Constitution of the Republic of the Union of Myanmar 2008


Citizenship and Nationality

All persons who have either one of the following qualifications are citizens of the Republic of the Union of Myanmar:
(a) person born of parents both of whom are nationals of the Republic of the Union of Myanmar;
(b) person who is already a citizen according to law on the day this Constitution comes into operation. (Sec. 345)

Citizenship and Nationality

Citizenship, naturalization and revocation of citizenship shall be as prescribed by law. (Sec. 346)

Citizenship and Nationality

10. Management Sector

(j) Citizenship, naturalization, termination and revocation of citizenship, citizenship scrutiny and registration;
… (Schedule One, Union Legislative List [Section 96])

Jurisdiction and Access

A Constitutional Tribunal shall be set up to interpret the provisions of the Constitution, to scrutinize whether or not laws enacted by the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw, the Region Hluttaws and the State Hluttaws and functions of executive authorities of Pyidaungsu, Regions, States and Self-Administered Areas are in conformity with the Constitution, to decide on disputes relating to the Constitution between Pyidaungsu and Regions, between Pyidaungsu and States, among Regions, among States, and between Regions or States and SelfAdministered Areas and among Self-Administered Areas themselves, and to perform other duties prescribed in this Constitution. (Sec. 46)

Jurisdiction and Access

The functions and the duties of the Constitutional Tribunal of the Union are as follows :
(a) interpreting the provisions under the Constitution;
(b) vetting whether the laws promulgated by the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw, the Region Hluttaw, the State Hluttaw or the Self-Administered Division Leading Body and the Self-Administered Zone Leading Body are in conformity with the Constitution or not;
(c) vetting whether the measures of the executive authorities of the Union, the Regions, the States, and the Self-Administered Areas are in conformity with the Constitution or not;
(d) deciding Constitutional disputes between the Union and a Region, between the Union and a State, between a Region and a State, among the Regions, among the States, between a Region or a State and a Self-Administered Area and among the Self-Administered Areas;
(e) deciding disputes arising out of the rights and duties of the Union and a Region, a State or a Self-Administered Area in implementing the Union Law by a Region, State or Self-Administered Area;
(f) vetting and deciding matters intimated by the President relating to the Union Territory;
(g) functions and duties conferred by laws enacted by the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw. (Sec. 322)

Jurisdiction and Access

In hearing a case by a Court, if there arises a dispute whether the provisions contained in any law contradict or conform to the Constitution, and if no resolution has been made by the Constitutional Tribunal of the Union on the said dispute, the said Court shall stay the trial and submit its opinion to the Constitutional Tribunal of the Union in accord with the prescribed procedures and shall obtain a resolution. In respect of the said dispute, the resolution of the Constitutional Tribunal of the Union shall be applied to all cases. (Sec. 323)

Jurisdiction and Access

The following persons and organizations shall have the right to submit matters directly to obtain the interpretation, resolution and opinion of the Constitutional Tribunal of the Union:
(a) the President;
(b) the Speaker of the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw;
(c) the Speaker of the Pyithu Hluttaw;
(d) the Speaker of the Amyotha Hluttaw;
(e) the Chief Justice of the Union;
(f) the Chairperson of the Union Election Commission. (Sec. 325)

Jurisdiction and Access

The following persons and organizations shall have the right to submit matters to obtain the interpretation, resolution and opinion of the Constitutional Tribunal of the Union in accord with the prescribed procedures :
(a) the Chief Minister of the Region or State;
(b) the Speaker of the Region or State Hluttaw;
(c) the Chairperson of the Self-Administered Division Leading Body or the Self-Administered Zone Leading Body;
(d) Representatives numbering at least ten percent of all the representatives of the Pyithu Hluttaw or the Amyotha Hluttaw. (Sec. 326)

Education

The Union shall:

(c) implement free, compulsory primary education system;
... (Sec. 28)

Education

Every citizen, in accord with the educational policy laid down by the Union:
(a) has the right to education;
(b) shall be given basic education which the Union prescribes by law as compulsory;
... (Sec. 366)

Education

The Union shall honour and assist citizens who are outstanding in education irrespective of race, religion and sex according to their qualifications. (Sec. 368)

Education

9. Social Sector
(a) Educational curricula, syllabus, teaching methodology, research, plans, projects and standards;
(b) Universities, degree colleges, institutes and other institutions of higher education;
… (Schedule One, Union Legislative List [Sec. 96))

Employment Rights and Protection

The Union shall enact necessary laws to protect the rights of workers. (Sec. 24)

Employment Rights and Protection

Citizens shall enjoy equal opportunity in carrying out the following functions:

(b) occupation;
(c) trade;
(d) business;
(e) technical know-how and vocation;
… (Sec. 349)

Employment Rights and Protection

Women shall be entitled to the same rights and salaries as that received by men in respect of similar work. (Sec. 350)

Employment Rights and Protection

9. Social Sector

(o) Working hours, resting-hours, holidays and occupational safety;
… (Schedule One, Union Legislative List [Sec. 96])

Equality and Non-Discrimination

We, the National people, firmly resolve that we shall:

- stalwartly strive for further burgeoning the eternal principles namely justice, liberty, equality and perpetuation of peace and prosperity of the National people;
… (Preamble)

Equality and Non-Discrimination

The Union’s consistent objectives are:

(e) enhancing the eternal principles of Justice, Liberty and Equality in the Union;
… (Sec. 6)

Equality and Non-Discrimination

(a) Every citizen shall enjoy the right of equality, the right of liberty and the right of justice, as prescribed in this Constitution.
… (Sec. 21)

Equality and Non-Discrimination

The Union shall guarantee any person to enjoy equal rights before the law and shall equally provide legal protection. (Sec. 347)

Equality and Non-Discrimination

The Union shall not discriminate any citizen of the Republic of the Union of Myanmar, based on race, birth, religion, official position, status, culture, sex and wealth. (Sec. 348)

Obligations of the State

(a) Every citizen shall enjoy the right of equality, the right of liberty and the right of justice, as prescribed in this Constitution.

