Constitution of the Republic of Zambia 1991, as amended to 2009


Affirmative Action (Broadly)

1. Subject to clauses (4), (5) and (7), a law shall not make any provision that is discriminatory either of itself or in its effect.

3. In this Article the expression “discriminatory” means affording different treatment to different persons attributable, wholly or mainly to their respective descriptions by race, tribe, sex, place of origin, marital status, political opinions, colour or creed whereby persons of one such description are subjected to disabilities or restrictions to which persons of another such description are not made subject or are accorded privileges or advantages which are not accorded to persons of another such description.
4. Clause (1) shall not apply to any law so far as that law makes provision-

e. whereby persons of any such description as is mentioned in clause (3) may be subjected to any disability or restriction or may be accorded any privilege or advantage which, having regard to its nature and to special circumstances pertaining to those persons or to persons of any other such description is reasonably justifiable in a democratic society.
… (Art. 23)

Citizenship and Nationality

1. Every person who immediately before the commencement of this Constitution was a citizen of Zambia shall continue to be a citizen of Zambia after the commencement of this Constitution.
2. A person who was entitled to citizenship of Zambia before the commencement of this Constitution subject to the performance of any conditions following the happening of a future event, shall become a citizen upon the performance of such conditions. (Art. 4)

Citizenship and Nationality

A person born in or outside Zambia after the commencement of this Constitution shall become a citizen of Zambia at the date of his birth if on that date at least one of his parents is a citizen of Zambia. (Art. 5)

Citizenship and Nationality

1. Any person who—
a. has attained the age of twenty-one years; or
b. has been ordinarily resident in Zambia for a continuous period of not less than ten years immediately preceding that person’s application for registration;
shall be entitled to apply to the Citizenship Board, in such manner as may be prescribed by or under an Act of Parliament, to be registered as a citizen of Zambia.
2. An application for registration as a citizen under this Article shall not be made by or on behalf of any person who, under any law in force in Zambia, is adjudged or otherwise declared to be of unsound mind.
… (Art. 6)

Citizenship and Nationality

Parliament may make provision for—
a. the acquisition of citizenship of Zambia by persons who are not eligible to become citizens of Zambia under this Part;
b. depriving any person of his citizenship of Zambia:
Provided that a person shall not be deprived of their citizenship except on the grounds that—
i. that person is a citizen of a country other than Zambia; or
ii. that person obtained such citizenship by fraud. (Art. 7)

Citizenship and Nationality

1. A person shall cease to be a citizen of Zambia if that person—
a. acquires the citizenship of a country other than Zambia by a voluntary act, other than marriage; or
b. does any act indicating that person’s intention to adopt or make use of any other citizenship.
2. A person who—
a. becomes a citizen of Zambia by registration; and
b. immediately after becoming a citizen of Zambia, is also a citizen of some other country;
shall, subject to clause (4), cease to be a citizen of Zambia at the expiration of three months after such person becomes a citizen of Zambia unless such person has renounced the citizenship of that other country, taken the oath of allegiance and made and registered such declaration of their intention concerning residence as may be prescribed by or under an Act of Parliament.
… (Art. 9)

Citizenship and Nationality

3. For the avoidance of doubt, it is hereby declared that a person born in Zambia before the 1st of April, 1986, whose father was an established resident shall continue to enjoy the rights and privileges, under, and shall remain subject to, the law prevailing immediately before that date. (Art. 10)

Education

The following Directives shall be the Principles of State Policy for the purposes of this Part:

e. the State shall endeavour to provide equal and adequate educational opportunities in all fields and at all levels for all;
… (Art. 112)

Employment Rights and Protection

The following Directives shall be the Principles of State Policy for the purposes of this Part:

c. the State shall endeavour to create conditions under which all citizens shall be able to secure adequate means of livelihood and opportunity to obtain employment;

j. the State shall recognise the right of every person to fair labour practices and safe and healthy working conditions. (Art. 112)

Equality and Non-Discrimination

It is recognised and declared that every person in Zambia has been and shall continue to be entitled to the fundamental rights and freedoms of the individual, that is to say, the right, whatever his race, place of origin, political opinions, colour, creed, sex or marital status, but subject to the limitations contained in this Part, to each and all of the following, namely:
a. life, liberty, security of the person and the protection of the law;
… (Art. 11)

Equality and Non-Discrimination

1. Subject to clauses (4), (5) and (7), a law shall not make any provision that is discriminatory either of itself or in its effect.
2. Subject to clauses (6), (7) and (8), a person shall not be treated in a discriminatory manner by any person acting by virtue of any written law or in the performance of the functions of any public office or any public authority.
3. In this Article the expression “discriminatory” means affording different treatment to different persons attributable, wholly or mainly to their respective descriptions by race, tribe, sex, place of origin, marital status, political opinions, colour or creed whereby persons of one such description are subjected to disabilities or restrictions to which persons of another such description are not made subject or are accorded privileges or advantages which are not accorded to persons of another such description.
4. Clause (1) shall not apply to any law so far as that law makes provision-

c. with respect to adoption, marriage, divorce, burial, devolution of property on death or other matters of personal law;
d. for the application in the case of members of a particular race or tribe, of customary law with respect to any matter to the exclusion of any law with respect to that matter which is applicable in the case of other persons; or
e. whereby persons of any such description as is mentioned in clause (3) may be subjected to any disability or restriction or may be accorded any privilege or advantage which, having regard to its nature and to special circumstances pertaining to those persons or to persons of any other such description is reasonably justifiable in a democratic society.
5. Nothing contained in any law shall be held to be inconsistent with or in contravention of clause (1) to the exuent that it is shown that it makes reasonable provision with respect to qualifications for service as a public officer or as a member of a disciplined force or for the service of a local government authority or a body corporate established directly by any law.
6. Clause (2) shall not apply to anything which is expressly or by necessary implication authorised to be done by any such provision or law as is referred to in clause (4) or (5).
7. Nothing contained in or done under the authority of any law shall be held to be inconsistent with or in contravention of this Article to the extent that it is shown that the law in question makes provision whereby persons of any such description as is mentioned in clause (3) may be subjected to any restriction on the rights and freedoms guaranteed by Articles 17, 19, 20, 21 and 22, being such a restriction as is authorised by clause (2) of Article 17, clause (5) of Article 19, clause (2) of Article 20, clause (2) of Article 21 or clause (3) of Article 22, as the case may be.
8. Nothing in clause (2) shall affect any discretion relating to the institution, conduct or discontinuance of civil or criminal proceedings in any court that is vested in any person by or under this Constitution or any other law. (Art. 23)

