Constitution of the Republic of Uganda 1995, as amended to 2005


Affirmative Action (Broadly)

(1) All persons are equal before and under the law in all spheres of political, economic, social and cultural life and in every other respect and shall enjoy equal protection of the law.
(2) Without prejudice to clause (l) of this article, a person shall not be discriminated against on the ground of sex, race, colour, ethnic origin, tribe, birth, creed or religion, social or economic standing, political opinion or disability.
(3) For the purposes of this article, “discriminate” means to give different treatment to different persons attributable only or mainly to their respective descriptions by sex, race, colour, ethnic origin, tribe, birth, creed or religion, social or economic standing, political opinion or disability.
(4) Nothing in this article shall prevent Parliament from enacting laws that are necessary for-
(a) implementing policies and programmes aimed at redressing social, economic, educational or other imbalance in society;
… (Art. 21)

Affirmative Action (Broadly)

(1) Notwithstanding anything in this Constitution, the State shall take affirmative action in favour of groups marginalised on the basis of gender, age, disability or any other reason created by history, tradition or custom, for the purpose of redressing imbalances which exist against them.
(2) Laws, cultures, customs and traditions which are against the dignity, welfare or interest of women or any other marginalised group to which clause (1) relates or which undermine their status, are prohibited by this Constitution.
… (Art. 32)

Affirmative Action (Broadly)

(1) Women shall be accorded full and equal dignity of the person with men.

(5) Without prejudice to article 32 of this Constitution, women shall have the right to affirmative action for the purpose of redressing the imbalances created by history, tradition or custom. (Art. 33)

Affirmative Action (Broadly)

The State shall ensure gender balance and fair representation of marginalised groups on all constitutional and other bodies. (National Objectives and Directive Principles of State Policy, VI)

Citizenship and Nationality

The following persons shall be citizens of Uganda by birth-
(a) every person born in Uganda one of whose parents or grandparents is or was a member of any of the indigenous communities existing and residing within the borders of Uganda as at the first day of February, 1926, and set out in the Third Schedule to this Constitution; and
(b) every person born in or outside Uganda one of whose parents or grandparents was at the time of birth of that person a citizen of Uganda by birth. (Art. 10)

Citizenship and Nationality

(1) Every person born in Uganda
(a) at the time of whose birth-
(i) neither of his or her parents and none of his or her grandparents had diplomatic status in Uganda; and
(ii) neither of his or her parents and none of his or her grandparents was a refugee in Uganda; and (b) who has lived continuously in Uganda since the ninth day of
October, 1962, shall, on application, be entitled to be registered as a citizen of Uganda.
(2) The following persons shall, upon application, be registered as citizens of Uganda-
(a) every person married to a Uganda citizen upon proof of a legal and subsisting marriage of three years or such other period prescribed by Parliament;
(b) every person who has legally and voluntarily migrated to and has been living in Uganda for at least ten years or such other period prescribed by Parliament;
(c) every person who, on the commencement of this Constitution, has lived in Uganda for at least twenty years.
(3) Clause (2)(a) of this article applies also to a person who was married to a citizen of Uganda who, but for his or her death, would have continued to be a citizen of Uganda under this Constitution.
(4) Where a person has been registered as a citizen of Uganda under clause (2)(a) of this article and the marriage by virtue of which that person was registered is-
(a) annulled or otherwise declared void by a court or tribunal of competent jurisdiction; or
(b) dissolved, that person shall, unless he or she renounces that citizenship, continue to be a citizen of Uganda. (Art. 12)

Citizenship and Nationality

Parliament shall by law provide for the acquisition and loss of citizenship by naturalisation. (Art. 13)

Citizenship and Nationality

(1) A citizen of Uganda of eighteen years and above, who voluntarily acquires the citizenship of a country other than Uganda may retain the citizenship of Uganda subject to this Constitution and any law enacted by Parliament,
(2) A person who is not a citizen of Uganda may, on acquiring the citizenship of Uganda, subject to this Constitution and any law enacted by Parliament, retain the citizenship of another country.

(5) Where the law of a country, other than Uganda, requires a person who marries a citizen of that country to renounce the citizenship of his or her own country by virtue of that marriage, a citizen of Uganda who is deprived of his or her citizenship by virtue of that marriage shall, on the dissolution of that marriage, if he or she thereby loses his or her citizenship acquired by that marriage, become a citizen of Uganda.
(6) Parliament shall by law prescribe the circumstances under which-
(a) a citizen of Uganda who acquires the citizenship of another country, may retain the citizenship of Uganda;
(b) a citizen of Uganda whose citizenship of origin is of another country and who holds the citizenship of another country, may cease to be a citizen of Uganda;
(c ) a person who is not a citizen of Uganda may, on acquiring Uganda citizenship, retain the citizenship of another country. (Art. 15)

Citizenship and Nationality

5 Citizenship, … (Sixth Schedule: Functions and services for which Government is responsible)

Composition and Appointment

(1) A person shall be qualified for appointment as-

(d) a justice of Appeal, if he or she has served as a judge of the High Court or a court having similar or higher jurisdiction or has practised as an advocate for a period not less than ten years before a court having unlimited jurisdiction in civil and criminal matters or is a distinguished jurist and an advocate of not less than ten years' standing;
… (Art. 143)

Jurisdiction and Access

(1) Any question as to the interpretation of this Constitution shall be determined by the Court of Appeal sitting as the constitutional court.

(3) A person who alleges that-
(a) an Act of Parliament or any other law or anything in or done under the authority of any law; or
(b) any act or omission by any person or authority,
is inconsistent with or in contravention of provision of this Constitution, may petition the constitutional court for a declaration to that effect, and for redress where appropriate.
(4) Where upon determination of the petition under clause (3) of this article the constitutional court considers that there is need for redress in addition to the declaration sought, the constitutional court may-
(a) grant an order of redress; or
(b) refer the matter to the High Court to investigate and determine the appropriate redress.
(5) Where any question as to the interpretation of this Constitution arises in any proceedings in a court of law other than a field court martial, the court-
(a) may, if it is of the opinion that the question involves a substantial question of law; and
(b) shall, if any party to the proceedings requests it to do so, refer the question to the constitutional court for decision in accordance with clause (1) of this article.
(6) Where any question is referred to the constitutional court under clause (5) of this article, the constitutional court shall give its decision on the question, and the court in which the question arises shall dispose of the case in accordance with that decision.
… (Art. 137)

Education

(i) The State shall promote free and compulsory basic education.
(ii) The State shall take appropriate measures to afford every citizen equal opportunity to attain the highest educational standard possible.
… (National Objectives and Directive Principles of State Policy, XVIII)

Education

All persons have a right to education. (Art. 30)

Education

(2) A child is entitled to basic education which shall be the responsibility of the State and the parents of the child.
… (Art. 34)

Employment Rights and Protection

(1) Parliament shall enact laws-
(a) to provide for the right of persons to work under satisfactory, safe and healthy conditions;
(b) to ensure equal payment for equal work without discrimination;
(c) to ensure that every worker is accorded rest and reasonable working hours and periods of holidays with pay, as well as remuneration for public holidays.
(2) Every person in Uganda has the right to practise his or her profession and to carry on any lawful occupation, trade or business.

(4) The employer of every woman worker shall accord her protection during pregnancy and after birth, in accordance with the law. (Art. 40)

Equality and Non-Discrimination

… COMMITTED to building a better future by establishing a socioeconomic and political order through a popular and durable national Constitution based on the principles of unity, peace, equality, democracy, freedom, social justice and progress; ... (Preamble)

Equality and Non-Discrimination

(1) All persons are equal before and under the law in all spheres of political, economic, social and cultural life and in every other respect and shall enjoy equal protection of the law.
(2) Without prejudice to clause (l) of this article, a person shall not be discriminated against on the ground of sex, race, colour, ethnic origin, tribe, birth, creed or religion, social or economic standing, political opinion or disability.
(3) For the purposes of this article, “discriminate” means to give different treatment to different persons attributable only or mainly to their respective descriptions by sex, race, colour, ethnic origin, tribe, birth, creed or religion, social or economic standing, political opinion or disability.
(4) Nothing in this article shall prevent Parliament from enacting laws that are necessary for-
(a) implementing policies and programmes aimed at redressing social, economic, educational or other imbalance in society; or
(b) making such provision as is required or authorised to be made under this Constitution; or
(c) providing for any matter acceptable and demonstrably justified in a free and democratic society.
(5) Nothing shall be taken to be inconsistent with this article which is allowed to be done under any provision of this Constitution. (Art. 21)

Equality and Non-Discrimination

(1) Notwithstanding anything in this Constitution, the State shall take affirmative action in favour of groups marginalised on the basis of gender, age, disability or any other reason created by history, tradition or custom, for the purpose of redressing imbalances which exist against them.
(2) Laws, cultures, customs and traditions which are against the dignity, welfare or interest of women or any other marginalised group to which clause (1) relates or which undermine their status, are prohibited by this Constitution.
(3) There shall be a commission called the Equal Opportunities Commission whose composition and functions shall be determined by an Act of Parliament.
(4) The Equal Opportunities Commission shall be established within one year after the coming into force of the Constitution (Amendment) Act, 2005.
(5) Parliament shall make laws for the purpose of giving full effect to this article. (Art. 32)

Equality and Non-Discrimination

(1) Women shall be accorded full and equal dignity of the person with men.

