by the Elections Commission, and every Liberian citizen not less than 18 years of age, shall have the right to be registered as a voter and to vote in public elections and referenda under this Constitution. … (Art. 77)

Political Parties

a. Since the essence of democracy is free competition of ideas expressed by political parties and political groups as well as by individuals, parties may freely be established to advocate the political opinions of the people. Laws, regulations, decrees or measures which might have the effect of creating a one-party state shall be declared unconstitutional.
b. … The Legislature shall enact laws indicating the category of Liberians who shall not form or become members of political parties. (Art. 77)

Political Parties

No association, by whatever name called, shall function as a political party, nor shall any citizen be an independent candidate for election to public office, unless:
a. the association or independent candidate and his organization meet the minimum registration requirements laid down by the Elections Commission and are registered with it. …
b. the membership of the association or the independent candidate’s organization is open to every citizen of Liberia, irrespective of sex, religion or ethnic background, except as otherwise provided in this Constitution.

d. the name, objective, emblem or motto of the association or of the independent candidate and his organization is free from any religious connotations or divisive ethnic implications and that the activities of the association or independent candidate are not limited to a special group or, in the case of an association, limited to a particular geographic area of Liberia;
e. the constitution and rules of the political party shall conform to the provisions of this Constitution, provide for the democratic elections of officers and/or governing body at least once every six years, and ensure the election of officers from as many of the regions and ethnic groupings in the country as possible. All amendments to the Constitution or rules of a political party shall be registered with the Elections Commission no later than ten days from the effective dates of such amendments. (Art. 79)

Electoral Bodies

The following Autonomous Public Commissions are hereby established:

B. ELECTIONS COMMISSION;

The Legislature shall enact laws for the governance of these Commissions and create other agencies as may be necessary for the effective operation of Government. (Art. 89)

Head of State

The Executive Power of the Republic shall be vested in the President who shall be Head of State, Head of Government and Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces of Liberia. The president shall be elected by universal adult suffrage of registered voters in the Republic … (Art. 50)

Head of State

No person shall be eligible to hold the office of President or Vice-President, unless that person is:
a. a natural born Liberian citizen of not less than 35 years of age:
b. the owner of unencumbered real property valued at not less than twenty-five thousand dollars; and
c. resident in the Republic ten years prior to his election, provided that the President and the Vice-President shall not come from the same County. (Art. 52)

Vice-President

There shall be a Vice-President who shall assist the President in the discharge of his functions. The Vice-President shall be elected on the same political ticket and shall serve the same term as the President. … (Art. 51)

Vice-President

No person shall be eligible to hold the office of President or Vice-President, unless that person is:
a. a natural born Liberian citizen of not less than 35 years of age:
b. the owner of unencumbered real property valued at not less than twenty-five thousand dollars; and
c. resident in the Republic ten years prior to his election, provided that the President and the Vice-President shall not come from the same County. (Art. 52)

Government

The Executive Power of the Republic shall be vested in the President who shall be Head of State, Head of Government and Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces of Liberia. The president shall be elected by universal adult suffrage of registered voters in the Republic … (Art. 50)

Government

The President shall nominate and, with the consent of the Senate, appoint and commission-
a. cabinet ministers, deputy and assistant cabinet ministers;
… (Art. 54)

Legislature

The legislative power of the Republic shall be vested in the Legislature of Liberia which shall consist of two separate houses: A Senate and a House of Representatives, both of which must pass on all legislation. … (Art. 29)

Legislature

Citizens of Liberia who meet the following qualifications are eligible to become members of the Legislature.
a. for the Senate, have attained the age of 30 years and for the House of Representatives, have attained the age of 25 years;
b. be domiciled in the country or constituency to be represented not less than one year prior to the time of the election and be a taxpayer. (Art. 30)

Property, Inheritance and Land Tenure

a. All persons are born equally free and independent and have certain natural, inherent and inalienable rights, among which are the right of enjoying and defending life and liberty, of pursuing and maintaining and security of the person and of acquiring, possessing and protecting property, subject to such qualifications as provided for in this Constitution.
… (Art. 11)

Property, Inheritance and Land Tenure

a. Every person shall have the right to own property alone as well as in association with others; provided that only Liberian citizens shall have the right to own real property within the Republic.
… (Art. 22)