Equality and Non-Discrimination

13. In this Constitution, unless the context otherwise requires, words and expressions importing the masculine gender includes females.
… (Art. 139)

Obligations of the State

… PLEDGE to ourselves that we shall ensure that the State shall respect the rights and dignity of the human family, uphold the laws of the State and conduct the affairs of the State in such manner as to preserve, develop, and utilise its resources for this and future generations; … (Preamble)

Obligations of the State

It is recognised and declared that every person in Zambia has been and shall continue to be entitled to the fundamental rights and freedoms of the individual, that is to say, the right, whatever his race, place of origin, political opinions, colour, creed, sex or marital status, but subject to the limitations contained in this Part2, to each and all of the following, namely:
a. life, liberty, security of the person and the protection of the law;
b. freedom of conscience, expression, assembly, movement and association;
c. protection of young persons from exploitation;
d. protection for the privacy of his home and other property and from deprivation of property without compensation;
and the provisions of this Part shall have effect for the purpose of affording protection to those rights and freedoms subject to such limitations of that protection as are contained in this Part, being limitations designed to ensure that the enjoyment of the said rights and freedoms by any individual does not prejudice the rights and freedoms of others or the public interest. (Art. 11)

Obligations of Private Parties

It is recognised and declared that every person in Zambia has been and shall continue to be entitled to the fundamental rights and freedoms of the individual, that is to say, the right, whatever his race, place of origin, political opinions, colour, creed, sex or marital status, but subject to the limitations contained in this Part3, to each and all of the following, namely:
a. life, liberty, security of the person and the protection of the law;
b. freedom of conscience, expression, assembly, movement and association;
c. protection of young persons from exploitation;
d. protection for the privacy of his home and other property and from deprivation of property without compensation;
and the provisions of this Part shall have effect for the purpose of affording protection to those rights and freedoms subject to such limitations of that protection as are contained in this Part, being limitations designed to ensure that the enjoyment of the said rights and freedoms by any individual does not prejudice the rights and freedoms of others or the public interest. (Art. 11)

Obligations of Private Parties

1. In this Constitution, unless the context otherwise requires—

“person” includes any company or association or body of persons, corporate or unincorporate;
… (Art. 139)

Judicial Protection

1. Subject to clause (5), if any person alleges that any of the provisions of Articles 11 to 26 inclusive4has been, is being or is likely to be contravened in relation to him, then, without prejudice to any other action with respect to the same matter which is lawfully available, that person may apply for redress to the High Court which shall—
a. hear and determine any such application;
b. determine any question arising in the case of any person which is referred to it in pursuance of clause (2);
and which may, make such order, issue such writs and give such directions as it may consider appropriate for the purpose of enforcing, or securing the enforcement of, any of the provisions of Articles 11 to 26 inclusive.
2. a. If in any proceedings in any subordinate court any question arises as to the contravention of any of the provisions of Articles 11 to 26 inclusive, the person presiding in that court may, and shall if any party to the proceedings so requests, refer the question to the High Court unless, in his opinion the raising of the question is merely frivolous or vexatious.
b. Any person aggrieved by any determination of the High Court under this Article may appeal therefrom to the Supreme Court:
Provided that no appeal shall lie from a determination of the High Court under this Article dismissing an application on the ground that it is frivolous and vexatious.
3. No application shall be brought under clause (1) on the grounds that the provisions of Articles 11 to 26 (inclusive) are likely to be contravened by reason of proposals contained in any bill which, at the date of the application, has not become a law.
4. Parliament may confer upon the Supreme Court or High Court such jurisdiction or powers in addition to those conferred by this Article as may appear to be necessary or desirable of the purpose of enabling that Court more effectively to exercise the jurisdiction conferred upon it by this Article or of enabling any application for redress to be more speedily determined. (Art. 28)

National Human Rights Bodies

1. There is hereby established a Human Rights Commission.
2. The Human Rights Commission shall be autonomous. (Art. 125)

National Human Rights Bodies

The functions, powers, composition, funding and administrative procedures, including the employment of staff, of the Human Rights Commission shall be prescribed by or under an Act of Parliament. (Art. 126)

Limitations and/or Derogations

It is recognised and declared that every person in Zambia has been and shall continue to be entitled to the fundamental rights and freedoms of the individual, that is to say, the right, whatever his race, place of origin, political opinions, colour, creed, sex or marital status, but subject to the limitations contained in this Part,5 to each and all of the following, namely:
a. life, liberty, security of the person and the protection of the law;
b. freedom of conscience, expression, assembly, movement and association;
c. protection of young persons from exploitation;
d. protection for the privacy of his home and other property and from deprivation of property without compensation;
and the provisions of this Part shall have effect for the purpose of affording protection to those rights and freedoms subject to such limitations of that protection as are contained in this Part, being limitations designed to ensure that the enjoyment of the said rights and freedoms by any individual does not prejudice the rights and freedoms of others or the public interest. (Art. 11)

Limitations and/or Derogations

Nothing contained in or done under the authority of any law shall be held to be inconsistent with or in contravention of Articles 13, 16, 17, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, or 24 to the extent that it is shown that the law in question authorises the taking, during any period when the Republic is at war or when a declaration under Article 30 is in force, of measures for the purpose of dealing with any situation existing or arising during that period; and nothing done by any person under the authority of any such law shall be held to be in contravention of any of the said provisions if it is shown that the measures taken were, having due regard to the circumstances prevailing at the time, reasonably required for the purpose of dealing with the situation in question. (Art. 25)

Marriage and Family Life

1. Subject to clauses (4), (5) and (7), a law shall not make any provision that is discriminatory either of itself or in its effect.

3. In this Article the expression “discriminatory” means affording different treatment to different persons attributable, wholly or mainly to their respective descriptions by race, tribe, sex, place of origin, marital status, political opinions, colour or creed whereby persons of one such description are subjected to disabilities or restrictions to which persons of another such description are not made subject or are accorded privileges or advantages which are not accorded to persons of another such description.
4. Clause (1) shall not apply to any law so far as that law makes provision-

c. with respect to adoption, marriage, divorce, burial, devolution of property on death or other matters of personal law;
… (Art. 23)

Participation in Public Life and Institutions

… RECOGNISE the equal worth of men and women in their rights to participate, and freely determine and build a political, economic and social system of their own free choice; … (Preamble)

Participation in Public Life and Institutions

1. Subject to clauses (4), (5) and (7), a law shall not make any provision that is discriminatory either of itself or in its effect.