(d) Necessary law shall be enacted to make citizens’ freedoms, rights, benefits, responsibilities and restrictions effective, steadfast and complete. (Sec. 21)

Judicial Protection

In order to obtain a right given by this Chapter3, application shall be made in accord with the stipulations, to the Supreme Court of the Union. (Sec. 377)

Indigenous Peoples

We, the National people, firmly resolve that we shall:
...
- uphold racial equality, living eternally in unity fostering the firm Union Spirit of true patriotism;
... (Preamble)

Indigenous Peoples

3. The State is where multi-National races collectively reside.
… (Sec. 3)

Indigenous Peoples

For National races with suitable population, National races representatives are entitled to participate in legislature of Regions or States and Self-Administered Areas concerned. (Sec. 15)

Indigenous Peoples

(c) For National races of which representatives are so permitted to participate in legislature of Regions, States or Self-Administered Areas in accord with Section 15, such representatives are to be permitted to participate, mainly, to undertake their National races affairs. (Sec. 17)

Indigenous Peoples

The Union shall assist:
(a) to develop language, literature, fine arts and culture of the National races;
(b) to promote solidarity, mutual amity and respect and mutual assistance among the National races;
(c) to promote socio-economic development including education, health, economy, transport and communication, so forth, of less-developed National races. (Sec. 22)

Indigenous Peoples

Every citizen shall be at liberty in the exercise of the following rights, if not contrary to the laws, enacted for Union security, prevalence of law and order, community peace and tranquility or public order and morality:

(d) to develop their language, literature, culture they cherish, religion they profess, and customs without prejudice to the relations between one national race and another or among national races and to other faiths. (Sec. 354)

Indigenous Peoples

Every citizen shall, in accord with the law, have the right to freely develop literature, culture, arts, customs and traditions they cherish. In the process, they shall avoid any act detrimental to national solidarity. Moreover, any particular action which might adversely affect the interests of one or several other national races shall be taken only after coordinating with and obtaining the settlement of those affected. (Sec. 365)

Indigenous Peoples

Every citizen, with the Union Spirit, has the duty to enhance unity among national races and to ensure public peace and stability. (Sec. 387)

Indigenous Peoples

In electing people’s representatives to the Hluttaws :
(a) every citizen who has attained 18 years of age on the day on which the election commences, who is not disqualified by law, who is eligible to vote, and person who has the right to vote under the law, shall have the right to vote;
(b) every citizen who is eligible to vote and person who has the right to vote under the law shall cast a vote only for each Hluttaw at a constituency in an election;
(c) Moreover, the relevant national races having right to vote in accord with the provisions contained in this Constitution have also the right to vote to elect Hluttaw representatives of national races for their Region or State Hluttaw;
… (Sec. 391)

Limitations and/or Derogations

At the time of the occurrence the following situation, the rights under Section 3774 shall not be suspended unless the public safety may so require:
(a) in time of war;
(b) in time of foreign invasion;
(c) in time of insurrection. (Sec. 379)

Limitations and/or Derogations

Except in the following situations and time, no citizen shall be denied redress by due process of law for grievances entitled under law:
(a) in time of foreign invasion;
(b) in time of insurrection;
(c) in time of emergency (Sec. 381)

Limitations and/or Derogations

The President, in promulgating an ordinance and declaring a state of emergency :
(a) shall specify in the said ordinance the areas and the duration that the state of emergency is in operation;
(b) may, if necessary, restrict or suspend as required, one or more fundamental rights of the citizens residing in the areas where the state of emergency is in operation. (Sec. 414)

Limitations and/or Derogations

The Commander-in-Chief of the Defence Services may, during the duration of the declaration of a state of emergency, restrict or suspend as required, one or more fundamental rights of the citizens in the required area. (Sec. 420)

Marriage and Family Life

(b) The Union shall enact necessary laws for Civil Services personnel to have security and sufficiency of food, clothing and shelter, to get maternity benefits for married women in service, and to ease livelihood for welfare of retired Service personnel. (Sec. 26)

Marriage and Family Life

The Union shall:
(a) care for mothers and children, orphans, fallen Defence Services personnel’s children, the aged and the disabled;
... (Sec. 32)

Marriage and Family Life

Mothers, children and expectant women shall enjoy equal rights as prescribed by law. (Sec. 351)

Marriage and Family Life

9. Social Sector

(i) Maternal and child welfare;

(l) Welfare of children, youths, women, the disabled, the aged and the homeless;

(u) Registration of births and deaths.

11. Judicial Sector

(d) Civil Laws and procedures including contract, arbitration, actionable wrong, insolvency, trust and trustees, administrator and receiver, family laws, guardians and wards, …
(Schedule One, Union Legislative List [Section 96])

Participation in Public Life and Institutions

Citizens shall enjoy equal opportunity in carrying out the following functions:
(a) public employment;
… (Sec. 349)

Participation in Public Life and Institutions

The Union shall, upon specified qualifications being fulfilled, in appointing or assigning duties to civil service personnel, not discriminate for or against any citizen of the Republic of the Union of Myanmar, based on race, birth, religion, and sex. However, nothing in this Section shall prevent appointment of men to the positions that are suitable for men only. (Sec. 352)

Political Rights and Association

(a) Every citizen shall have the right to elect and be elected in accord with the law. ... (Sec. 38)

