Constitution of the People’s Republic of China 1982, as amended to 2004


Affirmative Action (Broadly)

Women in the People’s Republic of China enjoy equal rights with men in all spheres of life, in political, economic, cultural, social and family life.
The State protects the rights and interests of women, applies the principle of equal pay for equal work to men and women alike and trains and selects cadres from among women. (Art. 48)

Jurisdiction and Access

The National People’s Congress exercises the following functions and powers:

(2) to supervise the enforcement of the Constitution;
... (Art. 62)

Jurisdiction and Access

The Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress exercises the following functions and powers:
(1) to interpret the Constitution and supervise its enforcement;
...
(7) to annul those administrative regulations, decisions or orders of the State Council that contravene the Constitution or other laws;
(8) to annul those local regulations or decisions of the organs of state power of provinces, autonomous regions, and municipalities directly under the Central Government that contravene the Constitution, other laws or administrative regulations;
… (Art. 67)

Education

The State undertakes the development of socialist education and works to raise the scientific and cultural level of the whole nation.
The State establishes and administers schools of various types, universalizes compulsory primary education and promotes secondary, vocational and higher education as well as pre-school education.
The State develops educational facilities in order to eliminate illiteracy and provide political, scientific, technical and professional education for workers, peasants, State functionaries and other working people. ... (Art. 19)

Education

Citizens of the People’s Republic of China have the duty as well as the right to receive education.
The State promotes the all-round development of children and young people, morally, intellectually and physically. (Art. 46)

Education

… Parents have the duty to rear and educate their children who are minors, and children who have come of age have the duty to support and assist their parents. … (Art. 49)

Employment Rights and Protection

Citizens of the People’s Republic of China have the right as well as the duty to work.
Through various channels, the State creates conditions for employment, enhances occupational safety and health, improves working conditions and, on the basis of expanded production, increases remuneration for work and welfare benefits.
Work is a matter of honour for every citizen who is able to work. All working people in State-owned enterprises and in urban and rural economic collectives should approach their work as the masters of the country that they are. The State promotes socialist labour emulation, and commends and rewards model and advanced workers. The State encourages citizens to take part in voluntary labour.
The State provides necessary vocational training for citizens before they are employed. (Art. 42)

Employment Rights and Protection

Working people in the People’s Republic of China have the right to rest.
The State expands facilities for the rest and recuperation of the working people and prescribes working hours and vacations for workers and staff. (Art. 43)

Employment Rights and Protection

… The State protects the rights and interests of women, applies the principle of equal pay for equal work to men and women alike and trains and selects cadres from among women. (Art. 48)

Equality and Non-Discrimination

… All citizens of the People’s Republic of China are equal before the law. … (Art. 33)

Equality and Non-Discrimination

Women in the People’s Republic of China enjoy equal rights with men in all spheres of life, in political, economic, cultural, social and family life. … (Art. 48)

Obligations of the State

… The State respects and preserves human rights.
Every citizen is entitled to the rights and at the same time must perform the duties prescribed by the Constitution and other laws. (Art. 33)

Obligations of the State

… Citizens who have suffered losses as a result of infringement of their civic rights by any State organ or functionary have the right to compensation in accordance with the provisions of law. (Art. 41)

Obligations of Private Parties

Citizens of the People’s Republic of China, in exercising their freedoms and rights, may not infringe upon the interests of the State, of society or of the collective, or upon the lawful freedoms and rights of other citizens. (Art. 51)

Limitations and/or Derogations

Citizens of the People’s Republic of China, in exercising their freedoms and rights, may not infringe upon the interests of the State, of society or of the collective, or upon the lawful freedoms and rights of other citizens. (Art. 51)

Marriage and Family Life

Women in the People’s Republic of China enjoy equal rights with men in all spheres of life, in political, economic, cultural, social and family life. … (Art. 48)

Marriage and Family Life

Marriage, the family and mother and child are protected by the State.
Both husband and wife have the duty to practise family planning.
Parents have the duty to rear and educate their children who are minors, and children who have come of age have the duty to support and assist their parents.
Violation of the freedom of marriage is prohibited. Maltreatment of old people, women and children is prohibited. (Art. 49)

Marriage and Family Life

Local people’s governments at or above the county level, within the limits of their authority as prescribed by law, conduct administrative work concerning the economy, education, science, culture, public health, physical culture, urban and rural development, finance, civil affairs, public security, nationalities affairs, judicial administration, supervision and family planning in their respective administrative areas; ... (Art. 107)

Minorities

… The People’s Republic of China is a unitary multi-national State created jointly by the people of all its nationalities. Socialist relations of equality, unity and mutual assistance have been established among the nationalities and will continue to be strengthened. In the struggle to safeguard the unity of the nationalities, it is necessary to combat big-nation chauvinism, mainly Han chauvinism, and to combat local national chauvinism. The State will do its utmost to promote the common prosperity of all the nationalities. … (Preamble)

Minorities

All nationalities in the People’s Republic of China are equal. The State protects the lawful rights and interests of the minority nationalities and upholds and develops a relationship of equality, unity and mutual assistance among all of China’s nationalities. Discrimination against and oppression of any nationality are prohibited; any act which undermines the unity of the nationalities or instigates division is prohibited.
The State assists areas inhabited by minority nationalities in accelerating their economic and cultural development according to the characteristics and needs of the various minority nationalities.
Regional autonomy is practised in areas where people of minority nationalities live in concentrated communities; in these areas organs of self-government are established to exercise the power of autonomy. All national autonomous areas are integral parts of the People’s Republic of China.
All nationalities have the freedom to use and develop their own spoken and written languages and to preserve or reform their own folkways and customs. (Art. 4)

Minorities

The National People’s Congress is composed of deputies elected from the provinces, autonomous regions, municipalities directly under the Central Government, and special administrative regions, and of deputies elected from the armed forces. All the minority nationalities are entitled to appropriate representation. … (Art. 59)

Minorities

… Minority nationalities are entitled to appropriate representation on the Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress. … (Art. 65)

Minorities

The State Council exercises the following functions and powers:
...
(11) to direct and administer affairs concerning the nationalities and to safeguard the equal rights of minority nationalities and the right to autonomy of the national autonomous areas;
... (Art. 89)