3. In this Article the expression “discriminatory” means affording different treatment to different persons attributable, wholly or mainly to their respective descriptions by race, tribe, sex, place of origin, marital status, political opinions, colour or creed whereby persons of one such description are subjected to disabilities or restrictions to which persons of another such description are not made subject or are accorded privileges or advantages which are not accorded to persons of another such description.

5. Nothing contained in any law shall be held to be inconsistent with or in contravention of clause (1) to the extent that it is shown that it makes reasonable provision with respect to qualifications for service as a public officer or as a member of a disciplined force or for the service of a local government authority or a body corporate established directly by any law.
… (Art. 23)

Political Rights and Association

… RECOGNISE the equal worth of men and women in their rights to participate, and freely determine and build a political, economic and social system of their own free choice; … (Preamble)

Political Rights and Association

It is recognised and declared that every person in Zambia has been and shall continue to be entitled to the fundamental rights and freedoms of the individual, that is to say, the right, whatever his race, place of origin, political opinions, colour, creed, sex or marital status, but subject to the limitations contained in this Part, to each and all of the following, namely:

b. freedom of conscience, expression, assembly, movement and association;
… (Art. 11)

Political Rights and Association

1. Except with his own consent, no person shall be hindered in the enjoyment of his freedom of assembly and association, that is to say, his right to assemble freely and associate with other persons and in particular to form or belong to any political party, trade union or other association for the protection of his interests.
… (Art. 21)

Political Rights and Association

1. Every citizen of Zambia who has attained the age of eighteen years shall, unless he is disqualified by Parliament from registration as a voter for the purposes of elections to the National Assembly, be entitled to be registered as such a voter under a law in that behalf, and no other person may be so registered.
… (Art. 75)

Electoral Bodies

1. There is hereby established an autonomous Electoral Commission to supervise the registration of voters, to conduct Presidential and Parliamentary elections and to review the boundaries of the constituencies into which Zambia is divided for the purposes of elections to the National Assembly.
2. An Act of Parliament shall provide for the composition and operations of the Electoral Commission appointed by the President under this Article. (Art. 76)

Head of State

1. There shall be a President of the Republic of Zambia who shall be the Head of State and of the Government and the Commander-in-Chief of the Defence Force.
… (Art. 33)

Head of State

1. The election of the President shall be direct by universal adult suffrage and by secret ballot and shall be conducted in accordance with this Article and as may be prescribed by or under an Act of Parliament.

3. A person shall be qualified to be a candidate for election as President if—
a. he is a citizen of Zambia;
b. both his parents are Zambians by birth or descent;
c. he has attained the age of thirty-five years;
d. he is a member of, or is sponsored by, a political party;
e. he is qualified to be elected as a member of the National Assembly; and
f. he has been domiciled in Zambia for a period of at least twenty years.
… (Art. 34)

Vice-President

1. There shall be an office of Vice-President of the Republic.
2. The Vice-President shall be appointed by the President from among the members of the National Assembly.
… (Art. 45)

Government

1. There shall be such Ministers as may be appointed by the President.
2. Appointment to the office of Minister shall be made from among the members of the National Assembly.
… (Art. 46)

Government

1. There shall be a Cabinet which shall consist of the President, the Vice-President and the Ministers.
… (Art. 49)

Legislature

The legislative power of the Republic of Zambia shall vest in Parliament which shall consist of the President and the National Assembly. (Art. 62)

Legislature

1. The National Assembly shall consist of—
a. one hundred and fifty elected members;
b. not more than eight nominated members; and
c. the Speaker of the National Assembly.
2. Subject to the provisions of this Constitution, the election of members of the National Assembly shall be direct, by universal adult suffrage and by secret ballot and shall be conducted in accordance with the provisions of this Constitution and as may be prescribed by or under an Act of Parliament. (Art. 63)

Legislature

Subject to Article 65, a person shall be qualified to be elected as a member of the National Assembly if—
a. he is a citizen of Zambia;
b. he has attained the age of twenty-one years; and
c. he is literate and conversant with the official language of Zambia. (Art. 64)

Property, Inheritance and Land Tenure

It is recognised and declared that every person in Zambia has been and shall continue to be entitled to the fundamental rights and freedoms of the individual, that is to say, the right, whatever his race, place of origin, political opinions, colour, creed, sex or marital status, but subject to the limitations contained in this Part, to each and all of the following, namely:

d. protection for the privacy of his home and other property and from deprivation of property without compensation;
… (Art. 11)

Property, Inheritance and Land Tenure

1. Except as provided in this Article, no property of any description shall be compulsorily taken possession of, and no interest in or right over property of any description shall be compulsorily acquired, unless by or under the authority of an Act of Parliament which provides for payment of adequate compensation for the property or interest or right to be taken possession of or acquired.
2. Nothing contained in or done under the authority of any law shall be held to be inconsistent with or in contravention of clause (1) to the extent that it is shown that such law provides for the taking possession or acquisition of any property or interest therein or right thereover— …
y. for the purpose of the administration or disposition of such property or interest or right by the President in implementation of a comprehensive land policy or of a policy designed to ensure that the statute law, the Common Law and the doctrines of equity relating to or affecting the interest in or rights over land, or any other interests or right enjoyed by Chiefs and persons claiming through and under them, shall apply with substantial uniformity throughout Zambia;
z. in terms of any law providing for the conversion of titles to land from freehold to leasehold and the imposition of any restriction on subdivision, assignment or sub-letting;
… (Art. 16)

Property, Inheritance and Land Tenure

1. Subject to clauses (4), (5) and (7), a law shall not make any provision that is discriminatory either of itself or in its effect.