(4) Women shall have the right to equal treatment with men and that right shall include equal opportunities in political, economic and social activities.
(5) Without prejudice to article 32 of this Constitution, women shall have the right to affirmative action for the purpose of redressing the imbalances created by history, tradition or custom. (Art. 33)

Obligations of the State

(i) The State shall guarantee and respect institutions which are charged by the State with responsibility for protecting and promoting human rights by providing them with adequate resources to function effectively.
(ii) The State shall guarantee and respect the independence of nongovernmental organisations which protect and promote human rights. (National Objectives and Directive Principles of State Policy, V)

Obligations of the State

(1) Fundamental rights and freedoms of the individual are inherent and not granted by the State.
(2) The rights and freedoms of the individual and groups enshrined in this Chapter shall be respected, upheld and promoted by all organs and agencies of Government and by all persons. (Art. 20)

Obligations of the State

The rights, duties, declarations and guarantees relating to the fundamental and other human rights and freedoms specifically mentioned in this Chapter shall not be regarded as excluding others not specifically mentioned. (Art. 45)

Obligations of Private Parties

(1) It is the duty of every citizen of Uganda-

(b) to respect the rights and freedoms of others;
… (Art. 17)

Obligations of Private Parties

(2) The rights and freedoms of the individual and groups enshrined in this Chapter shall be respected, upheld and promoted by all organs and agencies of Government and by all persons. (Art. 20)

Obligations of Private Parties

(1) In the enjoyment of the rights and freedoms prescribed in this Chapter, no person shall prejudice the fundamental or other human rights and freedoms of others or the public interest.
… (Art. 43)

Obligations of Private Parties

(10) In this Constitution, unless the context otherwise requires-
(a) words referring to natural persons include a reference to corporations;
… (Art. 257)

Judicial Protection

(1) Any person who claims that a fundamental or other right or freedom guaranteed under this Constitution has been infringed or threatened, is entitled to apply to a competent court for redress which may include compensation.
(2) Any person or organisation may bring an action against the violation of another person's or group's human rights.
(3) Any person aggrieved by any decision o fthe court may appeal to the appropriate court.
(4) Parliament shall make laws for the enforcement of the rights and freedoms under this Chapter. (Art. 50)

National Human Rights Bodies

(1) There shall be a commission called the Uganda Human Rights Commission.
… (Art. 51)

National Human Rights Bodies

(1) The commission shall have the following functions-
(a) to investigate, at its own initiative or on a complaint made by any person or group of persons against the violation of any human right;
(b) to visit jails, prisons, and places of detention or related facilities with a view to assessing and inspecting conditions of the inmates and make recommendations;
(c) to establish a continuing programme of research, education and information to enhance respect of human rights;
(d) to recommend to Parliament effective measures to promote human rights, including provision of compensation to victims of violations of human rights or their families;
(e) to create and sustain within society the awareness of the provisions of this Constitution as the fundamental law of the people of Uganda;
(f) to educate and encourage the public to defend this Constitution at all times against all forms of abuse and violation;
(g) to formulate, implement and oversee programmes intended to inculcate in the citizens of Uganda awareness of their civic responsibilities and an appreciation of their rights and obligations as free people;
(h) to monitor the Government's compliance with international treaty and convention obligations on human rights; and
(i) to perform such other functions as may be provided by law.
… (Art. 52)

Limitations and/or Derogations

(1) In the enjoyment of the rights and freedoms prescribed in this Chapter, no person shall prejudice the fundamental or other human rights and freedoms of others or the public interest.
(2) Public interest under this article shall not permit-
(a) political persecution;
(b) detention without trial;
(c) any limitation of the enjoyment of the rights and freedoms prescribed by this Chapter beyond what is acceptable and demonstrably justifiable in a free and democratic society, or what is provided in this Constitution. (Art. 43)

Limitations and/or Derogations

Notwithstanding anything in this Constitution, there shall be no derogation from the enjoyment of the following rights and freedoms-
(a) freedom from torture and cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment;
(b) freedom from slavery or servitude;
(c) the right to fair hearing;
(d) the right to an order of habeas corpus. (Art. 44)

Limitations and/or Derogations

The rights, duties, declarations and guarantees relating to the fundamental and other human rights and freedoms specifically mentioned in this Chapter shall not be regarded as excluding others not specifically mentioned. (Art. 45)

Limitations and/or Derogations

(1) An Act of Parliament shall not be taken to contravene the rights and freedoms guaranteed in this Chapter, if that Act authorises the taking of measures that are reasonably justifiable for dealing with a state of emergency.
(2) The provisions of any enactment other than an Act of Parliament dealing with a state of emergency declared under this Constitution shall apply only to that part of Uganda where the emergency exists.
(3) Without prejudice to clause (1) of this article, an Act enacted in accordance with that clause may make provision for the detention of persons where necessary for the purposes of dealing with the emergency. (Art. 46)

Marriage and Family Life

The family is the natural and basic unit of society and is entitled to protection by society and the State. (National Objectives and Directive Principles of State Policy, XIX)

Marriage and Family Life

The exercise and enjoyment of rights and freedoms is inseparable from the performance of duties and obligations; and, accordingly, it shall be the duty of every citizen-

(d) to promote responsible parenthood;
… (National Objectives and Directive Principles of State Policy, XXIX)

Marriage and Family Life

(1) A man and a woman are entitled to marry only if they are each of the age of eighteen years and above and are entitled at that age-
(a) to found a family; and
(b) to equal rights at and in marriage, during marriage and at its dissolution.
(2) Parliament shall make appropriate laws for the protection of the rights of widows and widowers to inherit the property of their deceased spouses and to enjoy parental rights over their children.
(2a) Marriage between persons of the same sex is prohibited.
(3) Marriage shall be entered into with the free consent of the man and woman intending to marry.
(4) It is the right and duty of parents to care for and bring up their children.
(5) Children may not be separated from their families or the persons entitled to bring them up against the will of their families or of those persons, except in accordance with the law. (Art. 31)

Marriage and Family Life

(1) Subject to laws enacted in their best interests, children shall have the right to know and be cared for by their parents or those entitled by law to bring them up.
(2) A child is entitled to basic education which shall be the responsibility of the State and the parents of the child.
… (Art. 34)

Marriage and Family Life

(4) The employer of every woman worker shall accord her protection during pregnancy and after birth, in accordance with the law. (Art. 40)

Marriage and Family Life

(1) The judicial power of Uganda shall be exercised by the courts of judicature which shall consist of-
...
(d) such subordinate courts as Parliament may by law establish, including qadhis courts for marriage, divorce, inheritance of property and guardianship, as may be prescribed by Parliament.
… (Art. 129)

Minorities

Minorities have a right to participate in decision-making processes, and their views and interests shall be taken into account in the making of national plans and programmes. (Art. 36)

Participation in Public Life and Institutions

The State shall ensure gender balance and fair representation of marginalised groups on all constitutional and other bodies. (National Objectives and Directive Principles of State Policy, VI)

Participation in Public Life and Institutions

(i) The State shall give the highest priority to the enactment of legislation establishing measures that protect and enhance the right of the people to equal opportunities in development.
… (National Objectives and Directive Principles of State Policy, XI)

Participation in Public Life and Institutions

The State shall recognise the significant role that women play in society. (National Objectives and Directive Principles of State Policy, XV)

Participation in Public Life and Institutions

(1) All persons are equal before and under the law in all spheres of political, economic, social and cultural life and in every other respect and shall enjoy equal protection of the law.
… (Art. 21)

Participation in Public Life and Institutions

(4) Women shall have the right to equal treatment with men and that right shall include equal opportunities in political, economic and social activities.
… (Art. 33)

Political Rights and Association

(1) Every person shall have the right to –

(e) freedom of association which shall include the freedom to form and join associations or unions, including trade unions and political and other civic organisations.
… (Art. 29)

Political Rights and Association

(4) Women shall have the right to equal treatment with men and that right shall include equal opportunities in political, economic and social activities.
… (Art. 33)

Political Rights and Association

(1) Every Uganda citizen has the right to participate in the affairs of government, individually or through his or her representatives in accordance with law.
(2) Every Ugandan has a right to participate in peaceful activities to influence the policies of government through civic organisations. (Art. 38)

Political Rights and Association

(1) Every citizen of Uganda' of eighteen years of age or above has a right to vote.
(2) It is the duty of every citizen of Uganda of eighteen years of age or above to register as a voter for public elections and referenda.
(3) The State shall take all necessary steps to ensure that all citizens qualified to vote register and exercise their right to vote.
(4) Parliament shall make laws to provide for the facilitation of citizens with disabilities to register and vote. (Art. 59)

Political Rights and Association

(1) Subject to the provisions of this Constitution, the right to form political parties and any other political organisations is guaranteed.