Minorities

The State provides financial, material and technical assistance to the minority nationalities to help accelerate their economic and cultural development. ... (Art. 122)

Minorities

Citizens of all China’s nationalities have the right to use their native spoken and written languages in court proceedings. The people’s courts and people’s procuratorates should provide translation for any party to the court proceedings who is not familiar with the spoken or written languages commonly used in the locality.
In an area where people of a minority nationality live in a concentrated community or where a number of nationalities live together, court hearings should be conducted in the language or languages commonly used in the locality; indictments, judgments, notices and other documents should be written, according to actual needs, in the language or languages commonly used in the locality. (Art. 134)

Participation in Public Life and Institutions

Women in the People’s Republic of China enjoy equal rights with men in all spheres of life, in political, economic, cultural, social and family life.
The State protects the rights and interests of women, applies the principle of equal pay for equal work to men and women alike and trains and selects cadres from among women. (Art. 48)

Political Rights and Association

All citizens of the People’s Republic of China who have reached the age of 18 have the right to vote and stand for election, regardless of ethnic status, race, sex, occupation, family background, religious belief, education, property status or length of residence, except persons deprived of political rights according to law. (Art. 34)

Political Rights and Association

Citizens of the People’s Republic of China enjoy freedom of speech, of the press, of assembly, of association, of procession and of demonstration. (Art. 35)

Political Rights and Association

Women in the People’s Republic of China enjoy equal rights with men in all spheres of life, in political, economic, cultural, social and family life. … (Art. 48)

Head of State

The President and Vice-President of the People’s Republic of China are elected by the National People’s Congress.
Citizens of the People’s Republic of China who have the right to vote and to stand for election and who have reached the age of 45 are eligible for election as President or Vice-President of the People’s Republic of China. ... (Art. 79)

Vice-President

The President and Vice-President of the People’s Republic of China are elected by the National People’s Congress.
Citizens of the People’s Republic of China who have the right to vote and to stand for election and who have reached the age of 45 are eligible for election as President or Vice-President of the People’s Republic of China. ... (Art. 79)

Vice-President

The Vice-President of the People’s Republic of China assists the President in his work.
The Vice-President of the People’s Republic of China may exercise such functions and powers of the President as the President may entrust to him. (Art. 82)

Government

The National People’s Congress exercises the following functions and powers:

(5) to decide on the choice of the Premier of the State Council upon nomination by the President of the People’s Republic of China, and on the choice of the Vice-Premiers, State Councillors, Ministers in charge of ministries or commissions, the Auditor-General and the Secretary-General of the State Council upon nomination by the Premier;
… (Art. 62)

Government

The State Council, that is, the Central People’s Government, of the People’s Republic of China is the executive body of the highest organ of state power; it is the highest organ of State administration. (Art. 85)

Government

The State Council is composed of the following:
the Premier;
the Vice-Premiers;
the State Councillors;
the Ministers in charge of ministries;
the Ministers in charge of commissions;
the Auditor-General; and
the Secretary-General.
… (Art. 86)

Legislature

The National People’s Congress of the People’s Republic of China is the highest organ of state power. Its permanent body is the Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress. (Art. 57)

Legislature

The National People’s Congress is composed of deputies elected from the provinces, autonomous regions, municipalities directly under the Central Government, and special administrative regions, and of deputies elected from the armed forces. All the minority nationalities are entitled to appropriate representation.
Election of deputies to the National People’s Congress is conducted by the Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress.
The number of deputies to the National People’s Congress and the procedure of their election are prescribed by law. (Art. 59)

Property, Inheritance and Land Tenure

The rural collective economic organizations apply the dual operation system characterized by the combination of centralized operation with decentralized operation on the basis of operation by households under a contract. In rural areas, all forms of cooperative economy, such as producers’, supply and marketing, credit and consumers’ cooperatives, belong to the sector of socialist economy under collective ownership by the working people.
Working people who are members of rural economic collectives have the right, within the limits prescribed by law, to farm plots of cropland and hilly land allotted for their private use, engage in household sideline production and raise privately owned livestock. … (Art. 8)

Property, Inheritance and Land Tenure

… Land in the rural and suburban areas is owned by collectives except for those portions which belong to the State as prescribed by law; house sites and privately farmed plots of cropland and hilly land are also owned by collectives. … (Art. 10)

Property, Inheritance and Land Tenure

Citizens’ lawful private property is inviolable.
The State, in accordance with law, protects the rights of citizens to private property and to its inheritance. … (Art. 13)

Protection from Violence

... Maltreatment of old people, women and children is prohibited. (Art. 49)

Public Institutions and Services

Marriage, the family and mother and child are protected by the State. … (Art. 49)

Public Institutions and Services

The State Council exercises the following functions and powers:
...
(7) to direct and administer the affairs of education, science, culture, public health, physical culture and family planning;
… (Art. 89)

Public Institutions and Services

Local people’s governments at or above the county level, within the limits of their authority as prescribed by law, conduct administrative work concerning the economy, education, science, culture, public health, physical culture, urban and rural development, finance, civil affairs, public security, nationalities affairs, judicial administration, supervision and family planning in their respective administrative areas; ... (Art. 107)

Sexual and Reproductive Rights

The State promotes family planning so that population growth may fit the plans for economic and social development. (Art. 25)

Sexual and Reproductive Rights

… Both husband and wife have the duty to practise family planning. … (Art. 49)

Sexual and Reproductive Rights

The State Council exercises the following functions and powers:
...
(7) to direct and administer the affairs of education, science, culture, public health, physical culture and family planning;
… (Art. 89)

Sexual and Reproductive Rights

Local people’s governments at or above the county level, within the limits of their authority as prescribed by law, conduct administrative work concerning the economy, education, science, culture, public health, physical culture, urban and rural development, finance, civil affairs, public security, nationalities affairs, judicial administration, supervision and family planning in their respective administrative areas; ... (Art. 107)

Status of the Constitution

… This Constitution, in legal form, affirms the achievements of the struggles of the Chinese people of all nationalities and defines the basic system and basic tasks of the State; it is the fundamental law of the State and has supreme legal authority. The people of all nationalities, all State organs, the armed forces, all political parties and public organizations and all enterprises and institutions in the country must take the Constitution as the basic standard of conduct, and they have the duty to uphold the dignity of the Constitution and ensure its implementation. (Preamble)