Property, Inheritance and Land Tenure

a. The property which a person possesses at the time of marriage or which may afterwards be acquired as a result of one’s own labors shall not be held for or otherwise applied to the liquidation of the debts or other obligations of the spouse, whether contracted before or after marriage; nor shall the property which by law is to be secured to a man or a woman be alienated or be controlled by that person’s spouse save by free and voluntary consent.
b. The Legislature shall enact laws to govern the devolution of estates and establish rights of inheritance and descent for spouses of both statutory and customary marriages so as to give adequate protection to surviving spouses and children of such marriages. (Art. 23)

Protection from Violence

a. All persons are born equally free and independent and have certain natural, inherent and inalienable rights, among which are the right of enjoying and defending life and liberty, of pursuing and maintaining and security of the person and of acquiring, possessing and protecting property, subject to such qualifications as provided for in this Constitution.
… (Art. 11)

Protection from Violence

No person shall be held in slavery or forced labor within the Republic, nor shall any citizen of Liberia nor any person resident therein deal in slaves or subject any other person to forced labor, debt bondage or peonage; … (Art. 12)

Protection from Violence

e. No person charged, arrested, restricted, detained or otherwise held in confinement shall be subject to torture or inhumane treatment; … (Art. 21)

Public Institutions and Services

The Republic shall, consistent with the principles of individual freedom and social justice enshrined in this Constitution, manage the national economy and the natural resources of Liberia in such manner as shall ensure the maximum feasible participation of Liberian citizens under conditions of equality as to advance the general welfare of the Liberian people and the economic development of Liberia. (Art. 7)

Status of the Constitution

This Constitution is the supreme and fundamental law of Liberia and its provisions shall have binding force and effect on all authorities and persons throughout the Republic.
Any laws, treaties, statutes, decrees, customs and regulations found to be inconsistent with it shall, to the extent of the inconsistency, be void and of no legal effect. The Supreme Court, pursuant to its power of judicial review, is empowered to declare any inconsistent laws unconstitutional. (Art. 2)

Status of the Constitution

a. The Constitution of the Republic of Liberia which came into force on the 26 th day of July 1847, and which was suspended on the 12 th day of April 1980, is hereby abrogated. Notwithstanding this abrogation, however, any enactment or rule of law in existence immediately before the coming into force of this Constitution, whether derived from the abrogated Constitution or from any other source shall, in so far as it is not inconsistent with any provision of this Constitution, continue in force as if enacted, issued or made under the authority of this Constitution.
b. All treaties, executive and other international agreements and obligations concluded by the Government of the People’s Redemption Council or prior governments in the name of the Republic prior to the coming into force of this Constitution shall continue to be valid and binding on the Republic unless abrogated or cancelled or unless otherwise inconsistent with this Constitution.
… (Art. 95)

Status of International Law

This Constitution is the supreme and fundamental law of Liberia and its provisions shall have binding force and effect on all authorities and persons throughout the Republic.
Any laws, treaties, statutes, decrees, customs and regulations found to be inconsistent with it shall, to the extent of the inconsistency, be void and of no legal effect. … (Art. 2)

Status of International Law

b. All treaties, executive and other international agreements and obligations concluded by the Government of the People’s Redemption Council or prior governments in the name of the Republic prior to the coming into force of this Constitution shall continue to be valid and binding on the Republic unless abrogated or cancelled or unless otherwise inconsistent with this Constitution.
… (Art. 95)

Religious Law

… Consistent with the principle of separation of religion and state, the Republic shall establish no state religion. (Art. 14)

Customary Law

This Constitution is the supreme and fundamental law of Liberia and its provisions shall have binding force and effect on all authorities and persons throughout the Republic.
Any laws, treaties, statutes, decrees, customs and regulations found to be inconsistent with it shall, to the extent of the inconsistency, be void and of no legal effect. … (Art. 2)

Customary Law

b. The Legislature shall enact laws to govern the devolution of estates and establish rights of inheritance and descent for spouses of both statutory and customary marriages so as to give adequate protection to surviving spouses and children of such marriages. (Art. 23)

Customary Law

b. There shall be elections of Paramount, Clan and Town Chiefs by the registered voters in their respective localities, to serve for a term of six years. They may be re-elected and may be removed only by the President for proved misconduct. The Legislature shall enact laws to provide for their qualifications as may be required. (Art. 56)