Political Rights and Association

Every citizen shall be at liberty in the exercise of the following rights, if not contrary to the laws, enacted for Union security, prevalence of law and order, community peace and tranquility or public order and morality:

(c) to form associations and organizations;
… (Sec. 354)

Political Rights and Association

(a) Subject to this Constitution and relevant laws, every citizen has the right to elect and right to be elected to the Pyithu Hluttaw, the Amyotha Hluttaw, and the Region or State Hluttaw.
... (Sec. 369)

Political Rights and Association

In electing people’s representatives to the Hluttaws:
(a) every citizen who has attained 18 years of age on the day on which the election commences, who is not disqualified by law, who is eligible to vote, and person who has the right to vote under the law, shall have the right to vote;
... (Sec. 391)

Political Rights and Association

Every citizen who is not disqualified by the provisions under this Constitution or the provisions of the election law shall have the right to stand for election to any Hluttaw. (Sec. 395)

Political Parties

The Union shall enact necessary law to systematically form political parties for flourishing of a genuine, disciplined multi-party democratic system. (Sec. 39)

Political Parties

A political party shall:
(a) set the objective of non-disintegration of the Union, non-disintegration of national solidarity and perpetuation of sovereignty;
(b) be loyal to the State. (Sec. 404)

Political Parties

A political party shall:
(a) accept and practise a genuine and discipline-flourishing multi-party democratic system;
(b) abide by and respect this Constitution and the existing laws;
(c) form and register as a political party in accord with the law. (Sec. 405)

Political Parties

A political party shall, in accord with the law, have the right in the Union to:
(a) organize freely;
(b) participate and compete in the elections. (Sec. 406)

Political Parties

If a political party infringe one of the following stipulations, it shall have no right of continued existence :
(a) having been declared an unlawful association under the existing law;
(b) directly or indirectly contacting or abetting the insurgent group launching armed rebellion against the Union or the associations and persons determined by the Union to have committed terrorist acts or the association declared to be an unlawful association;
(c) directly or indirectly receiving and expending financial, material and other assistance from a foreign government, a religious association, other association or a person from a foreign country;
(d) abusing religion for political purpose. (Sec. 407)

Electoral Bodies

The duties of the Union Election Commission are as follows:
(a) holding Hluttaw elections;
(b) supervising Hluttaw elections; forming different levels of sub-commissions and supervising thereof;
(c) designating and amending the constituencies;
(d) compiling lists of voters and amending thereof;
(e) postponing elections of the constituencies where free and fair election cannot be held due to natural disaster or due to local security situation;
(f) prescribing rules relating to elections or political parties in accord with the provisions of this Constitution, and procedures, directives, so forth, in accord with the relevant laws;
(g) constituting the election tribunals for trial of disputes relating to election in accord with the law;
(h) performing duties assigned under a law. (Sec. 399)

Head of State

The Head of the Union and the Head of Executive of the Union is the President. (Sec. 16)

Head of State

Qualifications of the President and Vice-Presidents are as follows:
(a) shall be loyal to the Union and its citizens;
(b) shall be a citizen of Myanmar who was born of both parents who were born in the territory under the jurisdiction of the Union and being Myanmar Nationals;
(c) shall be an elected person who has attained at least the age of 45;
(d) shall be well acquainted with the affairs of the Union such as political, administrative, economic and military;
(e) shall be a person who has resided continuously in the Union for at least 20 years up to the time of his election as President;
Proviso: An official period of stay in a foreign country with the permission of the Union shall be counted as a residing period in the Union;
(f) shall he himself, one of the parents, the spouse, one of the legitimate children or their spouses not owe allegiance to a foreign power, not be subject of a foreign power or citizen of a foreign country. They shall not be persons entitled to enjoy the rights and privileges of a subject of a foreign government or citizen of a foreign country;
(g) shall possess prescribed qualifications of the President, in addition to qualifications prescribed to stand for election to the Hluttaw. (Sec. 59)

Head of State

(a) The President shall be elected by the Presidential Electoral College.
(b) The Presidential Electoral College shall be formed with three groups of the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw representatives as follows:
(i) group formed with elected Hluttaw representatives in the Hluttaw with an equal number of representatives elected from Regions and States;
(ii) group formed with elected Hluttaw representatives in the Hluttaw elected on the basis of township and population;
(iii) group formed with the Defence Services personnel Hluttaw representatives nominated by the Commander-in-Chief of the Defence Services for the said two Hluttaws.
(c) Each group shall elect a Vice-President from among the Hluttaw representatives or from among persons who are not Hluttaw representatives.
(d) The Pyidaungsu Hluttaw and a Body comprising the Heads and Deputy Heads of the two Hluttaws in the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw shall scrutinize whether or not the Vice-Presidents possess the qualifications prescribed for the President.
(e) The Presidential Electoral College comprising all the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw representatives shall elect by vote one of the three Vice-Presidents who are Presidential candidates, as the President.
(f) Necessary law shall be enacted for the election of President and Vice Presidents. (Sec. 60)

Vice-President

The President and Vice-Presidents represent the Union. (Sec. 57)

Vice-President

Qualifications of the President and Vice-Presidents are as follows:
(a) shall be loyal to the Union and its citizens;
(b) shall be a citizen of Myanmar who was born of both parents who were born in the territory under the jurisdiction of the Union and being Myanmar Nationals;
(c) shall be an elected person who has attained at least the age of 45;
(d) shall be well acquainted with the affairs of the Union such as political, administrative, economic and military;
(e) shall be a person who has resided continuously in the Union for at least 20 years up to the time of his election as President;
Proviso: An official period of stay in a foreign country with the permission of the Union shall be counted as a residing period in the Union;
(f) shall he himself, one of the parents, the spouse, one of the legitimate children or their spouses not owe allegiance to a foreign power, not be subject of a foreign power or citizen of a foreign country. They shall not be persons entitled to enjoy the rights and privileges of a subject of a foreign government or citizen of a foreign country;
(g) shall possess prescribed qualifications of the President, in addition to qualifications prescribed to stand for election to the Hluttaw. (Sec. 59)