Status of the Constitution

… No laws or administrative or local regulations may contravene the Constitution.
All State organs, the armed forces, all political parties and public organizations and all enterprises and institutions must abide by the Constitution and other laws. All acts in violation of the Constitution or other laws must be investigated.
No organization or individual is privileged to be beyond the Constitution or other laws. (Art. 5)

Status of the Constitution

Citizens of the People’s Republic of China must abide by the Constitution and other laws, … (Art. 53)

Customary Law

… All nationalities have the freedom to use and develop their own spoken and written languages and to preserve or reform their own folkways and customs. (Art. 4)

Women’s Rights

Women in the People’s Republic of China enjoy equal rights with men in all spheres of life, in political, economic, cultural, social and family life.
The State protects the rights and interests of women, applies the principle of equal pay for equal work to men and women alike and trains and selects cadres from among women. (Art. 48)

Affirmative Action (Broadly)

中华人民共和国妇女在政治的、经济的、文化的、社会的和家庭的生活等各方面享有同男子平等的权利。
国家保护妇女的权利和利益,实行男女同工同酬,培养和选拔妇女干部。(第四十八条)

Jurisdiction and Access

全国人民代表大会行使下列职权:

(二)监督宪法的实施;
… (第六十二条)

Jurisdiction and Access

全国人民代表大会常务委员会行使下列职权:
(一)解释宪法,监督宪法的实施;

(七)撤销国务院制定的同宪法、法律相抵触的行政法规、决定和命令;
(八)撤销省、自治区、直辖市国家权力机关制定的同宪法、法律和行政法规相抵触的地方性法规和决议;
… (第六十七条)

Education

国家发展社会主义的教育事业,提高全国人民的科学文化水平。
国家举办各种学校,普及初等义务教育,发展中等教育、职业教育和高等教育,并且发展学前教育。
国家发展各种教育设施,扫除文盲,对工人、农民、国家工作人员和其他劳动者进行政治、文化、科学、技术、业务的教育,鼓励自学成才。 ... (第十九条)

Education

中华人民共和国公民有受教育的权利和义务。
国家培养青年、少年、儿童在品德、智力、体质等方面全面发展。 (第四六条)

Education

… 父母有抚养教育未成年子女的义务,成年子女有赡养扶助父母的义务。… (第四十九条)

Employment Rights and Protection

中华人民共和国公民有劳动的权利和义务。 国家通过各种途径,创造劳动就业条件,加强劳动保护,改善劳动条件,并在发展生产的基础上,提高劳动报酬和福利待遇。
劳动是一切有劳动能力的公民的光荣职责。国有企业和城乡集体经济组织的劳动者都应当以国家主人翁的态度对待自己的劳动。国家提倡社会主义劳动竞赛,奖励劳动模范和先进工作者。国家提倡公民从事义务劳动。
国家对就业前的公民进行必要的劳动就业训练。 (第四十二条)

Employment Rights and Protection

中华人民共和国劳动者有休息的权利。
国家发展劳动者休息和休养的设施,规定职工的工作时间和休假制度。(第四十三条)

Employment Rights and Protection

… 国家保护妇女的权利和利益,实行男女同工同酬,培养和选拔妇女干部(第四十八条)

Equality and Non-Discrimination

…中华人民共和国公民在法律面前一律平等。… (第三十三条 )

Equality and Non-Discrimination

中华人民共和国妇女在政治的、经济的、文化的、社会的和家庭的生活等各方面享有同男子平等的权利… (第四十八条)

Obligations of the State

… 国家尊重和保障人权。
任何公民享有宪法和法律规定的权利,同时必须履行宪法和法律规定的义务。(第三十三条)

Obligations of the State

... 由于国家机关和国家工作人员侵犯公民权利而受到损失的人,有依照法律规定取得赔偿的权利。(第四十一条 )

Obligations of Private Parties

中华人民共和国公民在行使自由和权利的时候,不得损害国家的、社会的、集体的利益和其他公民的合法的自由和权利。(第五十一条)

Limitations and/or Derogations

中华人民共和国公民在行使自由和权利的时候,不得损害国家的、社会的、集体的利益和其他公民的合法的自由和权利。(第五十一条)

Marriage and Family Life

中华人民共和国妇女在政治的、经济的、文化的、社会的和家庭的生活等各方面享有同男子平等的权利。… (第四十八条)

Marriage and Family Life

婚姻、家庭、母亲和儿童受国家的保护。
夫妻双方有实行计划生育的义务。
父母有抚养教育未成年子女的义务,成年子女有赡养扶助父母的义务。
禁止破坏婚姻自由,禁止虐待老人、妇女和儿童。(第四十九条)

Marriage and Family Life

县级以上地方各级人民政府依照法律规定的权限,管理本行政区域内的经济、教育、科学、文化、卫生、体育事业、城乡建设事业和财政、民政、公安、民族事务、司法行政、监察、计划生育等行政工作, … (第一百零七条)

Minorities

… 中华人民共和国是全国各族人民共同缔造的统一的多民族国家。平等、团结、互助的社会主义民族关系已经确立,并将继续加强。在维护民族团结的斗争中,要反对大民族主义,主要是大汉族主义,也要反对地方民族主义。国家尽一切努力,促进全国各民族的共同繁荣。… (序 言)

Minorities

中华人民共和国各民族一律平等。国家保障各少数民族的合法的权利和利益,维护和发展各民族的平等、团结、互助关系。禁止对任何民族的歧视和压迫,禁止破坏民族团结和制造民族分裂的行为。
国家根据各少数民族的特点和需要,帮助各少数民族地区加速经济和文化的发展。 各少数民族聚居的地方实行区域自治,设立自治机关,行使自治权。各民族自治地方都是中华人民共和国不可分离的部分。
各民族都有使用和发展自己的语言文字的自由,都有保持或者改革自己的风俗习惯的自由。 ... (第四条)

Minorities

全国人民代表大会由省、自治区、直辖市、特别行政区和军队选出的代表组成。各少数民族都应当有适当名额的代表。 ... (第五十九条)

Minorities

... 全国人民代表大会常务委员会组成人员中,应当有适当名额的少数民族代表。 ... (第六十五条)

Minorities

国务院行使下列职权:

(十一)领导和管理民族事务,保障少数民族的平等权利和民族自治地方的自治权利;
… (第八十九条)

Minorities

国家从财政、物资、技术等方面帮助各少数民族加速发展经济建设和文化建设事业。 … (第一百二十二条)

Minorities

各民族公民都有用本民族语言文字进行诉讼的权利。人民法院和人民检察院对于不通晓当地通用的语言文字的诉讼参与人,应当为他们翻译。
在少数民族聚居或者多民族共同居住的地区,应当用当地通用的语言进行审理;起诉书、判决书、布告和其他文书应当根据实际需要使用当地通用的一种或者几种文字。 (第一百三十四条)

Participation in Public Life and Institutions

中华人民共和国妇女在政治的、经济的、文化的、社会的和家庭的生活等各方面享有同男子平等的权利。
国家保护妇女的权利和利益,实行男女同工同酬,培养和选拔妇女干部。(第四十八条)

Political Rights and Association

中华人民共和国年满十八周岁的公民,不分民族、种族、性别、职业、家庭出身、宗教信仰、教育程度、财产状况、居住期限,都有选举权和被选举权;但是依照法律被剥夺政治权利的人除外。(第三十四条)

Political Rights and Association

中华人民共和国公民有言论、出版、集会、结社、游行、示威的自由。(第三十五条)

Political Rights and Association

中华人民共和国妇女在政治的、经济的、文化的、社会的和家庭的生活等各方面享有同男子平等的权利。… (第四十八条)

Head of State

中华人民共和国主席、副主席由全国人民代表大会选举。
有选举权和被选举权的年满四十五周岁的中华人民共和国公民可以被选为中华人民共和国主席、副主席。… (第七十九条)

Vice-President

中华人民共和国主席、副主席由全国人民代表大会选举。
有选举权和被选举权的年满四十五周岁的中华人民共和国公民可以被选为中华人民共和国主席、副主席。… (第七十九条)

Vice-President

中华人民共和国副主席协助主席工作。
中华人民共和国副主席受主席的委托,可以代行主席的部分职权。(第八十二条)

Government

全国人民代表大会行使下列职权:

(五)根据中华人民共和国主席的提名,决定国务院总理的人选;根据国务院总理的提名,决定国务院副总理、国务委员、各部部长、各委员会主任、审计长、秘书长的人选;
... (第六十二条)

Government

中华人民共和国国务院,即中央人民政府,是最高国家权力机关的执行机关,是最高国家行政机关。(第八十五条)

Government

国务院由下列人员组成:
总理,
副总理若干人,
国务委员若干人,
各部部长,
各委员会主任,
审计长,
秘书长。
… (第八十六条)

Legislature

中华人民共和国全国人民代表大会是最高国家权力机关。它的常设机关是全国人民代表大会常务委员会。(第五十七条)

Legislature

全国人民代表大会由省、自治区、直辖市、特别行政区和军队选出的代表组成。各少数民族都应当有适当名额的代表。
全国人民代表大会代表的选举由全国人民代表大会常务委员会主持。
全国人民代表大会代表名额和代表产生办法由法律规定。(第五十九条)

Property, Inheritance and Land Tenure

农村集体经济组织实行家庭承包经营为基础、统分结合的双层经营体制。农村中的生产、供销、信用、消费等各种形式的合作经济,是社会主义劳动群众集体所有制经济。参加农村集体经济组织的劳动者,有权在法律规定的范围内经营自留地、自留山、家庭副业和饲养自留畜。 ... (第八条)

Property, Inheritance and Land Tenure

… 农村和城市郊区的土地,除由法律规定属于国家所有的以外,属于集体所有;宅基地和自留地、自留山,也属于集体所有。… (第十条)

Property, Inheritance and Land Tenure

公民的合法的私有财产不受侵犯。
国家依照法律规定保护公民的私有财产权和继承权。... (第十三条)

Protection from Violence

… 禁止虐待老人、妇女和儿童。(第四十九条)

Public Institutions and Services

婚姻、家庭、母亲和儿童受国家的保护。 … (第四十九条)

Public Institutions and Services

国务院行使下列职权:
...
(七)领导和管理教育、科学、文化、卫生、体育和计划生育工作;
… (第八十九条)

Public Institutions and Services

县级以上地方各级人民政府依照法律规定的权限,管理本行政区域内的经济、教育、科学、文化、卫生、体育事业、城乡建设事业和财政、民政、公安、民族事务、司法行政、监察、计划生育等行政工作… (第一百零七条)

Sexual and Reproductive Rights

国家推行计划生育,使人口的增长同经济和社会发展计划相适应。(第二十五条)

Sexual and Reproductive Rights

… 夫妻双方有实行计划生育的义务。… (第四十九条)

Sexual and Reproductive Rights

国务院行使下列职权:
...
(七)领导和管理教育、科学、文化、卫生、体育和计划生育工作;
… (第八十九条)

Sexual and Reproductive Rights

县级以上地方各级人民政府依照法律规定的权限,管理本行政区域内的经济、教育、科学、文化、卫生、体育事业、城乡建设事业和财政、民政、公安、民族事务、司法行政、监察、计划生育等行政工作, … (第一百零七条)

Status of the Constitution

… 本宪法以法律的形式确认了中国各族人民奋斗的成果,规定了国家的根本制度和根本任务,是国家的根本法,具有最高的法律效力。全国各族人民、一切国家机关和武装力量、各政党和各社会团体、各企业事业组织,都必须以宪法为根本的活动准则,并且负有维护宪法尊严、保证宪法实施的职责。(序 言)

Status of the Constitution

... 一切法律、行政法规和地方性法规都不得同宪法相抵触。
一切国家机关和武装力量、各政党和各社会团体、各企业事业组织都必须遵守宪法和法律。一切违反宪法和法律的行为,必须予以追究。
任何组织或者个人都不得有超越宪法和法律的特权。(第五条 )

Status of the Constitution

中华人民共和国公民必须遵守宪法和法律,... (第五十三条)

Customary Law

... 各民族都有使用和发展自己的语言文字的自由,都有保持或者改革自己的风俗习惯的自由(第四条)