3. In this Article the expression “discriminatory” means affording different treatment to different persons attributable, wholly or mainly to their respective descriptions by race, tribe, sex, place of origin, marital status, political opinions, colour or creed whereby persons of one such description are subjected to disabilities or restrictions to which persons of another such description are not made subject or are accorded privileges or advantages which are not accorded to persons of another such description.
4. Clause (1) shall not apply to any law so far as that law makes provision-

c. with respect to adoption, marriage, divorce, burial, devolution of property on death or other matters of personal law;
… (Art. 23)

Protection from Violence

It is recognised and declared that every person in Zambia has been and shall continue to be entitled to the fundamental rights and freedoms of the individual, that is to say, the right, whatever his race, place of origin, political opinions, colour, creed, sex or marital status, but subject to the limitations contained in this Part, to each and all of the following, namely:
a. life, liberty, security of the person and the protection of the law;

c. protection of young persons from exploitation;
… (Art. 11)

Protection from Violence

1. No person shall be held in slavery or servitude.
2. No person shall be required to perform forced labour.
… (Art. 14)

Protection from Violence

No person shall be subjected to torture, or to inhuman or degrading punishment or other like treatment. (Art. 15)

Protection from Violence

1. No young person shall be employed and shall in no case be caused or permitted to engage in any occupation or employment which would prejudice his health or education or interfere with his physical, mental or moral development:
Provided that an Act of Parliament may provide for the employment of a young person for a wage under certain conditions.
2. All young persons shall be protected against physical or mental ill-treatment, all forms of neglect, cruelty or exploitation.
3. No young person shall be the subject of traffic in any form.
... (Art. 24)

Sexual and Reproductive Rights

2. No person shall deprive an unborn child of life by termination of pregnancy except in accordance with the conditions laid down by an Act of Parliament for that purpose.
… (Art. 12)

Status of the Constitution

3. This Constitution is the supreme law of Zambia and if any other law is inconsistent with this constitution that other law shall, to the extent of the inconsistency, be void.
4. This Constitution shall bind all persons in the Republic of Zambia and all Legislative, Executive and Judicial organs of the State at all levels.
… (Art. 1)

Status of the Constitution

The following Directives shall be the Principles of State Policy for the purposes of this Part:

g. the State shall take measures to promote the practice, enjoyment and development by any person of that person’s culture, tradition, custom and language insofar as these are not inconsistent with this Constitution;
… (Art. 112)

Religious Law

… DECLARE the Republic a Christian nation … (Preamble)

Customary Law

1. Except as provided in this Article, no property of any description shall be compulsorily taken possession of, and no interest in or right over property of any description shall be compulsorily acquired, unless by or under the authority of an Act of Parliament which provides for payment of adequate compensation for the property or interest or right to be taken possession of or acquired.
2. Nothing contained in or done under the authority of any law shall be held to be inconsistent with or in contravention of clause (1) to the extent that it is shown that such law provides for the taking possession or acquisition of any property or interest therein or right thereover— …
y. for the purpose of the administration or disposition of such property or interest or right by the President in implementation of a comprehensive land policy or of a policy designed to ensure that the statute law, the Common Law and the doctrines of equity relating to or affecting the interest in or rights over land, or any other interests or right enjoyed by Chiefs and persons claiming through and under them, shall apply with substantial uniformity throughout Zambia;
… (Art. 16)

Customary Law

2. Every person who is charged with a criminal offence—
...
d. shall unless legal aid is granted him in accordance with the law enacted by Parliament for such purpose be permitted to defend himself before the court in person, or at his own expense, by a legal representative of his own choice;

12. Nothing contained in or done under the authority of any law shall be held to be inconsistent with or in contravention of—

b. paragraph (d) of clause (2) to the extent that it is shown that the law in question prohibits legal representation before a subordinate court in proceedings for an offence under Zambian customary law, being proceedings against any person who, under that law, is subject to that law;
… (Art. 18)

Customary Law

1. Subject to clauses (4), (5) and (7), a law shall not make any provision that is discriminatory either of itself or in its effect.

3. In this Article the expression “discriminatory” means affording different treatment to different persons attributable, wholly or mainly to their respective descriptions by race, tribe, sex, place of origin, marital status, political opinions, colour or creed whereby persons of one such description are subjected to disabilities or restrictions to which persons of another such description are not made subject or are accorded privileges or advantages which are not accorded to persons of another such description.
4. Clause (1) shall not apply to any law so far as that law makes provision-

d. for the application in the case of members of a particular race or tribe, of customary law with respect to any matter to the exclusion of any law with respect to that matter which is applicable in the case of other persons;
… (Art. 23)

Customary Law

The following Directives shall be the Principles of State Policy for the purposes of this Part:

g. the State shall take measures to promote the practice, enjoyment and development by any person of that person’s culture, tradition, custom and language insofar as these are not inconsistent with this Constitution;
… (Art. 112)

Customary Law

1. Subject to the provisions of this Constitution, the Institution of Chief shall exist in any area of Zambia in accordance with the culture, customs and traditions or wishes and aspirations of the people to whom it applies.
2. In any community, where the issue of a Chief has not been resolved, the issue shall be resolved by the community concerned using a method prescribed by an Act of Parliament. (Art. 127)

Customary Law

The following concepts and principles shall apply to Chiefs:
a. the Institution of Chief shall be a corporation sole with perpetual succession and with capacity to sue and be sued and to hold assets or properties in trust for itself and the peoples concerned;
b. nothing in paragraph (a) shall be taken to prohibit a Chief from holding any asset or property acquired in a personal capacity; and
c. a traditional leader or cultural leader shall enjoy such privileges and benefits as may be conferred by the Government and the local government or as that leader may be entitled to under culture, custom and tradition. (Art. 128)

Customary Law

There shall be a House of Chiefs for the Republic which shall be an advisory body to the Government on traditional, customary and any other matters referred to it by the President. (Art. 130)

Customary Law

Notwithstanding Article 130, the House of Chiefs may—
a. consider and discuss any Bill dealing with, or touching on, custom or tradition before it is introduced into the National Assembly;
b. initiate, discuss and decide on matters that relate to customary law and practice;
c. consider and discuss any other matter referred to it for its consideration by the President or approved by the President for consideration by the House; and
d. submit resolutions on any Bill or other matter referred to it to the President, and the President shall cause such resolutions to be laid before the National Assembly. (Art. 131)

Customary Law

1. The House of Chiefs shall consist of twenty-seven Chiefs.
2. The members referred to in clause (1) shall consist of three chiefs elected by the Chiefs from each of the nine Provinces of the Republic.
3. The Chairman and the Vice-Chairman shall be elected from amongst the members. (Art. 132)

Affirmative Action (Broadly)

English

1. Subject to clauses (4), (5) and (7), a law shall not make any provision that is discriminatory either of itself or in its effect.