Customary Law

The Judicial Power of the Republic shall be vested in a Supreme Court and such subordinate courts as the legislature may from time to time establish. The courts shall apply both statutory and customary laws in accordance with the standards enacted by the Legislature. … (Art. 65)

Citizenship and Nationality

English

a. All persons who, on the coming into force of this Constitution were lawfully citizens of Liberia shall continue to be Liberian citizens.
b. In order to preserve, foster and maintain the positive Liberian culture, values and character, only persons who are Negroes or of Negro descent shall qualify by birth or by naturalization to be citizens of Liberia.
c. The Legislature shall, adhering to the above standard, prescribe such other qualification criteria for the procedures by which naturalization may be obtained. (Art. 27)

Citizenship and Nationality

English

Any person, at least one of whose parents was a citizen of Liberia at the time of the Person’s birth, shall be a citizen of Liberia; provided that any such person shall upon reaching maturity renounce any other citizenship acquired by virtue of one parent being a citizen of another country. No citizen of the Republic shall be deprived of citizenship or nationality except as provided by law; and no person shall be denied the right to change citizenship or nationality. (Art. 28)

Citizenship and Nationality

English

The Legislature shall have the power:

d. to establish laws for citizenship, naturalization and residence;
… (Art. 34)

Jurisdiction and Access

English

… The Supreme Court, pursuant to its power of judicial review, is empowered to declare any inconsistent laws unconstitutional. (Art. 2)

Jurisdiction and Access

English

Where any person or any association alleges that any of the rights granted under this Constitution or any legislation or directives are constitutionally contravened, that person or association may invoke the privilege and benefit of court direction, order or writ, including a judgment of unconstitutionality; and anyone injured by an act of the Government or any person acting under its authority, whether in property, contract, tort or otherwise, shall have the right to bring suit for appropriate redress. All such suits brought against the Government shall originate in a Claims Court; appeals from judgment of the Claims Court shall lie directly to the Supreme Court. (Art. 26)

Jurisdiction and Access

English

The Supreme Court shall be final arbiter of constitutional issues and shall exercise final appellate jurisdiction in all cases whether emanating from courts of record, courts not of record, administrative agencies, autonomous agencies or any other authority, both as to law and fact except cases involving ambassadors, ministers, or cases in which a country is a party. In all such cases, the Supreme Court shall exercise original jurisdiction. The Legislature shall make no law nor create any exceptions as would deprive the Supreme Court of any of the powers granted herein. (Art. 66)

Education

English

The Republic shall, because of the vital role assigned to the individual citizen under this Constitution for the social, economic and political well being of Liberia, provide equal access to educational opportunities and facilities for all citizens to the extent of available resources. Emphasis shall be placed on the mass education of the Liberian people and the elimination of illiteracy. (Art. 6)

Employment Rights and Protection

English

The Republic shall direct its policy towards ensuring for all citizens, without discrimination, opportunities for employment and livelihood under just and humane conditions, and towards promoting safety, health and welfare facilities in employment. (Art. 8)

Employment Rights and Protection

English

All Liberian citizens shall have equal opportunity for work and employment regardless of sex, creed, religion, ethnic background, place of origin or political affiliation, and all shall be entitled to equal pay for equal work. (Art. 18)

Equality and Non-Discrimination

English

… Exercising our natural, inherent and inalienable rights to establish a framework of government for the purpose of promoting unity, liberty, peace, stability, equality, justice and human rights under the rule of law, with opportunities for political, social, moral, spiritual and cultural advancement of our society, for ourselves and for our posterity; … (Preamble)

Equality and Non-Discrimination

English

a. All persons are born equally free and independent and have certain natural, inherent and inalienable rights, among which are the right of enjoying and defending life and liberty, of pursuing and maintaining and security of the person and of acquiring, possessing and protecting property, subject to such qualifications as provided for in this Constitution.
b. All persons, irrespective of ethnic background, race, sex, creed, place of origin or political opinion, are entitled to the fundamental rights and freedoms of the individual, subject to such qualifications as provided for in this Constitution.
c. All persons are equal before the law and are therefore entitled to the equal protection of the law. (Art. 11)