Women’s Rights

中华人民共和国妇女在政治的、经济的、文化的、社会的和家庭的生活等各方面享有同男子平等的权利。
国家保护妇女的权利和利益,实行男女同工同酬,培养和选拔妇女干部。(第四十八条)

Affirmative Action (Broadly)

English

Women in the People’s Republic of China enjoy equal rights with men in all spheres of life, in political, economic, cultural, social and family life.
The State protects the rights and interests of women, applies the principle of equal pay for equal work to men and women alike and trains and selects cadres from among women. (Art. 48)

Chinese

中华人民共和国妇女在政治的、经济的、文化的、社会的和家庭的生活等各方面享有同男子平等的权利。
国家保护妇女的权利和利益,实行男女同工同酬,培养和选拔妇女干部。(第四十八条)

Jurisdiction and Access

English

The National People’s Congress exercises the following functions and powers:

(2) to supervise the enforcement of the Constitution;
... (Art. 62)

Chinese

全国人民代表大会行使下列职权:

(二)监督宪法的实施;
… (第六十二条)

Jurisdiction and Access

English

The Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress exercises the following functions and powers:
(1) to interpret the Constitution and supervise its enforcement;
...
(7) to annul those administrative regulations, decisions or orders of the State Council that contravene the Constitution or other laws;
(8) to annul those local regulations or decisions of the organs of state power of provinces, autonomous regions, and municipalities directly under the Central Government that contravene the Constitution, other laws or administrative regulations;
… (Art. 67)

Chinese

全国人民代表大会常务委员会行使下列职权:
(一)解释宪法,监督宪法的实施;

(七)撤销国务院制定的同宪法、法律相抵触的行政法规、决定和命令;
(八)撤销省、自治区、直辖市国家权力机关制定的同宪法、法律和行政法规相抵触的地方性法规和决议;
… (第六十七条)

Education

English

The State undertakes the development of socialist education and works to raise the scientific and cultural level of the whole nation.
The State establishes and administers schools of various types, universalizes compulsory primary education and promotes secondary, vocational and higher education as well as pre-school education.
The State develops educational facilities in order to eliminate illiteracy and provide political, scientific, technical and professional education for workers, peasants, State functionaries and other working people. ... (Art. 19)

Chinese

国家发展社会主义的教育事业,提高全国人民的科学文化水平。
国家举办各种学校,普及初等义务教育,发展中等教育、职业教育和高等教育,并且发展学前教育。
国家发展各种教育设施,扫除文盲,对工人、农民、国家工作人员和其他劳动者进行政治、文化、科学、技术、业务的教育,鼓励自学成才。 ... (第十九条)

Education

English

Citizens of the People’s Republic of China have the duty as well as the right to receive education.
The State promotes the all-round development of children and young people, morally, intellectually and physically. (Art. 46)

Chinese

中华人民共和国公民有受教育的权利和义务。
国家培养青年、少年、儿童在品德、智力、体质等方面全面发展。 (第四六条)

Education

English

… Parents have the duty to rear and educate their children who are minors, and children who have come of age have the duty to support and assist their parents. … (Art. 49)

Chinese

… 父母有抚养教育未成年子女的义务,成年子女有赡养扶助父母的义务。… (第四十九条)

Employment Rights and Protection

English

Citizens of the People’s Republic of China have the right as well as the duty to work.
Through various channels, the State creates conditions for employment, enhances occupational safety and health, improves working conditions and, on the basis of expanded production, increases remuneration for work and welfare benefits.
Work is a matter of honour for every citizen who is able to work. All working people in State-owned enterprises and in urban and rural economic collectives should approach their work as the masters of the country that they are. The State promotes socialist labour emulation, and commends and rewards model and advanced workers. The State encourages citizens to take part in voluntary labour.
The State provides necessary vocational training for citizens before they are employed. (Art. 42)

Chinese

中华人民共和国公民有劳动的权利和义务。 国家通过各种途径,创造劳动就业条件,加强劳动保护,改善劳动条件,并在发展生产的基础上,提高劳动报酬和福利待遇。
劳动是一切有劳动能力的公民的光荣职责。国有企业和城乡集体经济组织的劳动者都应当以国家主人翁的态度对待自己的劳动。国家提倡社会主义劳动竞赛,奖励劳动模范和先进工作者。国家提倡公民从事义务劳动。
国家对就业前的公民进行必要的劳动就业训练。 (第四十二条)

Employment Rights and Protection

English

Working people in the People’s Republic of China have the right to rest.
The State expands facilities for the rest and recuperation of the working people and prescribes working hours and vacations for workers and staff. (Art. 43)

Chinese

中华人民共和国劳动者有休息的权利。
国家发展劳动者休息和休养的设施,规定职工的工作时间和休假制度。(第四十三条)

Employment Rights and Protection

English

… The State protects the rights and interests of women, applies the principle of equal pay for equal work to men and women alike and trains and selects cadres from among women. (Art. 48)

Chinese

… 国家保护妇女的权利和利益,实行男女同工同酬,培养和选拔妇女干部(第四十八条)

Equality and Non-Discrimination

English

… All citizens of the People’s Republic of China are equal before the law. … (Art. 33)

Chinese

…中华人民共和国公民在法律面前一律平等。… (第三十三条 )

Equality and Non-Discrimination

English

Women in the People’s Republic of China enjoy equal rights with men in all spheres of life, in political, economic, cultural, social and family life. … (Art. 48)

Chinese

中华人民共和国妇女在政治的、经济的、文化的、社会的和家庭的生活等各方面享有同男子平等的权利… (第四十八条)

Obligations of the State

English

… The State respects and preserves human rights.
Every citizen is entitled to the rights and at the same time must perform the duties prescribed by the Constitution and other laws. (Art. 33)

Chinese

… 国家尊重和保障人权。
任何公民享有宪法和法律规定的权利,同时必须履行宪法和法律规定的义务。(第三十三条)

Obligations of the State

English

… Citizens who have suffered losses as a result of infringement of their civic rights by any State organ or functionary have the right to compensation in accordance with the provisions of law. (Art. 41)

Chinese

... 由于国家机关和国家工作人员侵犯公民权利而受到损失的人,有依照法律规定取得赔偿的权利。(第四十一条 )

Obligations of Private Parties

English

Citizens of the People’s Republic of China, in exercising their freedoms and rights, may not infringe upon the interests of the State, of society or of the collective, or upon the lawful freedoms and rights of other citizens. (Art. 51)