3. In this Article the expression “discriminatory” means affording different treatment to different persons attributable, wholly or mainly to their respective descriptions by race, tribe, sex, place of origin, marital status, political opinions, colour or creed whereby persons of one such description are subjected to disabilities or restrictions to which persons of another such description are not made subject or are accorded privileges or advantages which are not accorded to persons of another such description.
4. Clause (1) shall not apply to any law so far as that law makes provision-

e. whereby persons of any such description as is mentioned in clause (3) may be subjected to any disability or restriction or may be accorded any privilege or advantage which, having regard to its nature and to special circumstances pertaining to those persons or to persons of any other such description is reasonably justifiable in a democratic society.
… (Art. 23)

Citizenship and Nationality

English

1. Every person who immediately before the commencement of this Constitution was a citizen of Zambia shall continue to be a citizen of Zambia after the commencement of this Constitution.
2. A person who was entitled to citizenship of Zambia before the commencement of this Constitution subject to the performance of any conditions following the happening of a future event, shall become a citizen upon the performance of such conditions. (Art. 4)

Citizenship and Nationality

English

A person born in or outside Zambia after the commencement of this Constitution shall become a citizen of Zambia at the date of his birth if on that date at least one of his parents is a citizen of Zambia. (Art. 5)

Citizenship and Nationality

English

1. Any person who—
a. has attained the age of twenty-one years; or
b. has been ordinarily resident in Zambia for a continuous period of not less than ten years immediately preceding that person’s application for registration;
shall be entitled to apply to the Citizenship Board, in such manner as may be prescribed by or under an Act of Parliament, to be registered as a citizen of Zambia.
2. An application for registration as a citizen under this Article shall not be made by or on behalf of any person who, under any law in force in Zambia, is adjudged or otherwise declared to be of unsound mind.
… (Art. 6)

Citizenship and Nationality

English

Parliament may make provision for—
a. the acquisition of citizenship of Zambia by persons who are not eligible to become citizens of Zambia under this Part;
b. depriving any person of his citizenship of Zambia:
Provided that a person shall not be deprived of their citizenship except on the grounds that—
i. that person is a citizen of a country other than Zambia; or
ii. that person obtained such citizenship by fraud. (Art. 7)

Citizenship and Nationality

English

1. A person shall cease to be a citizen of Zambia if that person—
a. acquires the citizenship of a country other than Zambia by a voluntary act, other than marriage; or
b. does any act indicating that person’s intention to adopt or make use of any other citizenship.
2. A person who—
a. becomes a citizen of Zambia by registration; and
b. immediately after becoming a citizen of Zambia, is also a citizen of some other country;
shall, subject to clause (4), cease to be a citizen of Zambia at the expiration of three months after such person becomes a citizen of Zambia unless such person has renounced the citizenship of that other country, taken the oath of allegiance and made and registered such declaration of their intention concerning residence as may be prescribed by or under an Act of Parliament.
… (Art. 9)

Citizenship and Nationality

English

3. For the avoidance of doubt, it is hereby declared that a person born in Zambia before the 1st of April, 1986, whose father was an established resident shall continue to enjoy the rights and privileges, under, and shall remain subject to, the law prevailing immediately before that date. (Art. 10)

Education

English

The following Directives shall be the Principles of State Policy for the purposes of this Part:

e. the State shall endeavour to provide equal and adequate educational opportunities in all fields and at all levels for all;
… (Art. 112)

Employment Rights and Protection

English

The following Directives shall be the Principles of State Policy for the purposes of this Part:

c. the State shall endeavour to create conditions under which all citizens shall be able to secure adequate means of livelihood and opportunity to obtain employment;

j. the State shall recognise the right of every person to fair labour practices and safe and healthy working conditions. (Art. 112)

Equality and Non-Discrimination

English

It is recognised and declared that every person in Zambia has been and shall continue to be entitled to the fundamental rights and freedoms of the individual, that is to say, the right, whatever his race, place of origin, political opinions, colour, creed, sex or marital status, but subject to the limitations contained in this Part, to each and all of the following, namely:
a. life, liberty, security of the person and the protection of the law;
… (Art. 11)

Equality and Non-Discrimination

English

1. Subject to clauses (4), (5) and (7), a law shall not make any provision that is discriminatory either of itself or in its effect.
2. Subject to clauses (6), (7) and (8), a person shall not be treated in a discriminatory manner by any person acting by virtue of any written law or in the performance of the functions of any public office or any public authority.
3. In this Article the expression “discriminatory” means affording different treatment to different persons attributable, wholly or mainly to their respective descriptions by race, tribe, sex, place of origin, marital status, political opinions, colour or creed whereby persons of one such description are subjected to disabilities or restrictions to which persons of another such description are not made subject or are accorded privileges or advantages which are not accorded to persons of another such description.
4. Clause (1) shall not apply to any law so far as that law makes provision-

c. with respect to adoption, marriage, divorce, burial, devolution of property on death or other matters of personal law;
d. for the application in the case of members of a particular race or tribe, of customary law with respect to any matter to the exclusion of any law with respect to that matter which is applicable in the case of other persons; or
e. whereby persons of any such description as is mentioned in clause (3) may be subjected to any disability or restriction or may be accorded any privilege or advantage which, having regard to its nature and to special circumstances pertaining to those persons or to persons of any other such description is reasonably justifiable in a democratic society.
5. Nothing contained in any law shall be held to be inconsistent with or in contravention of clause (1) to the exuent that it is shown that it makes reasonable provision with respect to qualifications for service as a public officer or as a member of a disciplined force or for the service of a local government authority or a body corporate established directly by any law.
6. Clause (2) shall not apply to anything which is expressly or by necessary implication authorised to be done by any such provision or law as is referred to in clause (4) or (5).
7. Nothing contained in or done under the authority of any law shall be held to be inconsistent with or in contravention of this Article to the extent that it is shown that the law in question makes provision whereby persons of any such description as is mentioned in clause (3) may be subjected to any restriction on the rights and freedoms guaranteed by Articles 17, 19, 20, 21 and 22, being such a restriction as is authorised by clause (2) of Article 17, clause (5) of Article 19, clause (2) of Article 20, clause (2) of Article 21 or clause (3) of Article 22, as the case may be.
8. Nothing in clause (2) shall affect any discretion relating to the institution, conduct or discontinuance of civil or criminal proceedings in any court that is vested in any person by or under this Constitution or any other law. (Art. 23)

Equality and Non-Discrimination

English

13. In this Constitution, unless the context otherwise requires, words and expressions importing the masculine gender includes females.
… (Art. 139)