Vice-President

(b) The Presidential Electoral College shall be formed with three groups of the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw representatives as follows:
(i) group formed with elected Hluttaw representatives in the Hluttaw with an equal number of representatives elected from Regions and States;
(ii) group formed with elected Hluttaw representatives in the Hluttaw elected on the basis of township and population;
(iii) group formed with the Defence Services personnel Hluttaw representatives nominated by the Commander-in-Chief of the Defence Services for the said two Hluttaws. (c) Each group shall elect a Vice-President from among the Hluttaw representatives or from among persons who are not Hluttaw representatives.
(d) The Pyidaungsu Hluttaw and a Body comprising the Heads and Deputy Heads of the two Hluttaws in the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw shall scrutinize whether or not the Vice-Presidents possess the qualifications prescribed for the President.
… (Sec. 60)

Government

The President, with the approval of the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw, may:
(a) designate the Ministries of the Union Government as necessary, and may make changes and additions to the ministries;
… (Sec. 202)

Government

(a) The President shall appoint the Union Ministers who possess the following qualifications :
(i) person who has attained the age of 40 years;
(ii) person who has qualifications, with the exception of age limit, entitled to be elected as Pyithu Hluttaw representatives prescribed in Section 120;
(iii) person whose qualifications does not breach the provisions under Section 121 which disqualify the person from standing for election as the Pyithu Hluttaw representative;
(iv) person loyal to the Union and its citizens.
… (Sec. 232)

Legislature

(a) The legislative power of the Union is shared among the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw, Region Hluttaws and State Hluttaws. Legislative power stipulated by this Constitution shall be shared to the Self-Administered Areas.
(b) The Pyidaungsu Hluttaw consisting of two Hluttaws, one Hluttaw elected on the basis of township as well as population, and the other on an equal number of representatives elected from Regions and States. (Sec. 12)

Legislature

The Pyidaungsu Hluttaw comprises of the following two Hluttaws:
(a) in accord with the provisions of Section 109, the Pyithu Hluttaw formed with Hluttaw representatives elected on the basis of township as well as population and Hluttaw representatives being the Defence Services Personnel nominated by the Commander-in-Chief of the Defence Services;
(b) in accord with the provisions of Section 141, the Amyotha Hluttaw formed with Hluttaw representatives elected in equal numbers from Regions and States and Hluttaw representatives being the Defence Services Personnel nominated by the Commander-in-Chief of the Defence Services. (Sec. 74)

Legislature

Persons who possess the following qualifications shall be entitled to be elected as the Pyithu Hluttaw representatives:
(a) person who has attained the age of 25 years;
(b) citizen who was born of both parents who are citizens;
(c) person who has resided in the Union of Myanmar for at least ten consecutive years up to the time of his election as Pyithu Hluttaw representative;
Proviso: The official period of stay in a foreign country with the permission of the Union shall be counted as a residing period in the Union,
(d) person who possesses qualifications prescribed by the Election Law. (Sec. 120)

Legislature

The Amyotha Hluttaw representatives shall be:
(a) persons who have attained the age of 30 years;
(b) persons who have qualifications, with the exception of the age limit, entitled to be elected as Pyithu Hluttaw representatives prescribed under Section 120;
(c) persons whose qualifications does not breach the provisions under Section 121 which disqualified a person from standing for election as the Pyithu Hluttaw representatives. (Sec. 152)

Legislature

Every citizen who is not disqualified by the provisions under this Constitution or the provisions of the election law shall have the right to stand for election to any Hluttaw. (Sec. 395)

Property, Inheritance and Land Tenure

The Union:

(c) shall permit citizens right of private property, right of inheritance, right of private initiative and patent in accord with the law. (Sec. 37)

Property, Inheritance and Land Tenure

The Union shall protect according to law movable and immovable properties of every citizen that are lawfully acquired. (Sec. 356)

Property, Inheritance and Land Tenure

The Union shall protect the privacy and security of home, property, correspondence and other communications of citizens under the law subject to the provisions of this Constitution. (Sec. 357)

Property, Inheritance and Land Tenure

The Union guarantees the right to ownership, the use of property and the right to private invention and patent in the conducting of business if it is not contrary to the provisions of this Constitution and the existing laws. (Sec. 372)

Property, Inheritance and Land Tenure

5. Agriculture and Livestock Breeding Sector
(a) Land administration;

10. Management Sector

(b) Administration of town and village land;
… 11. Judicial Sector

(d) Civil Laws and procedures including contract, arbitration, actionable wrong, insolvency, trust and trustees, administrator and receiver, family laws, guardians and wards, transfer of property and inheritance;
… (Schedule One, Union Legislative List [Section 96])

Protection from Violence

The Union prohibits the enslaving and trafficking in persons. (Sec. 358)

Protection from Violence

The Union prohibits forced labor except hard labor as a punishment for crime duly convicted and duties assigned by the Union in accord with the law in the interest of the public. (Sec. 359)

Public Institutions and Services

(b) The Union shall enact necessary laws for Civil Services personnel to have security and sufficiency of food, clothing and shelter, to get maternity benefits for married women in service, and to ease livelihood for welfare of retired Service personnel. (Sec. 26)

Public Institutions and Services

The Union shall:
(a) earnestly strive to improve education and health of the people;
... (Sec. 28)