(4) Any person is free to stand for an election as a candidate, independent of a political organisation or political party.
… (Art. 72)

National level

(1) Parliament shall consist of-
(a) members directly elected to represent constituencies;
(b) one woman representative for every district;
(c) such numbers of representatives of the army, youth, workers, persons with disabilities and other groups as Parliament may determine; and
(d) the Vice President and Ministers, who, if not already elected members of Parliament, shall be ex officio members of Parliament without the right to vote on any issue requiring a vote in Parliament.
(2) Upon the expiration of a period of ten years after the commencement of this Constitution and thereafter, every five years, Parliament shall review the representation under clause (1)(b) and (c) of this article for the purposes of retaining, increasing or abolishing any such representation and any other matter incidental to it.
(3) The representatives referred to in clause (l)(a) of this article shall be elected on the basis of universal adult suffrage and by secret ballot.
(4) Parliament shall, by law, prescribe the procedure for elections of representatives referred to in clause (1)(b) and (c) of this article. (Art. 78)

Subnational levels

(1) A local government shall be based on a council which shall be the highest political authority within its area of jurisdiction and which shall have legislative and executive powers to be exercised in accordance with this Constitution.
(2) Parliament shall by law prescribe the composition, qualifications, functions and electoral procedures in respect of local government councils, except that-
(a) the person elected as district chairperson of local government shall be a member of the council;
(b) one-third of the membership of each local government council shall be reserved for women;
(c) any law enacted by virtue of this article shall provide for affirmative action for all marginalised groups referred to in article 32 of this Constitution; and
(d) Parliament shall exercise similar powers of review as stipulated in article 78(2) of this Constitution, in relation to paragraphs (b) and (c) of this clause.
(3) A person shall not be a member of a local government council unless that person is a citizen of Uganda. (Art. 180)

Subnational levels

(1) The composition of regional assembly shall be prescribed by Act of Parliament and shall consist of-
(a) directly elected representatives elected on the basis of universal adult suffrage at elections conducted by the Electoral Commission;
(b) representatives of women, who shall not be less than one-third of the membership;
(c) representatives of the youth and persons with disabilities;
(d) representatives of indigenous cultural interests in areas where there is a traditional or cultural leader, nominated by the traditional or cultural leader but not exceeding fifteen percent of the members of the regional assembly; and
(e) district chairpersons in the region who shall be ex-officio members with no right to vote.
… (Fifth Schedule: Regional governments, Art. 2)

Political Parties

(1) A political party in the multiparty political system shall conform to the following principles-
(a) every political party shall have a national character;
(b) membership of a political party shall not be based on sex, ethnicity, religion or other sectional division;
(c) the internal organisation of a political party shall conform to the democratic principles enshrined in this Constitution;
(d) members of the national organs of a political party shall be regularly elected from citizens of Uganda in conformity with the provisions of paragraphs (a) and (b) of this article and with due consideration for gender;
(e) political parties shall be required by law to account for the sources and use of their funds and assets;
(f) no person shall be compelled to join a particular party by virtue of belonging to an organisation or interest group.
(2) Parliament shall by law prescribe a code ofconduct for political organisations and political parties and provide for the establishment of a national consultative forum for political parties and organisations with such functions as Parliament may prescribe. (Art. 71)

Electoral Bodies

(I) The Electoral Commission shall have the following functions-
(a) to ensure that regular, free and fair elections are held;
(b) to organise, conduct and supervise elections and referenda in accordance with this Constitution;
(c) to demarcate constituencies in accordance with the provisions of this Constitution;
(d) to ascertain, publish and declare in writing under its seal the results of the elections and referenda;
(e) to compile, maintain, revise and update the voters register;
(f) to hear and determine election complaints arising before and during polling;
(g) to formulate and implement voter educational programmes relating to elections; and
(h) to perform such other functions as may be prescribed by Parliament by law.
… (Art. 61)

Head of State

(1) There shall be a President of Uganda who shall be the Head of State, Head of Government and Commander-in-Chief of the Uganda Peoples' Defence Forces and the Fountain of Honour.
… (Art. 98)

Head of State

A person is not qualified for election as President unless that person is-
(a) a citizen of Uganda by birth;
(b) not less than thirty-five years and not more than seventy-five years of age; and
(c) a person qualified to be a member of Parliament. (Art. 102)

Head of State

(1) The election of the President shall be by universal adult suffrage through a secret ballot.
(2) A person shall not be a candidate in a presidential election unless-
(a) that person submits to the Electoral Commission on or before the day appointed as nomination day in relation to the election, a document which is signed by that person nominating him or her as a candidate; and
(b) the nomination is supported by one hundred voters in each of at least two-thirds of all the districts in Uganda.
… (Art. 103)

Vice-President

A person is not qualified for election as President unless that person is-
(a) a citizen of Uganda by birth;
(b) not less than thirty-five years and not more than seventy-five years of age; and
(c) a person qualified to be a member of Parliament. (Art. 102)

Vice-President

(1) There shall be a Vice President of Uganda.
(2) The President shall, with the approval of Parliament by a simple majority, appoint a Vice President.

(4) The qualifications prescribed for the office of President by article 102 of this Constitution shall apply to the office of Vice President.
… (Art. 108)

Government

(1) There shall be a Prime Minister who shall be appointed by the President with approval of Parliament by simple majority from among members of Parliament or persons qualified to be elected members of Parliament.
… (Art. 108A)

Government

(1) There shall be a Cabinet which shall consist of the President, the Vice President, the Prime Minister and such number of Ministers as may appear to the President to be reasonably necessary for the efficient running of the State.
… (Art. 111)

Government

(1) Cabinet Ministers shall be appointed by the President with the approval of Parliament from among members of Parliament or persons qualified to be elected members of Parliament.
… (Art. 113)

Legislature

(1) There shall be a Parliament of Uganda.
… (Art. 77)

Legislature

(1) Parliament shall consist of-
(a) members directly elected to represent constituencies;
(b) one woman representative for every district;
(c) such numbers of representatives of the army, youth, workers, persons with disabilities and other groups as Parliament may determine; and
(d) the Vice President and Ministers, who, if not already elected members of Parliament, shall be ex officio members of Parliament without the right to vote on any issue requiring a vote in Parliament.
(2) Upon the expiration of a period of ten years after the commencement of this Constitution and thereafter, every five years,
Parliament shall review the representation under clause (1)(b) and (c) of this article for the purposes of retaining, increasing or abolishing any such representation and any other matter incidental to it.
(3) The representatives referred to in clause (l)(a) of this article shall be elected on the basis of universal adult suffrage and by secret ballot.
(4) Parliament shall, by law, prescribe the procedure for elections of representatives referred to in clause (1)(b) and (c) of this article. (Art. 78)

Legislature

(1) A person is qualified to be a member of Parliament if that person-
(a) is a citizen of Uganda;
(b) is a registered voter; and
(c) has completed a minimum formal education of Advanced Level standard or its equivalent which shall be established in a manner and at a time prescribed by Parliament by law.
… (Art. 80)

Property, Inheritance and Land Tenure

(iii) In furtherance of social justice, the State may regulate the acquisition, ownership, use and disposition of land and other property, in accordance with the Constitution. (National Objectives and Directive Principles of State Policy, XI)

Property, Inheritance and Land Tenure

(1) Every person has a right to own property either individually or in association with others.
… (Art. 26)

Property, Inheritance and Land Tenure

(2) Parliament shall make appropriate laws for the protection of the rights of widows and widowers to inherit the property of their deceased spouses and to enjoy parental rights over their children.
… (Art. 31)

Property, Inheritance and Land Tenure

(1) The judicial power of Uganda shall be exercised by the courts of judicature which shall consist of-

(d) such subordinate courts as Parliament may by law establish, including qadhis courts for marriage, divorce, inheritance of property and guardianship, as may be prescribed by Parliament.
… (Art. 129)

Property, Inheritance and Land Tenure

(1) Land in Uganda belongs to the citizens of Uganda and shall vest in them in accordance with the land tenure systems provided for in this Constitution.