Obligations of the State

English

… Exercising our natural, inherent and inalienable rights to establish a framework of government for the purpose of promoting unity, liberty, peace, stability, equality, justice and human rights under the rule of law, with opportunities for political, social, moral, spiritual and cultural advancement of our society, for ourselves and for our posterity; … (Preamble)

Obligations of the State

English

a. All persons are born equally free and independent and have certain natural, inherent and inalienable rights, among which are the right of enjoying and defending life and liberty, of pursuing and maintaining and security of the person and of acquiring, possessing and protecting property, subject to such qualifications as provided for in this Constitution.
… (Art. 11)

Judicial Protection

English

Where any person or any association alleges that any of the rights granted under this Constitution or any legislation or directives are constitutionally contravened, that person or association may invoke the privilege and benefit of court direction, order or writ, including a judgment of unconstitutionality; and anyone injured by an act of the Government or any person acting under its authority, whether in property, contract, tort or otherwise, shall have the right to bring suit for appropriate redress. All such suits brought against the Government shall originate in a Claims Court; appeals from judgment of the Claims Court shall lie directly to the Supreme Court. (Art. 26)

Limitations and/or Derogations

English

a. All persons are born equally free and independent and have certain natural, inherent and inalienable rights, among which are the right of enjoying and defending life and liberty, of pursuing and maintaining and security of the person and of acquiring, possessing and protecting property, subject to such qualifications as provided for in this Constitution.
… (Art. 11)

Limitations and/or Derogations

English

a. The President may, in consultation with the Speaker of the House of Representatives and the President Pro Tempore of the Senate, proclaim and declare and the existence of a state of emergency in the Republic or any part thereof. Acting pursuant thereto, the President may suspend or affect certain rights, freedoms and guarantees contained in this Constitution and exercise such other emergency powers as may be necessary and appropriate to take care of the emergency, subject, however, to the limitations contained in this Chapter.
b. A state of emergency may be declared only where there is a threat or outbreak of war or where there is civil unrest affecting the existence, security or well-being of the Republic amounting to a clear and present danger.
(Art. 86)

Limitations and/or Derogations

English

a. Emergency powers do not include the power to suspend or abrogate the Constitution, dissolve the Legislature, or suspend or dismiss the Judiciary; and no constitutionals amendment shall be promulgated during a state of emergency. Where the Legislature is not in session, it must be convened immediately in special session and remain in session during the entire period of the state of emergency.
b. The writ of habeas corpus shall remain available and exercisable at all times and shall not be suspended on account of any state of emergency. It shall be enjoyed in the most free, easy, inexpensive, expeditious and ample manner. Any person who suffers from a violation of this right may challenge such violation in a court of competent jurisdiction. (Art. 87)

Marriage and Family Life

English

No person shall be subjected to interference with his privacy of person, family, home or correspondence except by order of a court of competent jurisdiction. (Art. 16)

Marriage and Family Life

English

a. The property which a person possesses at the time of marriage or which may afterwards be acquired as a result of one’s own labors shall not be held for or otherwise applied to the liquidation of the debts or other obligations of the spouse, whether contracted before or after marriage; nor shall the property which by law is to be secured to a man or a woman be alienated or be controlled by that person’s spouse save by free and voluntary consent.
b. The Legislature shall enact laws to govern the devolution of estates and establish rights of inheritance and descent for spouses of both statutory and customary marriages so as to give adequate protection to surviving spouses and children of such marriages. (Art. 23)

Political Rights and Association

English

All persons, at all times, in an orderly and peaceable manner, shall have the right to assemble and consult upon the common good, to instruct their representatives, to petition the Government or other functionaries for the redress of grievances and to associate fully with others or refuse to associate in political parties, trade unions and other organizations. (Art. 17)

Political Rights and Association

English

b. All elections shall be by secret ballot as may be determined by the Elections Commission, and every Liberian citizen not less than 18 years of age, shall have the right to be registered as a voter and to vote in public elections and referenda under this Constitution. … (Art. 77)

Political Parties

English

a. Since the essence of democracy is free competition of ideas expressed by political parties and political groups as well as by individuals, parties may freely be established to advocate the political opinions of the people. Laws, regulations, decrees or measures which might have the effect of creating a one-party state shall be declared unconstitutional.
b. … The Legislature shall enact laws indicating the category of Liberians who shall not form or become members of political parties. (Art. 77)