Public Institutions and Services

The Union shall:
(a) care for mothers and children, orphans, fallen Defence Services personnel’s children, the aged and the disabled;
... (Sec. 32)

Status of the Constitution

(b) The rules, regulations, notifications, orders, directives, and procedures issued under the power conferred by any law shall be in conformity with the provisions of the Constitution and the relevant law.
… (Sec. 97)

Status of the Constitution

Every citizen has duty to abide by the provisions of this Constitution. (Sec. 384)

Status of the Constitution

This Constitution is the Basic Law of all the laws of the Union. (Sec. 449)

Status of International Law

The Republic of the Union of Myanmar shall honour all legitimate obligations arising out of treaties or agreements which before the commencement of this Constitution have been in operation between the Government of the Union of Myanmar and the Government of other State, provided that such other State honours any reciprocal obligations towards the Union of Myanmar. (Sec. 456)

Religious Law

The Union recognizes special position of Buddhism as the faith professed by the great majority of the citizens of the Union. (Sec. 361)

Religious Law

The Union also recognizes Christianity, Islam, Hinduism and Animism as the religions existing in the Union at the day of the coming into operation of this Constitution. (Sec. 362)

Religious Law

The Union may assist and protect the religions it recognizes to its utmost. (Sec. 363)

Customary Law

Every citizen shall be at liberty in the exercise of the following rights, if not contrary to the laws, enacted for Union security, prevalence of law and order, community peace and tranquility or public order and morality:

(d) to develop their language, literature, culture they cherish, religion they profess, and customs without prejudice to the relations between one national race and another or among national races and to other faiths. (Sec. 354)

Customary Law

Every citizen shall, in accord with the law, have the right to freely develop literature, culture, arts, customs and traditions they cherish. In the process, they shall avoid any act detrimental to national solidarity. Moreover, any particular action which might adversely affect the interests of one or several other national races shall be taken only after coordinating with and obtaining the settlement of those affected. (Sec. 365)

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Jurisdiction and Access

EdkifiHawmfzGJ@pnf;ykHtajccHOya'qdkif&mckH&Hk;. vkyfief;wm0efrsm;rSm atmufyg twdkif;jzpfonf
(u) zGJ@pnf;ykHtajccHOya'yg jyXmef;csufrsm;udk teuft"dy`m,f zGifhqdk jcif;/
(c) jynfaxmifpkv$wfawmf/ wdkif;a'o}uD;v$wfawmf/ jynfe,f v$wfawmf odk@r[kwf udk,fydkiftkyfcsKyfcGifh& wdkif;OD;pD;tzGJ@ESifh udk,fydkif tkyfcsKyfcGifh&a'oOD;pD;tzGJ@wdk@u jyXmef;onfhOya'rsm;onf zGJ@pnf;ykH tajccHOya'ESifh nD!wfjcif;&Sd-r&Sd pdppfjcif;/
(*) jynfaxmifpk/ wdkif;a'o}uD;rsm;/ jynfe,frsm;ESifh udk,fydkiftkyfcsKyfcGifh &pD&ifpkrsm;. tkyfcsKyfr_qdkif&mtm%mydkifrsm;. aqmif&Gufcsufrsm; onf zGJ@pnf;ykHtajccHOya'ESifh nD!Gwfjcif; &Sd-r&Sd pdppfjcif;/
(C) jynfaxmifpkESifh wdkif;a'o}uD;t=um;/ jynfaxmifpkESifh jynfe,f t=um;/ wkdif;a'o=uD;ESifh jynfe,ft=um;/ wdkif;a'}uD;tcsif;csif;/ jynfe,ftcsif;csif;/ wdkif;a'o}uD; odk@r[kwf jynfe,fESifh udk,fydkif tkyfcsKyfcGifh& pD&ifpkt=um;/ udk,fydkiftkyfcsKyfcGihf&pD&ifpktcsif;csif; jzpfay: onfh zGJ@pnf;ykHtajccHOya'qdkif&m tjiif;yGm;r_rsm;udk qkH;jzwfjcif;/
(i) wdkif;a'o}uD;/ jynfe,f odk@r[kwf udk,fydkiftkyfcsKyfcGihf& pD&ifpkwdk@u
jynfaxmifpkOya'udk taumiftxnfazmf aqmif&Guf&mwGif jynfaxmifpkESifh wdkif;a'o}uD;/ jynfe,f odk@r[kwf udk,fydkiftkyfcsKyfcGifh&
pD&ifpkwdk@. tcGifhta&;ESifh wm0efrsm;ESifhpyfvsOf;I ay:aygufonfh tjiif;yGm;rIrsm;udk qkH;jzwfjcif;/
(p) jynfaxmifpke,fajrrsm;ESifhpyfvsOf;I EkdifiHawmforRwu ta=umif;=um;vmonfh udpP&yfrsm;ukd pdppfqkH;jzwfjcif;/
(q) jynfaxmifpkv$wfawmfu jyXmef;onfhOya'rsm;u ay;tyfonfh
vkyfief;wm0efrsm;? (yk'fr 322)