Obligations of the State

English

… PLEDGE to ourselves that we shall ensure that the State shall respect the rights and dignity of the human family, uphold the laws of the State and conduct the affairs of the State in such manner as to preserve, develop, and utilise its resources for this and future generations; … (Preamble)

Obligations of the State

English

It is recognised and declared that every person in Zambia has been and shall continue to be entitled to the fundamental rights and freedoms of the individual, that is to say, the right, whatever his race, place of origin, political opinions, colour, creed, sex or marital status, but subject to the limitations contained in this Part2, to each and all of the following, namely:
a. life, liberty, security of the person and the protection of the law;
b. freedom of conscience, expression, assembly, movement and association;
c. protection of young persons from exploitation;
d. protection for the privacy of his home and other property and from deprivation of property without compensation;
and the provisions of this Part shall have effect for the purpose of affording protection to those rights and freedoms subject to such limitations of that protection as are contained in this Part, being limitations designed to ensure that the enjoyment of the said rights and freedoms by any individual does not prejudice the rights and freedoms of others or the public interest. (Art. 11)

Obligations of Private Parties

English

It is recognised and declared that every person in Zambia has been and shall continue to be entitled to the fundamental rights and freedoms of the individual, that is to say, the right, whatever his race, place of origin, political opinions, colour, creed, sex or marital status, but subject to the limitations contained in this Part3, to each and all of the following, namely:
a. life, liberty, security of the person and the protection of the law;
b. freedom of conscience, expression, assembly, movement and association;
c. protection of young persons from exploitation;
d. protection for the privacy of his home and other property and from deprivation of property without compensation;
and the provisions of this Part shall have effect for the purpose of affording protection to those rights and freedoms subject to such limitations of that protection as are contained in this Part, being limitations designed to ensure that the enjoyment of the said rights and freedoms by any individual does not prejudice the rights and freedoms of others or the public interest. (Art. 11)

Obligations of Private Parties

English

1. In this Constitution, unless the context otherwise requires—

“person” includes any company or association or body of persons, corporate or unincorporate;
… (Art. 139)

Judicial Protection

English

1. Subject to clause (5), if any person alleges that any of the provisions of Articles 11 to 26 inclusive4has been, is being or is likely to be contravened in relation to him, then, without prejudice to any other action with respect to the same matter which is lawfully available, that person may apply for redress to the High Court which shall—
a. hear and determine any such application;
b. determine any question arising in the case of any person which is referred to it in pursuance of clause (2);
and which may, make such order, issue such writs and give such directions as it may consider appropriate for the purpose of enforcing, or securing the enforcement of, any of the provisions of Articles 11 to 26 inclusive.
2. a. If in any proceedings in any subordinate court any question arises as to the contravention of any of the provisions of Articles 11 to 26 inclusive, the person presiding in that court may, and shall if any party to the proceedings so requests, refer the question to the High Court unless, in his opinion the raising of the question is merely frivolous or vexatious.
b. Any person aggrieved by any determination of the High Court under this Article may appeal therefrom to the Supreme Court:
Provided that no appeal shall lie from a determination of the High Court under this Article dismissing an application on the ground that it is frivolous and vexatious.
3. No application shall be brought under clause (1) on the grounds that the provisions of Articles 11 to 26 (inclusive) are likely to be contravened by reason of proposals contained in any bill which, at the date of the application, has not become a law.
4. Parliament may confer upon the Supreme Court or High Court such jurisdiction or powers in addition to those conferred by this Article as may appear to be necessary or desirable of the purpose of enabling that Court more effectively to exercise the jurisdiction conferred upon it by this Article or of enabling any application for redress to be more speedily determined. (Art. 28)

National Human Rights Bodies

English

1. There is hereby established a Human Rights Commission.
2. The Human Rights Commission shall be autonomous. (Art. 125)

National Human Rights Bodies

English

The functions, powers, composition, funding and administrative procedures, including the employment of staff, of the Human Rights Commission shall be prescribed by or under an Act of Parliament. (Art. 126)

Limitations and/or Derogations

English

It is recognised and declared that every person in Zambia has been and shall continue to be entitled to the fundamental rights and freedoms of the individual, that is to say, the right, whatever his race, place of origin, political opinions, colour, creed, sex or marital status, but subject to the limitations contained in this Part,5 to each and all of the following, namely:
a. life, liberty, security of the person and the protection of the law;
b. freedom of conscience, expression, assembly, movement and association;
c. protection of young persons from exploitation;
d. protection for the privacy of his home and other property and from deprivation of property without compensation;
and the provisions of this Part shall have effect for the purpose of affording protection to those rights and freedoms subject to such limitations of that protection as are contained in this Part, being limitations designed to ensure that the enjoyment of the said rights and freedoms by any individual does not prejudice the rights and freedoms of others or the public interest. (Art. 11)

Limitations and/or Derogations

English

Nothing contained in or done under the authority of any law shall be held to be inconsistent with or in contravention of Articles 13, 16, 17, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, or 24 to the extent that it is shown that the law in question authorises the taking, during any period when the Republic is at war or when a declaration under Article 30 is in force, of measures for the purpose of dealing with any situation existing or arising during that period; and nothing done by any person under the authority of any such law shall be held to be in contravention of any of the said provisions if it is shown that the measures taken were, having due regard to the circumstances prevailing at the time, reasonably required for the purpose of dealing with the situation in question. (Art. 25)

Marriage and Family Life

English

1. Subject to clauses (4), (5) and (7), a law shall not make any provision that is discriminatory either of itself or in its effect.

3. In this Article the expression “discriminatory” means affording different treatment to different persons attributable, wholly or mainly to their respective descriptions by race, tribe, sex, place of origin, marital status, political opinions, colour or creed whereby persons of one such description are subjected to disabilities or restrictions to which persons of another such description are not made subject or are accorded privileges or advantages which are not accorded to persons of another such description.
4. Clause (1) shall not apply to any law so far as that law makes provision-

c. with respect to adoption, marriage, divorce, burial, devolution of property on death or other matters of personal law;
… (Art. 23)

Participation in Public Life and Institutions

English

… RECOGNISE the equal worth of men and women in their rights to participate, and freely determine and build a political, economic and social system of their own free choice; … (Preamble)

Participation in Public Life and Institutions

English

1. Subject to clauses (4), (5) and (7), a law shall not make any provision that is discriminatory either of itself or in its effect.