Political Parties

English

No association, by whatever name called, shall function as a political party, nor shall any citizen be an independent candidate for election to public office, unless:
a. the association or independent candidate and his organization meet the minimum registration requirements laid down by the Elections Commission and are registered with it. …
b. the membership of the association or the independent candidate’s organization is open to every citizen of Liberia, irrespective of sex, religion or ethnic background, except as otherwise provided in this Constitution.

d. the name, objective, emblem or motto of the association or of the independent candidate and his organization is free from any religious connotations or divisive ethnic implications and that the activities of the association or independent candidate are not limited to a special group or, in the case of an association, limited to a particular geographic area of Liberia;
e. the constitution and rules of the political party shall conform to the provisions of this Constitution, provide for the democratic elections of officers and/or governing body at least once every six years, and ensure the election of officers from as many of the regions and ethnic groupings in the country as possible. All amendments to the Constitution or rules of a political party shall be registered with the Elections Commission no later than ten days from the effective dates of such amendments. (Art. 79)

Electoral Bodies

English

The following Autonomous Public Commissions are hereby established:

B. ELECTIONS COMMISSION;

The Legislature shall enact laws for the governance of these Commissions and create other agencies as may be necessary for the effective operation of Government. (Art. 89)

Head of State

English

The Executive Power of the Republic shall be vested in the President who shall be Head of State, Head of Government and Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces of Liberia. The president shall be elected by universal adult suffrage of registered voters in the Republic … (Art. 50)

Head of State

English

No person shall be eligible to hold the office of President or Vice-President, unless that person is:
a. a natural born Liberian citizen of not less than 35 years of age:
b. the owner of unencumbered real property valued at not less than twenty-five thousand dollars; and
c. resident in the Republic ten years prior to his election, provided that the President and the Vice-President shall not come from the same County. (Art. 52)

Vice-President

English

There shall be a Vice-President who shall assist the President in the discharge of his functions. The Vice-President shall be elected on the same political ticket and shall serve the same term as the President. … (Art. 51)

Vice-President

English

No person shall be eligible to hold the office of President or Vice-President, unless that person is:
a. a natural born Liberian citizen of not less than 35 years of age:
b. the owner of unencumbered real property valued at not less than twenty-five thousand dollars; and
c. resident in the Republic ten years prior to his election, provided that the President and the Vice-President shall not come from the same County. (Art. 52)

Government

English

The Executive Power of the Republic shall be vested in the President who shall be Head of State, Head of Government and Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces of Liberia. The president shall be elected by universal adult suffrage of registered voters in the Republic … (Art. 50)

Government

English

The President shall nominate and, with the consent of the Senate, appoint and commission-
a. cabinet ministers, deputy and assistant cabinet ministers;
… (Art. 54)

Legislature

English

The legislative power of the Republic shall be vested in the Legislature of Liberia which shall consist of two separate houses: A Senate and a House of Representatives, both of which must pass on all legislation. … (Art. 29)

Legislature

English

Citizens of Liberia who meet the following qualifications are eligible to become members of the Legislature.
a. for the Senate, have attained the age of 30 years and for the House of Representatives, have attained the age of 25 years;
b. be domiciled in the country or constituency to be represented not less than one year prior to the time of the election and be a taxpayer. (Art. 30)

Property, Inheritance and Land Tenure

English

a. All persons are born equally free and independent and have certain natural, inherent and inalienable rights, among which are the right of enjoying and defending life and liberty, of pursuing and maintaining and security of the person and of acquiring, possessing and protecting property, subject to such qualifications as provided for in this Constitution.
… (Art. 11)

Property, Inheritance and Land Tenure

English

a. Every person shall have the right to own property alone as well as in association with others; provided that only Liberian citizens shall have the right to own real property within the Republic.
… (Art. 22)

Property, Inheritance and Land Tenure

English

a. The property which a person possesses at the time of marriage or which may afterwards be acquired as a result of one’s own labors shall not be held for or otherwise applied to the liquidation of the debts or other obligations of the spouse, whether contracted before or after marriage; nor shall the property which by law is to be secured to a man or a woman be alienated or be controlled by that person’s spouse save by free and voluntary consent.
b. The Legislature shall enact laws to govern the devolution of estates and establish rights of inheritance and descent for spouses of both statutory and customary marriages so as to give adequate protection to surviving spouses and children of such marriages. (Art. 23)