Jurisdiction and Access

w&m;&kH;wpf&kH;onf tr_wpfr_udk ppfaq;pD&if&mwGif Oya' wpf&yf&yfyg jyXmef;csufonf zGJ@pnf;ykHtajccHOya'ESifh qef@usifr_&Sd-r&Sd/ nD!Gwfr_&Sd-r&Sd
tjiif;yGm;r_ay:aygufygu xdktjiif;yGm;r_ESifhpyfvsOf;I EdkifiHawmf zGJ@pnf;ykH tajccHOya'qdkif&mckH&kH;uvnf; wpfpkHwpf&mqkH;jzwfcsuf csrSwfxm;jcif; r&Sdao;v#if
tqdkygw&m;&kH;onf tr_ppfaq;pD&ifjcif; udk &yfqdkif;xm;+yD; rdrd.xifjrifcsufudk owfrSwfxm;onfh enf;vrf; rsm;ESifhtnD EdkifiHawmf
zGJ@pnf;ykHtajccHOya'qdkif&mckH&kH;odk@ wifjyI tqkH;tjzwf&,l&rnf? ,if;tjiif;yGm;r_ESifhpyfvsOf;I EdkifiHawmf zGJ@pnf;ykH tajccHOya'qdkif&mckH&kH;. qkH;jzwfcsufonf tr_tm;vkH;ESifh oufqkdifap&rnf? (yk'fr 323 )

Jurisdiction and Access

zGJ@pnf;ykHtajccHOya'qdkif&mckH&Hk;. t"dy`m,fzGifhqdkcsuf/ qkH;jzwfcsuf/ oabmxm;&,l&efudpPrsm;udk atmufazmfjyyg yk*~dKvfrsm;onf EdkifiHawmf
zGJ@pnf;ykHtajccHOya'qdkif&mckH&kH;odk@ wdkuf&dkufwifoGif;cGifh &Sdonf
(u) EdkifiHawmforRw/
(c) jynfaxmifpkv$wfawmfem,u/
(*) jynfol@v$wfawmfOuUX/
(C) trsKd;om;v$wfawmfOuUX/
(i) jynfaxmifpkw&m;ol}uD;csKyf/
(p) jynfaxmifpka&G;aumufyGJaumfr&SifOuUX? (yk'fr 325)

Jurisdiction and Access

atmufygyk*~dKvf odk@r[kwf tzGJ@tpnf;rsm;onf zGJ@pnf;ykHtajccHOya' qdkif&mckH&kH;. t"dy`m,fzGifhqdkcsuf/ qkH;jzwfcsuf/ oabmxm;&,l&efudpP rsm;udk
owfrSwfxm;aom enf;vrf;rsm;ESifhtnD EdkifiHawmfzGJ@pnf;ykH tajccHOya'qdkif&mckH&kH;odk@ wifoGif;cGifh&Sdonf
(u) wdkif;a'o}uD; odk@r[kwf jynfe,f0ef}uD;csKyf/
(c) wdkif;a'o}uD; odk@r[kwf jynfe,fv$wfawmfOuUX/
(*) udk,fydkiftkyfcsKyfcGifh&wdkif;OD;pD;tzGJ@ odk@r[kwf udk,fydkiftkyfcsKyfcGifh& a'o OD;pD;tzGJ@OuUX/
(C) jynfol@v$wfawmf odk@r[kwf trsKd;om;v$wfawmf udk,fpm;vS,f tm;vkH;. tenf;qkH; 10 &mcdkifE_ef; ta&twGuf&Sdaom udk,fpm;vS,frsm;? (yk'fr 326)

Education

EdkifiHawmfonf -
---
(*) tcrJhroifrae&rlvwef;ynma&;pepfazmfaqmif&rnf/
--- (yk'fr 28)

Education

EdkifiHom;wdkif;onf EdkifiHawmfucsrSwfxm;aom ynma&;qdkif&mrl0g' rsm;ESifhtnD -
(u) ynmoif=um;ydkifcGifh&Sdonf/
(c) Oya'jzifhjyXmef;onfh roifrae&tajccHynmrsm;udkoif=um;&rnf/
--- (yk'fr 366)

Education

EdkifiHawmfonf ynm&nfxl;c|efaom EdkifiHom;rsm;tm; vlrsKd;/ udk;uG,f&m bmom/ trsKd;om;/ trsKd;orD;cGJjcm;r_rxm;&SdbJ ,if;wdk@. t&nftcsif; tvdkuf
csD;ajr‡mufaxmufyHhrnf? (yk'fr 368)

Education

9? vlr_a&;u¾
(u) ynmoif=um;a&;qdkif&m oif&dk;!Gef;wrf;/ oif&dk;rmwdum/ oifjy enf;pepf/ okawoe/ pDrHudef;/ pDrHcsufESifhpHrsm;/
(c) wuUodkvf/ 'D*&Daumvdyf/ ody`Hponfhoifwef;rsm;ESifh tqifhjrifh ynmtjcm;tzGJ@tpnf;rsm;/
--- (Z,m; 1/ jynfaxmifpkOya'jyKpm&if;/ yk'fr 96)

Employment Rights and Protection

EdkifiHawmfonf tvkyform;rsm;. tcGifhta&;rsm; muG,fapmifha&Smuf &ef vdktyfonfhOya'rsm; jyXmef;aqmif&Gufrnf? (yk'fr 24)

Employment Rights and Protection

EdkifiHom;rsm;onf atmufygvkyfief;rsm;udk vkyfudkifaqmif&Guf&mwGif wlnDaom tcGihftvrf;&&Sdap&rnf -
---
(c) tvkyfvkyfudkifr_/
(*) ukefoG,fa&mif;0,f azmufum;r_/
(C) pD;yGm;a&;vkyfief; vkyfudkifr_/
(i) twwfynmESifh toufarG;0rf;ausmif;r_/
--- (yk'fr 349)

Employment Rights and Protection

trsKd;orD;rsm;onf wlnDaomtvkyftwGuf trsKd;om;rsm;cHpm;cGifh&Sd aom tcGifhta&;ESifhvpmwkd@udk cHpm;cGifh&Sdonf? (yk'fr 350)

Employment Rights and Protection

9? vlr_a&;u¾
---
(%) tvkyfvkyfcsdef/ em;csdef/ tvkyfydwf&ufrsm;ESifh vkyfief;cGifqdkif&m ab;tEW&m,f uif;&Sif;a&;/
--- ( Z,m; 1 jynfaxmifpk Oya'jyKpm&if; yk'fr 96)