Chinese

中华人民共和国公民在行使自由和权利的时候,不得损害国家的、社会的、集体的利益和其他公民的合法的自由和权利。(第五十一条)

Limitations and/or Derogations

English

Citizens of the People’s Republic of China, in exercising their freedoms and rights, may not infringe upon the interests of the State, of society or of the collective, or upon the lawful freedoms and rights of other citizens. (Art. 51)

Chinese

中华人民共和国公民在行使自由和权利的时候,不得损害国家的、社会的、集体的利益和其他公民的合法的自由和权利。(第五十一条)

Marriage and Family Life

English

Women in the People’s Republic of China enjoy equal rights with men in all spheres of life, in political, economic, cultural, social and family life. … (Art. 48)

Chinese

中华人民共和国妇女在政治的、经济的、文化的、社会的和家庭的生活等各方面享有同男子平等的权利。… (第四十八条)

Marriage and Family Life

English

Marriage, the family and mother and child are protected by the State.
Both husband and wife have the duty to practise family planning.
Parents have the duty to rear and educate their children who are minors, and children who have come of age have the duty to support and assist their parents.
Violation of the freedom of marriage is prohibited. Maltreatment of old people, women and children is prohibited. (Art. 49)

Chinese

婚姻、家庭、母亲和儿童受国家的保护。
夫妻双方有实行计划生育的义务。
父母有抚养教育未成年子女的义务,成年子女有赡养扶助父母的义务。
禁止破坏婚姻自由,禁止虐待老人、妇女和儿童。(第四十九条)

Marriage and Family Life

English

Local people’s governments at or above the county level, within the limits of their authority as prescribed by law, conduct administrative work concerning the economy, education, science, culture, public health, physical culture, urban and rural development, finance, civil affairs, public security, nationalities affairs, judicial administration, supervision and family planning in their respective administrative areas; ... (Art. 107)

Chinese

县级以上地方各级人民政府依照法律规定的权限,管理本行政区域内的经济、教育、科学、文化、卫生、体育事业、城乡建设事业和财政、民政、公安、民族事务、司法行政、监察、计划生育等行政工作, … (第一百零七条)

Minorities

English

… The People’s Republic of China is a unitary multi-national State created jointly by the people of all its nationalities. Socialist relations of equality, unity and mutual assistance have been established among the nationalities and will continue to be strengthened. In the struggle to safeguard the unity of the nationalities, it is necessary to combat big-nation chauvinism, mainly Han chauvinism, and to combat local national chauvinism. The State will do its utmost to promote the common prosperity of all the nationalities. … (Preamble)

Chinese

… 中华人民共和国是全国各族人民共同缔造的统一的多民族国家。平等、团结、互助的社会主义民族关系已经确立,并将继续加强。在维护民族团结的斗争中,要反对大民族主义,主要是大汉族主义,也要反对地方民族主义。国家尽一切努力,促进全国各民族的共同繁荣。… (序 言)

Minorities

English

All nationalities in the People’s Republic of China are equal. The State protects the lawful rights and interests of the minority nationalities and upholds and develops a relationship of equality, unity and mutual assistance among all of China’s nationalities. Discrimination against and oppression of any nationality are prohibited; any act which undermines the unity of the nationalities or instigates division is prohibited.
The State assists areas inhabited by minority nationalities in accelerating their economic and cultural development according to the characteristics and needs of the various minority nationalities.
Regional autonomy is practised in areas where people of minority nationalities live in concentrated communities; in these areas organs of self-government are established to exercise the power of autonomy. All national autonomous areas are integral parts of the People’s Republic of China.
All nationalities have the freedom to use and develop their own spoken and written languages and to preserve or reform their own folkways and customs. (Art. 4)

Chinese

中华人民共和国各民族一律平等。国家保障各少数民族的合法的权利和利益,维护和发展各民族的平等、团结、互助关系。禁止对任何民族的歧视和压迫,禁止破坏民族团结和制造民族分裂的行为。
国家根据各少数民族的特点和需要,帮助各少数民族地区加速经济和文化的发展。 各少数民族聚居的地方实行区域自治,设立自治机关,行使自治权。各民族自治地方都是中华人民共和国不可分离的部分。
各民族都有使用和发展自己的语言文字的自由,都有保持或者改革自己的风俗习惯的自由。 ... (第四条)

Minorities

English

The National People’s Congress is composed of deputies elected from the provinces, autonomous regions, municipalities directly under the Central Government, and special administrative regions, and of deputies elected from the armed forces. All the minority nationalities are entitled to appropriate representation. … (Art. 59)

Chinese

全国人民代表大会由省、自治区、直辖市、特别行政区和军队选出的代表组成。各少数民族都应当有适当名额的代表。 ... (第五十九条)

Minorities

English

… Minority nationalities are entitled to appropriate representation on the Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress. … (Art. 65)

Chinese

... 全国人民代表大会常务委员会组成人员中,应当有适当名额的少数民族代表。 ... (第六十五条)

Minorities

English

The State Council exercises the following functions and powers:
...
(11) to direct and administer affairs concerning the nationalities and to safeguard the equal rights of minority nationalities and the right to autonomy of the national autonomous areas;
... (Art. 89)

Chinese

国务院行使下列职权:

(十一)领导和管理民族事务,保障少数民族的平等权利和民族自治地方的自治权利;
… (第八十九条)

Minorities

English

The State provides financial, material and technical assistance to the minority nationalities to help accelerate their economic and cultural development. ... (Art. 122)

Chinese

国家从财政、物资、技术等方面帮助各少数民族加速发展经济建设和文化建设事业。 … (第一百二十二条)

Minorities

English

Citizens of all China’s nationalities have the right to use their native spoken and written languages in court proceedings. The people’s courts and people’s procuratorates should provide translation for any party to the court proceedings who is not familiar with the spoken or written languages commonly used in the locality.
In an area where people of a minority nationality live in a concentrated community or where a number of nationalities live together, court hearings should be conducted in the language or languages commonly used in the locality; indictments, judgments, notices and other documents should be written, according to actual needs, in the language or languages commonly used in the locality. (Art. 134)