Protection from Violence

English

a. All persons are born equally free and independent and have certain natural, inherent and inalienable rights, among which are the right of enjoying and defending life and liberty, of pursuing and maintaining and security of the person and of acquiring, possessing and protecting property, subject to such qualifications as provided for in this Constitution.
… (Art. 11)

Protection from Violence

English

No person shall be held in slavery or forced labor within the Republic, nor shall any citizen of Liberia nor any person resident therein deal in slaves or subject any other person to forced labor, debt bondage or peonage; … (Art. 12)

Protection from Violence

English

e. No person charged, arrested, restricted, detained or otherwise held in confinement shall be subject to torture or inhumane treatment; … (Art. 21)

Public Institutions and Services

English

The Republic shall, consistent with the principles of individual freedom and social justice enshrined in this Constitution, manage the national economy and the natural resources of Liberia in such manner as shall ensure the maximum feasible participation of Liberian citizens under conditions of equality as to advance the general welfare of the Liberian people and the economic development of Liberia. (Art. 7)

Status of the Constitution

English

This Constitution is the supreme and fundamental law of Liberia and its provisions shall have binding force and effect on all authorities and persons throughout the Republic.
Any laws, treaties, statutes, decrees, customs and regulations found to be inconsistent with it shall, to the extent of the inconsistency, be void and of no legal effect. The Supreme Court, pursuant to its power of judicial review, is empowered to declare any inconsistent laws unconstitutional. (Art. 2)

Status of the Constitution

English

a. The Constitution of the Republic of Liberia which came into force on the 26 th day of July 1847, and which was suspended on the 12 th day of April 1980, is hereby abrogated. Notwithstanding this abrogation, however, any enactment or rule of law in existence immediately before the coming into force of this Constitution, whether derived from the abrogated Constitution or from any other source shall, in so far as it is not inconsistent with any provision of this Constitution, continue in force as if enacted, issued or made under the authority of this Constitution.
b. All treaties, executive and other international agreements and obligations concluded by the Government of the People’s Redemption Council or prior governments in the name of the Republic prior to the coming into force of this Constitution shall continue to be valid and binding on the Republic unless abrogated or cancelled or unless otherwise inconsistent with this Constitution.
… (Art. 95)

Status of International Law

English

This Constitution is the supreme and fundamental law of Liberia and its provisions shall have binding force and effect on all authorities and persons throughout the Republic.
Any laws, treaties, statutes, decrees, customs and regulations found to be inconsistent with it shall, to the extent of the inconsistency, be void and of no legal effect. … (Art. 2)

Status of International Law

English

b. All treaties, executive and other international agreements and obligations concluded by the Government of the People’s Redemption Council or prior governments in the name of the Republic prior to the coming into force of this Constitution shall continue to be valid and binding on the Republic unless abrogated or cancelled or unless otherwise inconsistent with this Constitution.
… (Art. 95)

Religious Law

English

… Consistent with the principle of separation of religion and state, the Republic shall establish no state religion. (Art. 14)

Customary Law

English

This Constitution is the supreme and fundamental law of Liberia and its provisions shall have binding force and effect on all authorities and persons throughout the Republic.
Any laws, treaties, statutes, decrees, customs and regulations found to be inconsistent with it shall, to the extent of the inconsistency, be void and of no legal effect. … (Art. 2)

Customary Law

English

b. The Legislature shall enact laws to govern the devolution of estates and establish rights of inheritance and descent for spouses of both statutory and customary marriages so as to give adequate protection to surviving spouses and children of such marriages. (Art. 23)

Customary Law

English

b. There shall be elections of Paramount, Clan and Town Chiefs by the registered voters in their respective localities, to serve for a term of six years. They may be re-elected and may be removed only by the President for proved misconduct. The Legislature shall enact laws to provide for their qualifications as may be required. (Art. 56)

Customary Law

English

The Judicial Power of the Republic shall be vested in a Supreme Court and such subordinate courts as the legislature may from time to time establish. The courts shall apply both statutory and customary laws in accordance with the standards enacted by the Legislature. … (Art. 65)

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