Equality and Non-Discrimination

u|Ekfyfwdk@wdkif;&if;om;jynfoltaygif;wdk@onf -
---
- EdkifiHawmfY w&m;r#wjcif;/ vGwfvyfjcif;ESifh nDr#jcif;wnf;[laom avmuygvw&m;rsm; xGef;um;apvsuf wdkif;&if;om;jynfol trsm; +idrf;csrf;om,m0ajyma&;udk
wnfwHhcdkif+rJatmif pOfquf rjywf aqmif&Gufxdef;odrf;oGm;=urnf[k oEMdXmef csrSwfI vnf;aumif;/
--- (ed'gef;)

Equality and Non-Discrimination

EdkifiHawmfonf -
---
(i) EdkifiHawmfY w&m;r#wjcif;/ vGwfvyfjcif;ESihf nDr#jcif;wnf;[laom avmuygvw&m;rsm; ydkrdkxGef;um;a&;ESifh --- wdk@udk tpOfwpdkufOD; wnfonf?
--- (yk'fr 6)

Equality and Non-Discrimination

(u) EdkifiHom;wdkif;onf TzGJ@pnf;yHktajccHOya'wGif owfrSwfjyXmef; xm;onfh wef;wlnDr#r_tcGifhta&;/ vGwfvyfr_tcGifhta&;/ w&m; r#wr_tcGifhta&;wdk@ cHpm;cGifh &Sdonf/
--- (yk'fr 21)

Equality and Non-Discrimination

EkdifiHawmfonf rnfol@udkrqdk Oya't&mwGif wef;wlnDr#tcGifhta&; &&Sdap&rnf? xkd@jyif Oya'.tumtuG,fudkvnf; wef;wlnDr#pGm &,l ydkifcGifhay;&rnf? (yk'fr 347)

Equality and Non-Discrimination

EkdifiHawmfonf jynfaxmifpkorRwjrefrmEdkifiHawmf. rnfonfh EdkifiHom;udkr# vlrsKd;/ Zmwd/ udk;uG,f&mbmom/ &mxl;XmeEœ&/ tqifh twef;/ ,Ofaus;r_/ trsKd;om;/ trsKd;orD;/ qif;&Jcsrf;omwdk@udk ta=umif;jyKI cGJjcm;r_r&Sdap&? (yk'fr 348)

Obligations of the State

(u) EdkifiHom;wdkif;onf TzGJ@pnf;yHktajccHOya'wGif owfrSwfjyXmef; xm;onfh wef;wlnDr#r_tcGifhta&;/ vGwfvyfr_tcGifhta&;/ w&m; r#wr_ tcGifhta&;wdk@
cHpm;cGifh&Sdonf?
---
(C) EdkifiHom;rsm;. vGwfvyfcGifh/ vkyfydkifcGifh/ cHpm;cGifh/ wm0efESifh wm;jrpfcsufrsm; xda&mufcdkifrmjynfhpHkap&ef vdktyfaomOya' jyXmef; &rnf? (yk'fr 21)

Judicial Protection

Ttcef;Y ay;tyfxm;aom tcGifhta&;wpf&yf&yfudk &,lvdkygv#if owf rSwfcsufrsm;ESifhtnD jynfaxmifpk w&m;v$wfawmfcsKyfodk@ av#mufxm; ydkifcGifh&Sd&rnf? (yk'fr 377)

Indigenous Peoples

u|Ekfyfwdk@wdkif;&if;om;jynfoltaygif;wdk@onf-
---
- EdkifiHawmftwGif; vlrsKd;a&;wef;wlrIjzifh ppfrSefaom rsKd;cspfpdwf"mwf jzpfonfh jynfaxmifpkpdwf"mwfudk cdkif+rJpGmarG;jrLvsuf xm0pOf pnf;vHk;nD!GwfpGm twlwuG vufwGJaexdkif=urnf[k oEMdXmefcsrSwf I vnf;aumif;/
--- (ed'gef;)

Indigenous Peoples

3? EkdifiHawmfonf wkdif;&if;om;vlrsKd;aygif;pkHwkd@ pkaygif;aexdkif=uaom EkdifiH jzpfonf?
--- (yk'fr 3)

Indigenous Peoples

avsmfuefoifhjrwfaom vlOD;a&&Sdonfh wdkif;&if;om;vlrsKd;rsm;twGuf oufqdkif&m wdkif;a'o}uD; odk@r[kwf jynfe,fESifh udk,fydkiftkyfcsKyfcGihf& pD&ifpk Oya'jyKa&;wGif xdkwdkif;&if;om;vlrsKd;udk,fpm;vS,frsm; yg0ifcGihf &Sdonf? (yk'fr 15)

Indigenous Peoples

(*) yk'fr 15 t& oufqdkif&m wdkif;a'o}uD; odk@r[kwf jynfe,fESihf udk,fydkif tkyfcsKyfcGihf&pD&ifpkOya'jyKa&;wGif udk,fpm;vS,fyg0ifcGifh&&Sd onhf
wdkif;&if;om;vlrsKd;jzpfv#if xdkwdkif;a'o}uD; odk@r[kwf jynfe,f ESihf udk,fydkiftkyfcsKyfcGihf&pD&ifpk tkyfcsKyfa&;wGif t"dutm;jzihf xkd
wkdif;&if;om;vlrsKd;rsm;a&;&mudk aqmif&GufEdkifa&;twGuf wdkif;&if;om; vlrsKd; udk,fpm;vS,frsm; yg0ifcGihfjyK&rnf? (yk'fr 17)