(3) Land in Uganda shall be owned in accordance with the following land tenure systems-
(a) customary;
(b) freehold;
(c) mailo; and
(d) leasehold.
(4) On the coming into force of this Constitution-
(a) all Uganda citizens owning land under customary tenure may acquire certificates of ownership in a manner prescribed by Parliament; and
(b) land under customary tenure may be converted to freehold land ownership by registration.
(5) Any lease which was granted to a Uganda citizen out of public land may be converted into freehold in accordance with a law which shall be made by Parliament.
(6) For the purposes of clause (5) of this article, "public land" includes statutory leases to urban authorities.
(7) Parliament shall make laws to enable urban authorities to enforce and to implement planning and development.
(8) Upon the coming into force of this Constitution and until Parliament enacts an appropriate law under clause (9) of this article, the lawful or bona fide occupants of mailo land, freehold or leasehold land shall enjoy security of occupancy on the land.
(9) Within two years after the first sitting of Parliament elected under this Constitution, Parliament shall enact a law-
(a) regulating the relationship between the lawful or bona fide occupants of land referred to in clause (8) of this article and the registered owners of that land;
(b) providing for the acquisition of registrable interest in the land by the occupant. (Art. 237)

Protection from Violence

No person shall be subjected to any form of torture or cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment. (Art. 24)

Protection from Violence

(1) No person shall be held in slavery or servitude.
(2) No person shall be required to perform forced labour.
… (Art. 25)

Protection from Violence

(4) Children are entitled to be protected from social or economic exploitation and shall not be employed in or required to perform work that is likely to be hazardous or to interfere with their education or to be harmful to their health or physical, mental, spiritual, moral or social development.
… (Art. 34)

Protection from Violence

Notwithstanding anything in this Constitution, there shall be no derogation from the enjoyment of the following rights and freedoms-
(a) freedom from torture and cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment;
(b) freedom from slavery or servitude;
… (Art. 44)

Public Institutions and Services

The family is the natural and basic unit of society and is entitled to protection by society and the State. (National Objectives and Directive Principles of State Policy, XIX)

Public Institutions and Services

(1) Notwithstanding anything in this Constitution, the State shall take affirmative action in favour of groups marginalised on the basis of gender, age, disability or any other reason created by history, tradition or custom, for the purpose of redressing imbalances which exist against them.
(2) Laws, cultures, customs and traditions which are against the dignity, welfare or interest of women or any other marginalised group to which clause (1) relates or which undermine their status, are prohibited by this Constitution.
(3) There shall be a commission called the Equal Opportunities Commission whose composition and functions shall be determined by an Act of Parliament.
(4) The Equal Opportunities Commission shall be established within one year after the coming into force of the Constitution (Amendment) Act, 2005.
(5) Parliament shall make laws for the purpose of giving full effect to this article. (Art. 32)

Sexual and Reproductive Rights

(2) No person has the right to terminate the life of an unborn child except as may be authorised by law. (Art. 22)

Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity

(2a) Marriage between persons of the same sex is prohibited.
… (Art. 31)

Status of the Constitution

The exercise and enjoyment of rights and freedoms is inseparable from the performance of duties and obligations; and, accordingly, it shall be the duty of every citizen-

(g) to acquaint himself or herself with the provisions of the Constitution and to uphold and defend the Constitution and the law. (National Objectives and Directive Principles of State Policy, XXIX)

Status of the Constitution

(1) This Constitution is the supreme law of Uganda and shall have binding force on all authorities and persons throughout Uganda.
(2) If any other law or any custom is inconsistent with any of the provisions of this Constitution, the Constitution shall prevail, and that other law or custom shall, to the extent of the inconsistency, be void. (Art. 2)

Status of International Law

(1) The [Human Rights] commission shall have the following functions-

(h) to monitor the Government's compliance with international treaty and convention obligations on human rights;
… (Art. 52)

Religious Law

Uganda shall not adopt a State religion. (Art. 7)

Religious Law

(1) The judicial power of Uganda shall be exercised by the courts of judicature which shall consist of-

(d) such subordinate courts as Parliament may by law establish, including qadhis courts for marriage, divorce, inheritance of property and guardianship, as may be prescribed by Parliament.
… (Art. 129)

Customary Law

Cultural and customary values which are consistent with fundamental rights and freedoms, human dignity, democracy and with the Constitution may be developed and incorporated in aspects of Ugandan life.
The State shall-
(a) promote and preserve those cultural values and practices which enhance the dignity and well-being of Ugandans;
… (National Objectives and Directive Principles of State Policy, XXIV)

Customary Law

(2) If any other law or any custom is inconsistent with any of the provisions of this Constitution, the Constitution shall prevail, and that other law or custom shall, to the extent of the inconsistency, be void. (Art. 2)

Customary Law

(1) Notwithstanding anything in this Constitution, the State shall take affirmative action in favour of groups marginalised on the basis of gender, age, disability or any other reason created by history, tradition or custom, for the purpose of redressing imbalances which exist against them.
(2) Laws, cultures, customs and traditions which are against the dignity, welfare or interest of women or any other marginalised group to which clause (1) relates or which undermine their status, are prohibited by this Constitution.
… (Art. 32)

Customary Law

(5) Without prejudice to article 32 of this Constitution, women shall have the right to affirmative action for the purpose of redressing the imbalances created by history, tradition or custom. (Art. 33)

Customary Law

(1) The judicial power of Uganda shall be exercised by the courts of judicature which shall consist of-

(d) such subordinate courts as Parliament may by law establish, including qadhis courts for marriage, divorce, inheritance of property and guardianship, as may be prescribed by Parliament.
… (Art. 129)

Customary Law

(3) Land in Uganda shall be owned in accordance with the following land tenure systems-
(a) customary;
(b) freehold;
(c) mailo; and
(d) leasehold.
(4) On the coming into force of this Constitution-
(a) all Uganda citizens owning land under customary tenure may acquire certificates of ownership in a manner prescribed by Parliament; and
(b) land under customary tenure may be converted to freehold land ownership by registration. … (Art. 237)

Customary Law

(1) Subject to the provisions of this Constitution, the institution of traditional leader or cultural leader may exist in any area of Uganda in accordance with the culture, customs and traditions or wishes and aspirations of the people to whom it applies.
(2) In any community, where the issue of traditional or cultural leader has not been resolved, the issue shall be resolved by the community concerned using a method prescribed by Parliament.

(4) The allegiance and privileges accorded to a traditional leader or a cultural leader by virtue of that office shall not be regarded as a discriminatory practice prohibited under article 21 of this Constitution; but any custom, practice, usage or tradition relating to a traditional leader or cultural leader which detracts from the rights of any person as guaranteed by this Constitution, shall be taken to be prohibited under that article.
(5) For the avoidance of doubt, the institution of traditional leader or cultural leader existing immediately before the coming into force of this Constitution shall be taken to exist in accordance with the provisions of this Constitution.
(6) For the purposes of this article, "traditional leader or cultural leader" means a king or similar traditional leader or cultural leader by whatever name called, who derives allegiance from the fact of birth or descent in accordance with the customs, traditions, usage or consent of the people led by that traditional or cultural leader. (Art. 246)

Customary Law

(1) A regional assembly may establish standing and other committees or organs for the efficient discharge of its functions.
(2) The representatives of cultural interests shall constitute the standing committee on cultural matters.
(3) The standing committee on cultural matters shall have, as against the rest of the members of the regional assembly, exclusive jurisdiction on the cultural matters of the region.
(4) In this paragraph "cultural matters" include the following-
(a) the choice and installation of a traditional leader or cultural leader;
(b) all traditional and cultural matters relating to the traditional or cultural leader and to the institutions of the traditional leader or cultural leader as well as royal members of the traditional leadership;
(c) the choice, appointment and succession to clan and subclan leadership;
(d) clan, traditional and customary 'matters;
(e) matters relating' to cultural funeral rites, cultural succession and customary heirs;
(f) cultural or traditional lands, sites, shrines and installations;
(g) clan lands, sites, shrines and installations; and
(h) traditional, customary and cultural practices which are consistent with this Constitution.
(5) In carrying out its responsibilities under subparagraphs (3) and (4), the standing committee on cultural matters shall consult the traditional or cultural leader of the region as well as the relevant clan leaders.
(6) A decision of the standing committee on cultural matters shall not be effective until the decision has been approved by the traditional or cultural leader of the region and, in the case of succession under subparagraph.
(4)(a), by the clan or cultural leader's council. (Fifth Schedule: Regional governments, Art. 3)

Customary Law

Where a traditional leader or cultural leader exists in a region the traditional or cultural leader shall-
(a) be the titular head of the regional government;
(b) be the titular head of the regional assembly and shall open, address and close the sessions of the regional assembly; and
(c) enjoy the benefits, privileges and roles as provided for in article 246 of this Constitution and by Parliament and the regional assembly. (Fifth Schedule: Regional governments, Art. 8)

Women’s Rights

(1) Women shall be accorded full and equal dignity of the person with men.
(2) The State shall provide the facilities and opportunities necessary to enhance the welfare of women to enable them to realise their full potential and advancement.
(3) The State shall protect women and their rights, taking into account their unique status and natural maternal functions in society.
(4) Women shall have the right to equal treatment with men and that right shall include equal opportunities in political, economic and social activities.
(5) Without prejudice to article 32 of this Constitution, women shall have the right to affirmative action for the purpose of redressing the imbalances created by history, tradition or custom. (Art. 33)

Affirmative Action (Broadly)

English

(1) All persons are equal before and under the law in all spheres of political, economic, social and cultural life and in every other respect and shall enjoy equal protection of the law.
(2) Without prejudice to clause (l) of this article, a person shall not be discriminated against on the ground of sex, race, colour, ethnic origin, tribe, birth, creed or religion, social or economic standing, political opinion or disability.
(3) For the purposes of this article, “discriminate” means to give different treatment to different persons attributable only or mainly to their respective descriptions by sex, race, colour, ethnic origin, tribe, birth, creed or religion, social or economic standing, political opinion or disability.
(4) Nothing in this article shall prevent Parliament from enacting laws that are necessary for-
(a) implementing policies and programmes aimed at redressing social, economic, educational or other imbalance in society;
… (Art. 21)

Affirmative Action (Broadly)

English

(1) Notwithstanding anything in this Constitution, the State shall take affirmative action in favour of groups marginalised on the basis of gender, age, disability or any other reason created by history, tradition or custom, for the purpose of redressing imbalances which exist against them.
(2) Laws, cultures, customs and traditions which are against the dignity, welfare or interest of women or any other marginalised group to which clause (1) relates or which undermine their status, are prohibited by this Constitution.
… (Art. 32)

Affirmative Action (Broadly)

English

(1) Women shall be accorded full and equal dignity of the person with men.