Chinese

各民族公民都有用本民族语言文字进行诉讼的权利。人民法院和人民检察院对于不通晓当地通用的语言文字的诉讼参与人,应当为他们翻译。
在少数民族聚居或者多民族共同居住的地区,应当用当地通用的语言进行审理;起诉书、判决书、布告和其他文书应当根据实际需要使用当地通用的一种或者几种文字。 (第一百三十四条)

Participation in Public Life and Institutions

English

Women in the People’s Republic of China enjoy equal rights with men in all spheres of life, in political, economic, cultural, social and family life.
The State protects the rights and interests of women, applies the principle of equal pay for equal work to men and women alike and trains and selects cadres from among women. (Art. 48)

Chinese

中华人民共和国妇女在政治的、经济的、文化的、社会的和家庭的生活等各方面享有同男子平等的权利。
国家保护妇女的权利和利益,实行男女同工同酬,培养和选拔妇女干部。(第四十八条)

Political Rights and Association

English

All citizens of the People’s Republic of China who have reached the age of 18 have the right to vote and stand for election, regardless of ethnic status, race, sex, occupation, family background, religious belief, education, property status or length of residence, except persons deprived of political rights according to law. (Art. 34)

Chinese

中华人民共和国年满十八周岁的公民,不分民族、种族、性别、职业、家庭出身、宗教信仰、教育程度、财产状况、居住期限,都有选举权和被选举权;但是依照法律被剥夺政治权利的人除外。(第三十四条)

Political Rights and Association

English

Citizens of the People’s Republic of China enjoy freedom of speech, of the press, of assembly, of association, of procession and of demonstration. (Art. 35)

Chinese

中华人民共和国公民有言论、出版、集会、结社、游行、示威的自由。(第三十五条)

Political Rights and Association

English

Women in the People’s Republic of China enjoy equal rights with men in all spheres of life, in political, economic, cultural, social and family life. … (Art. 48)

Chinese

中华人民共和国妇女在政治的、经济的、文化的、社会的和家庭的生活等各方面享有同男子平等的权利。… (第四十八条)

Head of State

English

The President and Vice-President of the People’s Republic of China are elected by the National People’s Congress.
Citizens of the People’s Republic of China who have the right to vote and to stand for election and who have reached the age of 45 are eligible for election as President or Vice-President of the People’s Republic of China. ... (Art. 79)

Chinese

中华人民共和国主席、副主席由全国人民代表大会选举。
有选举权和被选举权的年满四十五周岁的中华人民共和国公民可以被选为中华人民共和国主席、副主席。… (第七十九条)

Vice-President

English

The President and Vice-President of the People’s Republic of China are elected by the National People’s Congress.
Citizens of the People’s Republic of China who have the right to vote and to stand for election and who have reached the age of 45 are eligible for election as President or Vice-President of the People’s Republic of China. ... (Art. 79)

Chinese

中华人民共和国主席、副主席由全国人民代表大会选举。
有选举权和被选举权的年满四十五周岁的中华人民共和国公民可以被选为中华人民共和国主席、副主席。… (第七十九条)

Vice-President

English

The Vice-President of the People’s Republic of China assists the President in his work.
The Vice-President of the People’s Republic of China may exercise such functions and powers of the President as the President may entrust to him. (Art. 82)

Chinese

中华人民共和国副主席协助主席工作。
中华人民共和国副主席受主席的委托,可以代行主席的部分职权。(第八十二条)

Government

English

The National People’s Congress exercises the following functions and powers:

(5) to decide on the choice of the Premier of the State Council upon nomination by the President of the People’s Republic of China, and on the choice of the Vice-Premiers, State Councillors, Ministers in charge of ministries or commissions, the Auditor-General and the Secretary-General of the State Council upon nomination by the Premier;
… (Art. 62)

Chinese

全国人民代表大会行使下列职权:

(五)根据中华人民共和国主席的提名,决定国务院总理的人选;根据国务院总理的提名,决定国务院副总理、国务委员、各部部长、各委员会主任、审计长、秘书长的人选;
... (第六十二条)

Government

English

The State Council, that is, the Central People’s Government, of the People’s Republic of China is the executive body of the highest organ of state power; it is the highest organ of State administration. (Art. 85)

Chinese

中华人民共和国国务院,即中央人民政府,是最高国家权力机关的执行机关,是最高国家行政机关。(第八十五条)

Government

English

The State Council is composed of the following:
the Premier;
the Vice-Premiers;
the State Councillors;
the Ministers in charge of ministries;
the Ministers in charge of commissions;
the Auditor-General; and
the Secretary-General.
… (Art. 86)

Chinese

国务院由下列人员组成:
总理,
副总理若干人,
国务委员若干人,
各部部长,
各委员会主任,
审计长,
秘书长。
… (第八十六条)

Legislature

English

The National People’s Congress of the People’s Republic of China is the highest organ of state power. Its permanent body is the Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress. (Art. 57)

Chinese

中华人民共和国全国人民代表大会是最高国家权力机关。它的常设机关是全国人民代表大会常务委员会。(第五十七条)

Legislature

English

The National People’s Congress is composed of deputies elected from the provinces, autonomous regions, municipalities directly under the Central Government, and special administrative regions, and of deputies elected from the armed forces. All the minority nationalities are entitled to appropriate representation.
Election of deputies to the National People’s Congress is conducted by the Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress.
The number of deputies to the National People’s Congress and the procedure of their election are prescribed by law. (Art. 59)

Chinese

全国人民代表大会由省、自治区、直辖市、特别行政区和军队选出的代表组成。各少数民族都应当有适当名额的代表。
全国人民代表大会代表的选举由全国人民代表大会常务委员会主持。
全国人民代表大会代表名额和代表产生办法由法律规定。(第五十九条)

Property, Inheritance and Land Tenure

English

The rural collective economic organizations apply the dual operation system characterized by the combination of centralized operation with decentralized operation on the basis of operation by households under a contract. In rural areas, all forms of cooperative economy, such as producers’, supply and marketing, credit and consumers’ cooperatives, belong to the sector of socialist economy under collective ownership by the working people.
Working people who are members of rural economic collectives have the right, within the limits prescribed by law, to farm plots of cropland and hilly land allotted for their private use, engage in household sideline production and raise privately owned livestock. … (Art. 8)