3. In this Article the expression “discriminatory” means affording different treatment to different persons attributable, wholly or mainly to their respective descriptions by race, tribe, sex, place of origin, marital status, political opinions, colour or creed whereby persons of one such description are subjected to disabilities or restrictions to which persons of another such description are not made subject or are accorded privileges or advantages which are not accorded to persons of another such description.

5. Nothing contained in any law shall be held to be inconsistent with or in contravention of clause (1) to the extent that it is shown that it makes reasonable provision with respect to qualifications for service as a public officer or as a member of a disciplined force or for the service of a local government authority or a body corporate established directly by any law.
… (Art. 23)

Political Rights and Association

English

… RECOGNISE the equal worth of men and women in their rights to participate, and freely determine and build a political, economic and social system of their own free choice; … (Preamble)

Political Rights and Association

English

It is recognised and declared that every person in Zambia has been and shall continue to be entitled to the fundamental rights and freedoms of the individual, that is to say, the right, whatever his race, place of origin, political opinions, colour, creed, sex or marital status, but subject to the limitations contained in this Part, to each and all of the following, namely:

b. freedom of conscience, expression, assembly, movement and association;
… (Art. 11)

Political Rights and Association

English

1. Except with his own consent, no person shall be hindered in the enjoyment of his freedom of assembly and association, that is to say, his right to assemble freely and associate with other persons and in particular to form or belong to any political party, trade union or other association for the protection of his interests.
… (Art. 21)

Political Rights and Association

English

1. Every citizen of Zambia who has attained the age of eighteen years shall, unless he is disqualified by Parliament from registration as a voter for the purposes of elections to the National Assembly, be entitled to be registered as such a voter under a law in that behalf, and no other person may be so registered.
… (Art. 75)

Electoral Bodies

English

1. There is hereby established an autonomous Electoral Commission to supervise the registration of voters, to conduct Presidential and Parliamentary elections and to review the boundaries of the constituencies into which Zambia is divided for the purposes of elections to the National Assembly.
2. An Act of Parliament shall provide for the composition and operations of the Electoral Commission appointed by the President under this Article. (Art. 76)

Head of State

English

1. There shall be a President of the Republic of Zambia who shall be the Head of State and of the Government and the Commander-in-Chief of the Defence Force.
… (Art. 33)

Head of State

English

1. The election of the President shall be direct by universal adult suffrage and by secret ballot and shall be conducted in accordance with this Article and as may be prescribed by or under an Act of Parliament.

3. A person shall be qualified to be a candidate for election as President if—
a. he is a citizen of Zambia;
b. both his parents are Zambians by birth or descent;
c. he has attained the age of thirty-five years;
d. he is a member of, or is sponsored by, a political party;
e. he is qualified to be elected as a member of the National Assembly; and
f. he has been domiciled in Zambia for a period of at least twenty years.
… (Art. 34)

Vice-President

English

1. There shall be an office of Vice-President of the Republic.
2. The Vice-President shall be appointed by the President from among the members of the National Assembly.
… (Art. 45)

Government

English

1. There shall be such Ministers as may be appointed by the President.
2. Appointment to the office of Minister shall be made from among the members of the National Assembly.
… (Art. 46)

Government

English

1. There shall be a Cabinet which shall consist of the President, the Vice-President and the Ministers.
… (Art. 49)

Legislature

English

The legislative power of the Republic of Zambia shall vest in Parliament which shall consist of the President and the National Assembly. (Art. 62)

Legislature

English

1. The National Assembly shall consist of—
a. one hundred and fifty elected members;
b. not more than eight nominated members; and
c. the Speaker of the National Assembly.
2. Subject to the provisions of this Constitution, the election of members of the National Assembly shall be direct, by universal adult suffrage and by secret ballot and shall be conducted in accordance with the provisions of this Constitution and as may be prescribed by or under an Act of Parliament. (Art. 63)

Legislature

English

Subject to Article 65, a person shall be qualified to be elected as a member of the National Assembly if—
a. he is a citizen of Zambia;
b. he has attained the age of twenty-one years; and
c. he is literate and conversant with the official language of Zambia. (Art. 64)

Property, Inheritance and Land Tenure

English

It is recognised and declared that every person in Zambia has been and shall continue to be entitled to the fundamental rights and freedoms of the individual, that is to say, the right, whatever his race, place of origin, political opinions, colour, creed, sex or marital status, but subject to the limitations contained in this Part, to each and all of the following, namely:

d. protection for the privacy of his home and other property and from deprivation of property without compensation;
… (Art. 11)

Property, Inheritance and Land Tenure

English

1. Except as provided in this Article, no property of any description shall be compulsorily taken possession of, and no interest in or right over property of any description shall be compulsorily acquired, unless by or under the authority of an Act of Parliament which provides for payment of adequate compensation for the property or interest or right to be taken possession of or acquired.
2. Nothing contained in or done under the authority of any law shall be held to be inconsistent with or in contravention of clause (1) to the extent that it is shown that such law provides for the taking possession or acquisition of any property or interest therein or right thereover— …
y. for the purpose of the administration or disposition of such property or interest or right by the President in implementation of a comprehensive land policy or of a policy designed to ensure that the statute law, the Common Law and the doctrines of equity relating to or affecting the interest in or rights over land, or any other interests or right enjoyed by Chiefs and persons claiming through and under them, shall apply with substantial uniformity throughout Zambia;
z. in terms of any law providing for the conversion of titles to land from freehold to leasehold and the imposition of any restriction on subdivision, assignment or sub-letting;
… (Art. 16)

Property, Inheritance and Land Tenure

English

1. Subject to clauses (4), (5) and (7), a law shall not make any provision that is discriminatory either of itself or in its effect.