(5) Without prejudice to article 32 of this Constitution, women shall have the right to affirmative action for the purpose of redressing the imbalances created by history, tradition or custom. (Art. 33)

Affirmative Action (Broadly)

English

The State shall ensure gender balance and fair representation of marginalised groups on all constitutional and other bodies. (National Objectives and Directive Principles of State Policy, VI)

Citizenship and Nationality

English

The following persons shall be citizens of Uganda by birth-
(a) every person born in Uganda one of whose parents or grandparents is or was a member of any of the indigenous communities existing and residing within the borders of Uganda as at the first day of February, 1926, and set out in the Third Schedule to this Constitution; and
(b) every person born in or outside Uganda one of whose parents or grandparents was at the time of birth of that person a citizen of Uganda by birth. (Art. 10)

Citizenship and Nationality

English

(1) Every person born in Uganda
(a) at the time of whose birth-
(i) neither of his or her parents and none of his or her grandparents had diplomatic status in Uganda; and
(ii) neither of his or her parents and none of his or her grandparents was a refugee in Uganda; and (b) who has lived continuously in Uganda since the ninth day of
October, 1962, shall, on application, be entitled to be registered as a citizen of Uganda.
(2) The following persons shall, upon application, be registered as citizens of Uganda-
(a) every person married to a Uganda citizen upon proof of a legal and subsisting marriage of three years or such other period prescribed by Parliament;
(b) every person who has legally and voluntarily migrated to and has been living in Uganda for at least ten years or such other period prescribed by Parliament;
(c) every person who, on the commencement of this Constitution, has lived in Uganda for at least twenty years.
(3) Clause (2)(a) of this article applies also to a person who was married to a citizen of Uganda who, but for his or her death, would have continued to be a citizen of Uganda under this Constitution.
(4) Where a person has been registered as a citizen of Uganda under clause (2)(a) of this article and the marriage by virtue of which that person was registered is-
(a) annulled or otherwise declared void by a court or tribunal of competent jurisdiction; or
(b) dissolved, that person shall, unless he or she renounces that citizenship, continue to be a citizen of Uganda. (Art. 12)

Citizenship and Nationality

English

Parliament shall by law provide for the acquisition and loss of citizenship by naturalisation. (Art. 13)

Citizenship and Nationality

English

(1) A citizen of Uganda of eighteen years and above, who voluntarily acquires the citizenship of a country other than Uganda may retain the citizenship of Uganda subject to this Constitution and any law enacted by Parliament,
(2) A person who is not a citizen of Uganda may, on acquiring the citizenship of Uganda, subject to this Constitution and any law enacted by Parliament, retain the citizenship of another country.

(5) Where the law of a country, other than Uganda, requires a person who marries a citizen of that country to renounce the citizenship of his or her own country by virtue of that marriage, a citizen of Uganda who is deprived of his or her citizenship by virtue of that marriage shall, on the dissolution of that marriage, if he or she thereby loses his or her citizenship acquired by that marriage, become a citizen of Uganda.
(6) Parliament shall by law prescribe the circumstances under which-
(a) a citizen of Uganda who acquires the citizenship of another country, may retain the citizenship of Uganda;
(b) a citizen of Uganda whose citizenship of origin is of another country and who holds the citizenship of another country, may cease to be a citizen of Uganda;
(c ) a person who is not a citizen of Uganda may, on acquiring Uganda citizenship, retain the citizenship of another country. (Art. 15)

Citizenship and Nationality

English

5 Citizenship, … (Sixth Schedule: Functions and services for which Government is responsible)

Composition and Appointment

English

(1) A person shall be qualified for appointment as-

(d) a justice of Appeal, if he or she has served as a judge of the High Court or a court having similar or higher jurisdiction or has practised as an advocate for a period not less than ten years before a court having unlimited jurisdiction in civil and criminal matters or is a distinguished jurist and an advocate of not less than ten years' standing;
… (Art. 143)

Jurisdiction and Access

English

(1) Any question as to the interpretation of this Constitution shall be determined by the Court of Appeal sitting as the constitutional court.

(3) A person who alleges that-
(a) an Act of Parliament or any other law or anything in or done under the authority of any law; or
(b) any act or omission by any person or authority,
is inconsistent with or in contravention of provision of this Constitution, may petition the constitutional court for a declaration to that effect, and for redress where appropriate.
(4) Where upon determination of the petition under clause (3) of this article the constitutional court considers that there is need for redress in addition to the declaration sought, the constitutional court may-
(a) grant an order of redress; or
(b) refer the matter to the High Court to investigate and determine the appropriate redress.
(5) Where any question as to the interpretation of this Constitution arises in any proceedings in a court of law other than a field court martial, the court-
(a) may, if it is of the opinion that the question involves a substantial question of law; and
(b) shall, if any party to the proceedings requests it to do so, refer the question to the constitutional court for decision in accordance with clause (1) of this article.
(6) Where any question is referred to the constitutional court under clause (5) of this article, the constitutional court shall give its decision on the question, and the court in which the question arises shall dispose of the case in accordance with that decision.
… (Art. 137)

Education

English

(i) The State shall promote free and compulsory basic education.
(ii) The State shall take appropriate measures to afford every citizen equal opportunity to attain the highest educational standard possible.
… (National Objectives and Directive Principles of State Policy, XVIII)

Education

English

All persons have a right to education. (Art. 30)

Education

English

(2) A child is entitled to basic education which shall be the responsibility of the State and the parents of the child.
… (Art. 34)

Employment Rights and Protection

English

(1) Parliament shall enact laws-
(a) to provide for the right of persons to work under satisfactory, safe and healthy conditions;
(b) to ensure equal payment for equal work without discrimination;
(c) to ensure that every worker is accorded rest and reasonable working hours and periods of holidays with pay, as well as remuneration for public holidays.
(2) Every person in Uganda has the right to practise his or her profession and to carry on any lawful occupation, trade or business.

(4) The employer of every woman worker shall accord her protection during pregnancy and after birth, in accordance with the law. (Art. 40)

Equality and Non-Discrimination

English

… COMMITTED to building a better future by establishing a socioeconomic and political order through a popular and durable national Constitution based on the principles of unity, peace, equality, democracy, freedom, social justice and progress; ... (Preamble)

Equality and Non-Discrimination

English

(1) All persons are equal before and under the law in all spheres of political, economic, social and cultural life and in every other respect and shall enjoy equal protection of the law.
(2) Without prejudice to clause (l) of this article, a person shall not be discriminated against on the ground of sex, race, colour, ethnic origin, tribe, birth, creed or religion, social or economic standing, political opinion or disability.
(3) For the purposes of this article, “discriminate” means to give different treatment to different persons attributable only or mainly to their respective descriptions by sex, race, colour, ethnic origin, tribe, birth, creed or religion, social or economic standing, political opinion or disability.
(4) Nothing in this article shall prevent Parliament from enacting laws that are necessary for-
(a) implementing policies and programmes aimed at redressing social, economic, educational or other imbalance in society; or
(b) making such provision as is required or authorised to be made under this Constitution; or
(c) providing for any matter acceptable and demonstrably justified in a free and democratic society.
(5) Nothing shall be taken to be inconsistent with this article which is allowed to be done under any provision of this Constitution. (Art. 21)

Equality and Non-Discrimination

English

(1) Notwithstanding anything in this Constitution, the State shall take affirmative action in favour of groups marginalised on the basis of gender, age, disability or any other reason created by history, tradition or custom, for the purpose of redressing imbalances which exist against them.
(2) Laws, cultures, customs and traditions which are against the dignity, welfare or interest of women or any other marginalised group to which clause (1) relates or which undermine their status, are prohibited by this Constitution.
(3) There shall be a commission called the Equal Opportunities Commission whose composition and functions shall be determined by an Act of Parliament.
(4) The Equal Opportunities Commission shall be established within one year after the coming into force of the Constitution (Amendment) Act, 2005.
(5) Parliament shall make laws for the purpose of giving full effect to this article. (Art. 32)

Equality and Non-Discrimination

English

(1) Women shall be accorded full and equal dignity of the person with men.