Chinese

农村集体经济组织实行家庭承包经营为基础、统分结合的双层经营体制。农村中的生产、供销、信用、消费等各种形式的合作经济,是社会主义劳动群众集体所有制经济。参加农村集体经济组织的劳动者,有权在法律规定的范围内经营自留地、自留山、家庭副业和饲养自留畜。 ... (第八条)

Property, Inheritance and Land Tenure

English

… Land in the rural and suburban areas is owned by collectives except for those portions which belong to the State as prescribed by law; house sites and privately farmed plots of cropland and hilly land are also owned by collectives. … (Art. 10)

Chinese

… 农村和城市郊区的土地,除由法律规定属于国家所有的以外,属于集体所有;宅基地和自留地、自留山,也属于集体所有。… (第十条)

Property, Inheritance and Land Tenure

English

Citizens’ lawful private property is inviolable.
The State, in accordance with law, protects the rights of citizens to private property and to its inheritance. … (Art. 13)

Chinese

公民的合法的私有财产不受侵犯。
国家依照法律规定保护公民的私有财产权和继承权。... (第十三条)

Protection from Violence

English

... Maltreatment of old people, women and children is prohibited. (Art. 49)

Chinese

… 禁止虐待老人、妇女和儿童。(第四十九条)

Public Institutions and Services

English

Marriage, the family and mother and child are protected by the State. … (Art. 49)

Chinese

婚姻、家庭、母亲和儿童受国家的保护。 … (第四十九条)

Public Institutions and Services

English

The State Council exercises the following functions and powers:
...
(7) to direct and administer the affairs of education, science, culture, public health, physical culture and family planning;
… (Art. 89)

Chinese

国务院行使下列职权:
...
(七)领导和管理教育、科学、文化、卫生、体育和计划生育工作;
… (第八十九条)

Public Institutions and Services

English

Local people’s governments at or above the county level, within the limits of their authority as prescribed by law, conduct administrative work concerning the economy, education, science, culture, public health, physical culture, urban and rural development, finance, civil affairs, public security, nationalities affairs, judicial administration, supervision and family planning in their respective administrative areas; ... (Art. 107)

Chinese

县级以上地方各级人民政府依照法律规定的权限,管理本行政区域内的经济、教育、科学、文化、卫生、体育事业、城乡建设事业和财政、民政、公安、民族事务、司法行政、监察、计划生育等行政工作… (第一百零七条)

Sexual and Reproductive Rights

English

The State promotes family planning so that population growth may fit the plans for economic and social development. (Art. 25)

Chinese

国家推行计划生育,使人口的增长同经济和社会发展计划相适应。(第二十五条)

Sexual and Reproductive Rights

English

… Both husband and wife have the duty to practise family planning. … (Art. 49)

Chinese

… 夫妻双方有实行计划生育的义务。… (第四十九条)

Sexual and Reproductive Rights

English

The State Council exercises the following functions and powers:
...
(7) to direct and administer the affairs of education, science, culture, public health, physical culture and family planning;
… (Art. 89)

Chinese

国务院行使下列职权:
...
(七)领导和管理教育、科学、文化、卫生、体育和计划生育工作;
… (第八十九条)

Sexual and Reproductive Rights

English

Local people’s governments at or above the county level, within the limits of their authority as prescribed by law, conduct administrative work concerning the economy, education, science, culture, public health, physical culture, urban and rural development, finance, civil affairs, public security, nationalities affairs, judicial administration, supervision and family planning in their respective administrative areas; ... (Art. 107)

Chinese

县级以上地方各级人民政府依照法律规定的权限,管理本行政区域内的经济、教育、科学、文化、卫生、体育事业、城乡建设事业和财政、民政、公安、民族事务、司法行政、监察、计划生育等行政工作, … (第一百零七条)

Status of the Constitution

English

… This Constitution, in legal form, affirms the achievements of the struggles of the Chinese people of all nationalities and defines the basic system and basic tasks of the State; it is the fundamental law of the State and has supreme legal authority. The people of all nationalities, all State organs, the armed forces, all political parties and public organizations and all enterprises and institutions in the country must take the Constitution as the basic standard of conduct, and they have the duty to uphold the dignity of the Constitution and ensure its implementation. (Preamble)

Chinese

… 本宪法以法律的形式确认了中国各族人民奋斗的成果,规定了国家的根本制度和根本任务,是国家的根本法,具有最高的法律效力。全国各族人民、一切国家机关和武装力量、各政党和各社会团体、各企业事业组织,都必须以宪法为根本的活动准则,并且负有维护宪法尊严、保证宪法实施的职责。(序 言)

Status of the Constitution

English

… No laws or administrative or local regulations may contravene the Constitution.
All State organs, the armed forces, all political parties and public organizations and all enterprises and institutions must abide by the Constitution and other laws. All acts in violation of the Constitution or other laws must be investigated.
No organization or individual is privileged to be beyond the Constitution or other laws. (Art. 5)

Chinese

... 一切法律、行政法规和地方性法规都不得同宪法相抵触。
一切国家机关和武装力量、各政党和各社会团体、各企业事业组织都必须遵守宪法和法律。一切违反宪法和法律的行为,必须予以追究。
任何组织或者个人都不得有超越宪法和法律的特权。(第五条 )

Status of the Constitution

English

Citizens of the People’s Republic of China must abide by the Constitution and other laws, … (Art. 53)

Chinese

中华人民共和国公民必须遵守宪法和法律,... (第五十三条)

Customary Law

English

… All nationalities have the freedom to use and develop their own spoken and written languages and to preserve or reform their own folkways and customs. (Art. 4)

Chinese

... 各民族都有使用和发展自己的语言文字的自由,都有保持或者改革自己的风俗习惯的自由(第四条)

Women’s Rights

English

Women in the People’s Republic of China enjoy equal rights with men in all spheres of life, in political, economic, cultural, social and family life.
The State protects the rights and interests of women, applies the principle of equal pay for equal work to men and women alike and trains and selects cadres from among women. (Art. 48)

Chinese

中华人民共和国妇女在政治的、经济的、文化的、社会的和家庭的生活等各方面享有同男子平等的权利。
国家保护妇女的权利和利益,实行男女同工同酬,培养和选拔妇女干部。(第四十八条)