3. In this Article the expression “discriminatory” means affording different treatment to different persons attributable, wholly or mainly to their respective descriptions by race, tribe, sex, place of origin, marital status, political opinions, colour or creed whereby persons of one such description are subjected to disabilities or restrictions to which persons of another such description are not made subject or are accorded privileges or advantages which are not accorded to persons of another such description.
4. Clause (1) shall not apply to any law so far as that law makes provision-

c. with respect to adoption, marriage, divorce, burial, devolution of property on death or other matters of personal law;
… (Art. 23)

Protection from Violence

English

It is recognised and declared that every person in Zambia has been and shall continue to be entitled to the fundamental rights and freedoms of the individual, that is to say, the right, whatever his race, place of origin, political opinions, colour, creed, sex or marital status, but subject to the limitations contained in this Part, to each and all of the following, namely:
a. life, liberty, security of the person and the protection of the law;

c. protection of young persons from exploitation;
… (Art. 11)

Protection from Violence

English

1. No person shall be held in slavery or servitude.
2. No person shall be required to perform forced labour.
… (Art. 14)

Protection from Violence

English

No person shall be subjected to torture, or to inhuman or degrading punishment or other like treatment. (Art. 15)

Protection from Violence

English

1. No young person shall be employed and shall in no case be caused or permitted to engage in any occupation or employment which would prejudice his health or education or interfere with his physical, mental or moral development:
Provided that an Act of Parliament may provide for the employment of a young person for a wage under certain conditions.
2. All young persons shall be protected against physical or mental ill-treatment, all forms of neglect, cruelty or exploitation.
3. No young person shall be the subject of traffic in any form.
... (Art. 24)

Sexual and Reproductive Rights

English

2. No person shall deprive an unborn child of life by termination of pregnancy except in accordance with the conditions laid down by an Act of Parliament for that purpose.
… (Art. 12)

Status of the Constitution

English

3. This Constitution is the supreme law of Zambia and if any other law is inconsistent with this constitution that other law shall, to the extent of the inconsistency, be void.
4. This Constitution shall bind all persons in the Republic of Zambia and all Legislative, Executive and Judicial organs of the State at all levels.
… (Art. 1)

Status of the Constitution

English

The following Directives shall be the Principles of State Policy for the purposes of this Part:

g. the State shall take measures to promote the practice, enjoyment and development by any person of that person’s culture, tradition, custom and language insofar as these are not inconsistent with this Constitution;
… (Art. 112)

Religious Law

English

… DECLARE the Republic a Christian nation … (Preamble)

Customary Law

English

1. Except as provided in this Article, no property of any description shall be compulsorily taken possession of, and no interest in or right over property of any description shall be compulsorily acquired, unless by or under the authority of an Act of Parliament which provides for payment of adequate compensation for the property or interest or right to be taken possession of or acquired.
2. Nothing contained in or done under the authority of any law shall be held to be inconsistent with or in contravention of clause (1) to the extent that it is shown that such law provides for the taking possession or acquisition of any property or interest therein or right thereover— …
y. for the purpose of the administration or disposition of such property or interest or right by the President in implementation of a comprehensive land policy or of a policy designed to ensure that the statute law, the Common Law and the doctrines of equity relating to or affecting the interest in or rights over land, or any other interests or right enjoyed by Chiefs and persons claiming through and under them, shall apply with substantial uniformity throughout Zambia;
… (Art. 16)

Customary Law

English

2. Every person who is charged with a criminal offence—
...
d. shall unless legal aid is granted him in accordance with the law enacted by Parliament for such purpose be permitted to defend himself before the court in person, or at his own expense, by a legal representative of his own choice;

12. Nothing contained in or done under the authority of any law shall be held to be inconsistent with or in contravention of—

b. paragraph (d) of clause (2) to the extent that it is shown that the law in question prohibits legal representation before a subordinate court in proceedings for an offence under Zambian customary law, being proceedings against any person who, under that law, is subject to that law;
… (Art. 18)

Customary Law

English

1. Subject to clauses (4), (5) and (7), a law shall not make any provision that is discriminatory either of itself or in its effect.

3. In this Article the expression “discriminatory” means affording different treatment to different persons attributable, wholly or mainly to their respective descriptions by race, tribe, sex, place of origin, marital status, political opinions, colour or creed whereby persons of one such description are subjected to disabilities or restrictions to which persons of another such description are not made subject or are accorded privileges or advantages which are not accorded to persons of another such description.
4. Clause (1) shall not apply to any law so far as that law makes provision-

d. for the application in the case of members of a particular race or tribe, of customary law with respect to any matter to the exclusion of any law with respect to that matter which is applicable in the case of other persons;
… (Art. 23)

Customary Law

English

The following Directives shall be the Principles of State Policy for the purposes of this Part:

g. the State shall take measures to promote the practice, enjoyment and development by any person of that person’s culture, tradition, custom and language insofar as these are not inconsistent with this Constitution;
… (Art. 112)

Customary Law

English

1. Subject to the provisions of this Constitution, the Institution of Chief shall exist in any area of Zambia in accordance with the culture, customs and traditions or wishes and aspirations of the people to whom it applies.
2. In any community, where the issue of a Chief has not been resolved, the issue shall be resolved by the community concerned using a method prescribed by an Act of Parliament. (Art. 127)

Customary Law

English

The following concepts and principles shall apply to Chiefs:
a. the Institution of Chief shall be a corporation sole with perpetual succession and with capacity to sue and be sued and to hold assets or properties in trust for itself and the peoples concerned;
b. nothing in paragraph (a) shall be taken to prohibit a Chief from holding any asset or property acquired in a personal capacity; and
c. a traditional leader or cultural leader shall enjoy such privileges and benefits as may be conferred by the Government and the local government or as that leader may be entitled to under culture, custom and tradition. (Art. 128)

Customary Law

English

There shall be a House of Chiefs for the Republic which shall be an advisory body to the Government on traditional, customary and any other matters referred to it by the President. (Art. 130)

Customary Law

English

Notwithstanding Article 130, the House of Chiefs may—
a. consider and discuss any Bill dealing with, or touching on, custom or tradition before it is introduced into the National Assembly;
b. initiate, discuss and decide on matters that relate to customary law and practice;
c. consider and discuss any other matter referred to it for its consideration by the President or approved by the President for consideration by the House; and
d. submit resolutions on any Bill or other matter referred to it to the President, and the President shall cause such resolutions to be laid before the National Assembly. (Art. 131)

Customary Law

English

1. The House of Chiefs shall consist of twenty-seven Chiefs.
2. The members referred to in clause (1) shall consist of three chiefs elected by the Chiefs from each of the nine Provinces of the Republic.
3. The Chairman and the Vice-Chairman shall be elected from amongst the members. (Art. 132)

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Links to all sites last visited 2 March 2016

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Part III: Protection of Fundamental Rights and Freedoms of the Individual.

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Part III on Protection of Fundamental Rights and Freedoms of the Individual.

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Articles are from Part III on Protection of Fundamental Rights and Freedoms of the Individual.

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Part III on Protection of Fundamental Rights and Freedoms of the Individual.