(4) Women shall have the right to equal treatment with men and that right shall include equal opportunities in political, economic and social activities.
(5) Without prejudice to article 32 of this Constitution, women shall have the right to affirmative action for the purpose of redressing the imbalances created by history, tradition or custom. (Art. 33)

Obligations of the State

English

(i) The State shall guarantee and respect institutions which are charged by the State with responsibility for protecting and promoting human rights by providing them with adequate resources to function effectively.
(ii) The State shall guarantee and respect the independence of nongovernmental organisations which protect and promote human rights. (National Objectives and Directive Principles of State Policy, V)

Obligations of the State

English

(1) Fundamental rights and freedoms of the individual are inherent and not granted by the State.
(2) The rights and freedoms of the individual and groups enshrined in this Chapter shall be respected, upheld and promoted by all organs and agencies of Government and by all persons. (Art. 20)

Obligations of the State

English

The rights, duties, declarations and guarantees relating to the fundamental and other human rights and freedoms specifically mentioned in this Chapter shall not be regarded as excluding others not specifically mentioned. (Art. 45)

Obligations of Private Parties

English

(1) It is the duty of every citizen of Uganda-

(b) to respect the rights and freedoms of others;
… (Art. 17)

Obligations of Private Parties

English

(2) The rights and freedoms of the individual and groups enshrined in this Chapter shall be respected, upheld and promoted by all organs and agencies of Government and by all persons. (Art. 20)

Obligations of Private Parties

English

(1) In the enjoyment of the rights and freedoms prescribed in this Chapter, no person shall prejudice the fundamental or other human rights and freedoms of others or the public interest.
… (Art. 43)

Obligations of Private Parties

English

(10) In this Constitution, unless the context otherwise requires-
(a) words referring to natural persons include a reference to corporations;
… (Art. 257)

Judicial Protection

English

(1) Any person who claims that a fundamental or other right or freedom guaranteed under this Constitution has been infringed or threatened, is entitled to apply to a competent court for redress which may include compensation.
(2) Any person or organisation may bring an action against the violation of another person's or group's human rights.
(3) Any person aggrieved by any decision o fthe court may appeal to the appropriate court.
(4) Parliament shall make laws for the enforcement of the rights and freedoms under this Chapter. (Art. 50)

National Human Rights Bodies

English

(1) There shall be a commission called the Uganda Human Rights Commission.
… (Art. 51)

National Human Rights Bodies

English

(1) The commission shall have the following functions-
(a) to investigate, at its own initiative or on a complaint made by any person or group of persons against the violation of any human right;
(b) to visit jails, prisons, and places of detention or related facilities with a view to assessing and inspecting conditions of the inmates and make recommendations;
(c) to establish a continuing programme of research, education and information to enhance respect of human rights;
(d) to recommend to Parliament effective measures to promote human rights, including provision of compensation to victims of violations of human rights or their families;
(e) to create and sustain within society the awareness of the provisions of this Constitution as the fundamental law of the people of Uganda;
(f) to educate and encourage the public to defend this Constitution at all times against all forms of abuse and violation;
(g) to formulate, implement and oversee programmes intended to inculcate in the citizens of Uganda awareness of their civic responsibilities and an appreciation of their rights and obligations as free people;
(h) to monitor the Government's compliance with international treaty and convention obligations on human rights; and
(i) to perform such other functions as may be provided by law.
… (Art. 52)

Limitations and/or Derogations

English

(1) In the enjoyment of the rights and freedoms prescribed in this Chapter, no person shall prejudice the fundamental or other human rights and freedoms of others or the public interest.
(2) Public interest under this article shall not permit-
(a) political persecution;
(b) detention without trial;
(c) any limitation of the enjoyment of the rights and freedoms prescribed by this Chapter beyond what is acceptable and demonstrably justifiable in a free and democratic society, or what is provided in this Constitution. (Art. 43)

Limitations and/or Derogations

English

Notwithstanding anything in this Constitution, there shall be no derogation from the enjoyment of the following rights and freedoms-
(a) freedom from torture and cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment;
(b) freedom from slavery or servitude;
(c) the right to fair hearing;
(d) the right to an order of habeas corpus. (Art. 44)

Limitations and/or Derogations

English

The rights, duties, declarations and guarantees relating to the fundamental and other human rights and freedoms specifically mentioned in this Chapter shall not be regarded as excluding others not specifically mentioned. (Art. 45)

Limitations and/or Derogations

English

(1) An Act of Parliament shall not be taken to contravene the rights and freedoms guaranteed in this Chapter, if that Act authorises the taking of measures that are reasonably justifiable for dealing with a state of emergency.
(2) The provisions of any enactment other than an Act of Parliament dealing with a state of emergency declared under this Constitution shall apply only to that part of Uganda where the emergency exists.
(3) Without prejudice to clause (1) of this article, an Act enacted in accordance with that clause may make provision for the detention of persons where necessary for the purposes of dealing with the emergency. (Art. 46)

Marriage and Family Life

English

The family is the natural and basic unit of society and is entitled to protection by society and the State. (National Objectives and Directive Principles of State Policy, XIX)

Marriage and Family Life

English

The exercise and enjoyment of rights and freedoms is inseparable from the performance of duties and obligations; and, accordingly, it shall be the duty of every citizen-

(d) to promote responsible parenthood;
… (National Objectives and Directive Principles of State Policy, XXIX)

Marriage and Family Life

English

(1) A man and a woman are entitled to marry only if they are each of the age of eighteen years and above and are entitled at that age-
(a) to found a family; and
(b) to equal rights at and in marriage, during marriage and at its dissolution.
(2) Parliament shall make appropriate laws for the protection of the rights of widows and widowers to inherit the property of their deceased spouses and to enjoy parental rights over their children.
(2a) Marriage between persons of the same sex is prohibited.
(3) Marriage shall be entered into with the free consent of the man and woman intending to marry.
(4) It is the right and duty of parents to care for and bring up their children.
(5) Children may not be separated from their families or the persons entitled to bring them up against the will of their families or of those persons, except in accordance with the law. (Art. 31)

Marriage and Family Life

English

(1) Subject to laws enacted in their best interests, children shall have the right to know and be cared for by their parents or those entitled by law to bring them up.
(2) A child is entitled to basic education which shall be the responsibility of the State and the parents of the child.
… (Art. 34)

Marriage and Family Life

English

(4) The employer of every woman worker shall accord her protection during pregnancy and after birth, in accordance with the law. (Art. 40)

Marriage and Family Life

English

(1) The judicial power of Uganda shall be exercised by the courts of judicature which shall consist of-
...
(d) such subordinate courts as Parliament may by law establish, including qadhis courts for marriage, divorce, inheritance of property and guardianship, as may be prescribed by Parliament.
… (Art. 129)

Minorities

English

Minorities have a right to participate in decision-making processes, and their views and interests shall be taken into account in the making of national plans and programmes. (Art. 36)

Participation in Public Life and Institutions

English

The State shall ensure gender balance and fair representation of marginalised groups on all constitutional and other bodies. (National Objectives and Directive Principles of State Policy, VI)

Participation in Public Life and Institutions

English

(i) The State shall give the highest priority to the enactment of legislation establishing measures that protect and enhance the right of the people to equal opportunities in development.
… (National Objectives and Directive Principles of State Policy, XI)

Participation in Public Life and Institutions

English

The State shall recognise the significant role that women play in society. (National Objectives and Directive Principles of State Policy, XV)

Participation in Public Life and Institutions

English

(1) All persons are equal before and under the law in all spheres of political, economic, social and cultural life and in every other respect and shall enjoy equal protection of the law.
… (Art. 21)

Participation in Public Life and Institutions

English

(4) Women shall have the right to equal treatment with men and that right shall include equal opportunities in political, economic and social activities.
… (Art. 33)

Political Rights and Association

English

(1) Every person shall have the right to –

(e) freedom of association which shall include the freedom to form and join associations or unions, including trade unions and political and other civic organisations.
… (Art. 29)

Political Rights and Association

English

(4) Women shall have the right to equal treatment with men and that right shall include equal opportunities in political, economic and social activities.
… (Art. 33)

Political Rights and Association

English

(1) Every Uganda citizen has the right to participate in the affairs of government, individually or through his or her representatives in accordance with law.
(2) Every Ugandan has a right to participate in peaceful activities to influence the policies of government through civic organisations. (Art. 38)

Political Rights and Association

English

(1) Every citizen of Uganda' of eighteen years of age or above has a right to vote.
(2) It is the duty of every citizen of Uganda of eighteen years of age or above to register as a voter for public elections and referenda.
(3) The State shall take all necessary steps to ensure that all citizens qualified to vote register and exercise their right to vote.
(4) Parliament shall make laws to provide for the facilitation of citizens with disabilities to register and vote. (Art. 59)

Political Rights and Association

English

(1) Subject to the provisions of this Constitution, the right to form political parties and any other political organisations is guaranteed.

(4) Any person is free to stand for an election as a candidate, independent of a political organisation or political party.
… (Art. 72)

National level

English

(1) Parliament shall consist of-
(a) members directly elected to represent constituencies;
(b) one woman representative for every district;
(c) such numbers of representatives of the army, youth, workers, persons with disabilities and other groups as Parliament may determine; and
(d) the Vice President and Ministers, who, if not already elected members of Parliament, shall be ex officio members of Parliament without the right to vote on any issue requiring a vote in Parliament.
(2) Upon the expiration of a period of ten years after the commencement of this Constitution and thereafter, every five years, Parliament shall review the representation under clause (1)(b) and (c) of this article for the purposes of retaining, increasing or abolishing any such representation and any other matter incidental to it.
(3) The representatives referred to in clause (l)(a) of this article shall be elected on the basis of universal adult suffrage and by secret ballot.
(4) Parliament shall, by law, prescribe the procedure for elections of representatives referred to in clause (1)(b) and (c) of this article. (Art. 78)

Subnational levels

English

(1) A local government shall be based on a council which shall be the highest political authority within its area of jurisdiction and which shall have legislative and executive powers to be exercised in accordance with this Constitution.
(2) Parliament shall by law prescribe the composition, qualifications, functions and electoral procedures in respect of local government councils, except that-
(a) the person elected as district chairperson of local government shall be a member of the council;
(b) one-third of the membership of each local government council shall be reserved for women;
(c) any law enacted by virtue of this article shall provide for affirmative action for all marginalised groups referred to in article 32 of this Constitution; and
(d) Parliament shall exercise similar powers of review as stipulated in article 78(2) of this Constitution, in relation to paragraphs (b) and (c) of this clause.
(3) A person shall not be a member of a local government council unless that person is a citizen of Uganda. (Art. 180)

Subnational levels

English

(1) The composition of regional assembly shall be prescribed by Act of Parliament and shall consist of-
(a) directly elected representatives elected on the basis of universal adult suffrage at elections conducted by the Electoral Commission;
(b) representatives of women, who shall not be less than one-third of the membership;
(c) representatives of the youth and persons with disabilities;
(d) representatives of indigenous cultural interests in areas where there is a traditional or cultural leader, nominated by the traditional or cultural leader but not exceeding fifteen percent of the members of the regional assembly; and
(e) district chairpersons in the region who shall be ex-officio members with no right to vote.
… (Fifth Schedule: Regional governments, Art. 2)

Political Parties

English

(1) A political party in the multiparty political system shall conform to the following principles-
(a) every political party shall have a national character;
(b) membership of a political party shall not be based on sex, ethnicity, religion or other sectional division;
(c) the internal organisation of a political party shall conform to the democratic principles enshrined in this Constitution;
(d) members of the national organs of a political party shall be regularly elected from citizens of Uganda in conformity with the provisions of paragraphs (a) and (b) of this article and with due consideration for gender;
(e) political parties shall be required by law to account for the sources and use of their funds and assets;
(f) no person shall be compelled to join a particular party by virtue of belonging to an organisation or interest group.
(2) Parliament shall by law prescribe a code ofconduct for political organisations and political parties and provide for the establishment of a national consultative forum for political parties and organisations with such functions as Parliament may prescribe. (Art. 71)

Electoral Bodies

English

(I) The Electoral Commission shall have the following functions-
(a) to ensure that regular, free and fair elections are held;
(b) to organise, conduct and supervise elections and referenda in accordance with this Constitution;
(c) to demarcate constituencies in accordance with the provisions of this Constitution;
(d) to ascertain, publish and declare in writing under its seal the results of the elections and referenda;
(e) to compile, maintain, revise and update the voters register;
(f) to hear and determine election complaints arising before and during polling;
(g) to formulate and implement voter educational programmes relating to elections; and
(h) to perform such other functions as may be prescribed by Parliament by law.
… (Art. 61)

Head of State

English

(1) There shall be a President of Uganda who shall be the Head of State, Head of Government and Commander-in-Chief of the Uganda Peoples' Defence Forces and the Fountain of Honour.
… (Art. 98)

Head of State

English

A person is not qualified for election as President unless that person is-
(a) a citizen of Uganda by birth;
(b) not less than thirty-five years and not more than seventy-five years of age; and
(c) a person qualified to be a member of Parliament. (Art. 102)

Head of State

English

(1) The election of the President shall be by universal adult suffrage through a secret ballot.
(2) A person shall not be a candidate in a presidential election unless-
(a) that person submits to the Electoral Commission on or before the day appointed as nomination day in relation to the election, a document which is signed by that person nominating him or her as a candidate; and
(b) the nomination is supported by one hundred voters in each of at least two-thirds of all the districts in Uganda.
… (Art. 103)

Vice-President

English

A person is not qualified for election as President unless that person is-
(a) a citizen of Uganda by birth;
(b) not less than thirty-five years and not more than seventy-five years of age; and
(c) a person qualified to be a member of Parliament. (Art. 102)

Vice-President

English

(1) There shall be a Vice President of Uganda.
(2) The President shall, with the approval of Parliament by a simple majority, appoint a Vice President.

(4) The qualifications prescribed for the office of President by article 102 of this Constitution shall apply to the office of Vice President.
… (Art. 108)

Government

English

(1) There shall be a Prime Minister who shall be appointed by the President with approval of Parliament by simple majority from among members of Parliament or persons qualified to be elected members of Parliament.
… (Art. 108A)

Government

English

(1) There shall be a Cabinet which shall consist of the President, the Vice President, the Prime Minister and such number of Ministers as may appear to the President to be reasonably necessary for the efficient running of the State.
… (Art. 111)

Government

English

(1) Cabinet Ministers shall be appointed by the President with the approval of Parliament from among members of Parliament or persons qualified to be elected members of Parliament.
… (Art. 113)

Legislature

English

(1) There shall be a Parliament of Uganda.
… (Art. 77)

Legislature

English

(1) Parliament shall consist of-
(a) members directly elected to represent constituencies;
(b) one woman representative for every district;
(c) such numbers of representatives of the army, youth, workers, persons with disabilities and other groups as Parliament may determine; and
(d) the Vice President and Ministers, who, if not already elected members of Parliament, shall be ex officio members of Parliament without the right to vote on any issue requiring a vote in Parliament.
(2) Upon the expiration of a period of ten years after the commencement of this Constitution and thereafter, every five years,
Parliament shall review the representation under clause (1)(b) and (c) of this article for the purposes of retaining, increasing or abolishing any such representation and any other matter incidental to it.
(3) The representatives referred to in clause (l)(a) of this article shall be elected on the basis of universal adult suffrage and by secret ballot.
(4) Parliament shall, by law, prescribe the procedure for elections of representatives referred to in clause (1)(b) and (c) of this article. (Art. 78)

Legislature

English

(1) A person is qualified to be a member of Parliament if that person-
(a) is a citizen of Uganda;
(b) is a registered voter; and
(c) has completed a minimum formal education of Advanced Level standard or its equivalent which shall be established in a manner and at a time prescribed by Parliament by law.
… (Art. 80)

Property, Inheritance and Land Tenure

English

(iii) In furtherance of social justice, the State may regulate the acquisition, ownership, use and disposition of land and other property, in accordance with the Constitution. (National Objectives and Directive Principles of State Policy, XI)

Property, Inheritance and Land Tenure

English

(1) Every person has a right to own property either individually or in association with others.
… (Art. 26)

Property, Inheritance and Land Tenure

English

(2) Parliament shall make appropriate laws for the protection of the rights of widows and widowers to inherit the property of their deceased spouses and to enjoy parental rights over their children.
… (Art. 31)

Property, Inheritance and Land Tenure

English

(1) The judicial power of Uganda shall be exercised by the courts of judicature which shall consist of-

(d) such subordinate courts as Parliament may by law establish, including qadhis courts for marriage, divorce, inheritance of property and guardianship, as may be prescribed by Parliament.
… (Art. 129)

Property, Inheritance and Land Tenure

English

(1) Land in Uganda belongs to the citizens of Uganda and shall vest in them in accordance with the land tenure systems provided for in this Constitution.

(3) Land in Uganda shall be owned in accordance with the following land tenure systems-
(a) customary;
(b) freehold;
(c) mailo; and
(d) leasehold.
(4) On the coming into force of this Constitution-
(a) all Uganda citizens owning land under customary tenure may acquire certificates of ownership in a manner prescribed by Parliament; and
(b) land under customary tenure may be converted to freehold land ownership by registration.
(5) Any lease which was granted to a Uganda citizen out of public land may be converted into freehold in accordance with a law which shall be made by Parliament.
(6) For the purposes of clause (5) of this article, "public land" includes statutory leases to urban authorities.
(7) Parliament shall make laws to enable urban authorities to enforce and to implement planning and development.
(8) Upon the coming into force of this Constitution and until Parliament enacts an appropriate law under clause (9) of this article, the lawful or bona fide occupants of mailo land, freehold or leasehold land shall enjoy security of occupancy on the land.
(9) Within two years after the first sitting of Parliament elected under this Constitution, Parliament shall enact a law-
(a) regulating the relationship between the lawful or bona fide occupants of land referred to in clause (8) of this article and the registered owners of that land;
(b) providing for the acquisition of registrable interest in the land by the occupant. (Art. 237)

Protection from Violence

English

No person shall be subjected to any form of torture or cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment. (Art. 24)

Protection from Violence

English

(1) No person shall be held in slavery or servitude.
(2) No person shall be required to perform forced labour.
… (Art. 25)

Protection from Violence

English

(4) Children are entitled to be protected from social or economic exploitation and shall not be employed in or required to perform work that is likely to be hazardous or to interfere with their education or to be harmful to their health or physical, mental, spiritual, moral or social development.
… (Art. 34)

Protection from Violence

English

Notwithstanding anything in this Constitution, there shall be no derogation from the enjoyment of the following rights and freedoms-
(a) freedom from torture and cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment;
(b) freedom from slavery or servitude;
… (Art. 44)

Public Institutions and Services

English

The family is the natural and basic unit of society and is entitled to protection by society and the State. (National Objectives and Directive Principles of State Policy, XIX)

Public Institutions and Services

English

(1) Notwithstanding anything in this Constitution, the State shall take affirmative action in favour of groups marginalised on the basis of gender, age, disability or any other reason created by history, tradition or custom, for the purpose of redressing imbalances which exist against them.
(2) Laws, cultures, customs and traditions which are against the dignity, welfare or interest of women or any other marginalised group to which clause (1) relates or which undermine their status, are prohibited by this Constitution.
(3) There shall be a commission called the Equal Opportunities Commission whose composition and functions shall be determined by an Act of Parliament.
(4) The Equal Opportunities Commission shall be established within one year after the coming into force of the Constitution (Amendment) Act, 2005.
(5) Parliament shall make laws for the purpose of giving full effect to this article. (Art. 32)

Sexual and Reproductive Rights

English

(2) No person has the right to terminate the life of an unborn child except as may be authorised by law. (Art. 22)

Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity

English

(2a) Marriage between persons of the same sex is prohibited.
… (Art. 31)

Status of the Constitution

English

The exercise and enjoyment of rights and freedoms is inseparable from the performance of duties and obligations; and, accordingly, it shall be the duty of every citizen-

(g) to acquaint himself or herself with the provisions of the Constitution and to uphold and defend the Constitution and the law. (National Objectives and Directive Principles of State Policy, XXIX)

Status of the Constitution

English

(1) This Constitution is the supreme law of Uganda and shall have binding force on all authorities and persons throughout Uganda.
(2) If any other law or any custom is inconsistent with any of the provisions of this Constitution, the Constitution shall prevail, and that other law or custom shall, to the extent of the inconsistency, be void. (Art. 2)

Status of International Law

English

(1) The [Human Rights] commission shall have the following functions-

(h) to monitor the Government's compliance with international treaty and convention obligations on human rights;
… (Art. 52)

Religious Law

English

Uganda shall not adopt a State religion. (Art. 7)

Religious Law

English

(1) The judicial power of Uganda shall be exercised by the courts of judicature which shall consist of-

(d) such subordinate courts as Parliament may by law establish, including qadhis courts for marriage, divorce, inheritance of property and guardianship, as may be prescribed by Parliament.
… (Art. 129)

Customary Law

English

Cultural and customary values which are consistent with fundamental rights and freedoms, human dignity, democracy and with the Constitution may be developed and incorporated in aspects of Ugandan life.
The State shall-
(a) promote and preserve those cultural values and practices which enhance the dignity and well-being of Ugandans;
… (National Objectives and Directive Principles of State Policy, XXIV)

Customary Law

English

(2) If any other law or any custom is inconsistent with any of the provisions of this Constitution, the Constitution shall prevail, and that other law or custom shall, to the extent of the inconsistency, be void. (Art. 2)

Customary Law

English

(1) Notwithstanding anything in this Constitution, the State shall take affirmative action in favour of groups marginalised on the basis of gender, age, disability or any other reason created by history, tradition or custom, for the purpose of redressing imbalances which exist against them.
(2) Laws, cultures, customs and traditions which are against the dignity, welfare or interest of women or any other marginalised group to which clause (1) relates or which undermine their status, are prohibited by this Constitution.
… (Art. 32)

Customary Law

English

(5) Without prejudice to article 32 of this Constitution, women shall have the right to affirmative action for the purpose of redressing the imbalances created by history, tradition or custom. (Art. 33)

Customary Law

English

(1) The judicial power of Uganda shall be exercised by the courts of judicature which shall consist of-

(d) such subordinate courts as Parliament may by law establish, including qadhis courts for marriage, divorce, inheritance of property and guardianship, as may be prescribed by Parliament.
… (Art. 129)

Customary Law

English

(3) Land in Uganda shall be owned in accordance with the following land tenure systems-
(a) customary;
(b) freehold;
(c) mailo; and
(d) leasehold.
(4) On the coming into force of this Constitution-
(a) all Uganda citizens owning land under customary tenure may acquire certificates of ownership in a manner prescribed by Parliament; and
(b) land under customary tenure may be converted to freehold land ownership by registration. … (Art. 237)

Customary Law

English

(1) Subject to the provisions of this Constitution, the institution of traditional leader or cultural leader may exist in any area of Uganda in accordance with the culture, customs and traditions or wishes and aspirations of the people to whom it applies.
(2) In any community, where the issue of traditional or cultural leader has not been resolved, the issue shall be resolved by the community concerned using a method prescribed by Parliament.

(4) The allegiance and privileges accorded to a traditional leader or a cultural leader by virtue of that office shall not be regarded as a discriminatory practice prohibited under article 21 of this Constitution; but any custom, practice, usage or tradition relating to a traditional leader or cultural leader which detracts from the rights of any person as guaranteed by this Constitution, shall be taken to be prohibited under that article.
(5) For the avoidance of doubt, the institution of traditional leader or cultural leader existing immediately before the coming into force of this Constitution shall be taken to exist in accordance with the provisions of this Constitution.
(6) For the purposes of this article, "traditional leader or cultural leader" means a king or similar traditional leader or cultural leader by whatever name called, who derives allegiance from the fact of birth or descent in accordance with the customs, traditions, usage or consent of the people led by that traditional or cultural leader. (Art. 246)

Customary Law

English

(1) A regional assembly may establish standing and other committees or organs for the efficient discharge of its functions.
(2) The representatives of cultural interests shall constitute the standing committee on cultural matters.
(3) The standing committee on cultural matters shall have, as against the rest of the members of the regional assembly, exclusive jurisdiction on the cultural matters of the region.
(4) In this paragraph "cultural matters" include the following-
(a) the choice and installation of a traditional leader or cultural leader;
(b) all traditional and cultural matters relating to the traditional or cultural leader and to the institutions of the traditional leader or cultural leader as well as royal members of the traditional leadership;
(c) the choice, appointment and succession to clan and subclan leadership;
(d) clan, traditional and customary 'matters;
(e) matters relating' to cultural funeral rites, cultural succession and customary heirs;
(f) cultural or traditional lands, sites, shrines and installations;
(g) clan lands, sites, shrines and installations; and
(h) traditional, customary and cultural practices which are consistent with this Constitution.
(5) In carrying out its responsibilities under subparagraphs (3) and (4), the standing committee on cultural matters shall consult the traditional or cultural leader of the region as well as the relevant clan leaders.
(6) A decision of the standing committee on cultural matters shall not be effective until the decision has been approved by the traditional or cultural leader of the region and, in the case of succession under subparagraph.
(4)(a), by the clan or cultural leader's council. (Fifth Schedule: Regional governments, Art. 3)

Customary Law

English

Where a traditional leader or cultural leader exists in a region the traditional or cultural leader shall-
(a) be the titular head of the regional government;
(b) be the titular head of the regional assembly and shall open, address and close the sessions of the regional assembly; and
(c) enjoy the benefits, privileges and roles as provided for in article 246 of this Constitution and by Parliament and the regional assembly. (Fifth Schedule: Regional governments, Art. 8)

Women’s Rights

English

(1) Women shall be accorded full and equal dignity of the person with men.
(2) The State shall provide the facilities and opportunities necessary to enhance the welfare of women to enable them to realise their full potential and advancement.
(3) The State shall protect women and their rights, taking into account their unique status and natural maternal functions in society.
(4) Women shall have the right to equal treatment with men and that right shall include equal opportunities in political, economic and social activities.
(5) Without prejudice to article 32 of this Constitution, women shall have the right to affirmative action for the purpose of redressing the imbalances created by history, tradition or custom. (Art. 33)

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