Indigenous Peoples

EdkifiHawmfonf —
(u) wkdif;&if;om;rsm;. pum;/ pmay/ tEkynm/ ,Ofaus;r_wdk@udk zGH@+zdK; wkd;wufap&ef ulnDaqmif&Gufrnf/
(c) wkdif;&if;om;tcsif;csif; pnf;vHk;nD!Gwfa&;/ cspf=unfav;pm;a&; ESifh &dkif;yif;ulnDa&;wdk@ wdk;wufjzpfxGef;ap&ef ulnDaqmif&Gufrnf/
(*) wdk;wufzGH@+zdK;r_enf;yg;aeonfh wkdif;&if;om;rsm;. ynma&;/ usef;rma&;/ pD;yGm;a&;/ vrf;yef;qufoG,fa&; ponfwkd@yg0ifaom vlr_pD;yGm;a&;
wdk;wufzGH@+zdK;a&;twGuf ulnDaqmif&Gufrnf? (yk'fr 22)

Indigenous Peoples

EdkifiHom;wdkif;onf EdkifiHawmfvHkjcHKa&;/ w&m;Oya'pdk;rdk;a&;/ &yf&Gm at;csrf;om,ma&; odk@r[kwf jynfolwkdk@.udk,fusifhw&m;tusdK;iSm
jyXmef;xm;onfhOya'rsm;ESifh rqef@usifv#if atmufygtcGifhta&;rsm; udk vGwfvyfpGmoHk;pGJaqmif&GufcGifh&Sdonf -
---
(C) wkdif;&if;om;vlrsKd; wpfrsKd;ESifhwpfrsKd; odk@r[kwf wkdif;&if;om; vlrsKd; tcsif;csif;ukdvnf;aumif;/ tjcm;bmomomoemukd vnf;aumif; xdcdkufepfemr_r&SdapbJ rdrdcspfcifjrwfEdk;onfh pum;/ pmay/ ,Ofaus;r_/ udk;uG,fonfhbmomomoemESifh "avh xHk;wrf;rsm;udk vGwfvyfpGm aqmif&GufydkifcGifh? (yk'fr 354)

Indigenous Peoples

EdkifiHom;wdkif;onf Oya'ESifhtnD rdrdwdk@tjrwfwEkd;xm;&Sdaom pmay/ ,Ofaus;r_/ tEkynmESifh"avhxHk;wrf;wdk@udk vGwfvyfpGm jyKpkysKd;axmif
aqmif&GufydkifcGifh&Sdonf? ,if;odk@aqmif&Guf&mwGif wkdif;&if;om; pnf;vHk; nD!Gwfa&;udk xdyg;r_r&Sdap&ef a&SmifusOf&rnf? xdk@jyif rdrdwdk@. aqmif&Gufr_onf tjcm;wdkif;&if;om; vlrsKd;wpfrsKd;udkjzpfap/ vlrsKd;rsm; udkjzpfap xdcdkufepfemapEdkifv#if oufqdkifolrsm;tcsif;csif;nd‡Ed_if;I ajyvnfr_ &&Sd+yD;rSom
aqmif&GufcGifh&Sdonf? (yk'fr 365)

Indigenous Peoples

EdkifiHom;wkdif;onf jynfaxmifpkpdwf"mwfudktajccHI wdkif;&if;om; vlrsKd; tcsif;csif; pnf;vHk;nD!Gwfa&;ESifh jynfolwpf&yfvHk;at;csrf; om,ma&; wdk@twGuf
}udK;yrf;tm;xkwfaqmif&Guf&ef wm0ef&Sdonf? (yk'fr 387)

Indigenous Peoples

v$wfawmfrsm;odk@ jynfol@udk,fpm;vS,frsm;udk a&G;aumufwifajr‡muf &mwGif -
(u) a&G;aumufyGJpwifusif;yonfhae@&ufY touf 18 ESpf jynfhI Oya' t& t&nftcsif;ysuf,Gif;olr[kwfonfhtjyif qENrJay;ydkifcGifh&Sd aom EdkifiHom;ESifh Oya't&
qE@rJay;cGifh&Sdolwdkif;onf qENrJay;ydkif cGifh&Sdonf/
(c) qENrJay;ydkifcGifh&SdaomEdkifiHom;ESifh Oya't& qENrJay;cGifh&Sdolwdkif; onf a&G;aumufyGJwpf&yfY rJqENe,fwpfe,fwGif v$wfawmf wpf&yf pDtwGuf qENrJwpfrJom ay;ydkifcGifh&Sdonf/
(*) xkd@jyif TzGJ@pnf;ykHtajccHOya'yg jyXmef;csufrsm;ESifhtnD qENrJay; ydkifcGifh&Sdaom oufqdkif&mwkdif;&if;om;rsm;onf rdrdwdk@.wdkif;a'o }uD; odk@r[kwf jynfe,fv$wfawmftwGuf wdkif;&if;om;vlrsKd; v$wfawmf udk,fpm;vS,frsm; a&G;aumufwifajr‡muf&mwGifvnf; qEN rJay;ydkifcGifh &Sdonf/
--- (yk'fr 391)

Limitations and/or Derogations

atmufazmfjyyg tajctaewpf&yf&yfay:aygufcsdefwGif trsm;jynfol vHkjcHKa&;twGuf vdktyfonfhudpPrSwpfyg; yk'fr 377 yg tcGifhta&;rsm; awmif;cHydkifcGifhudk
&yfqdkif;xm;jcif;rjyK& -
(u) ppfrufjzpfyGm;csdef/
(c) wkdif;wpfyg;rS usL;ausmf0ifa&mufwdkufcdkufcsdef/
(*) qlylaomif;usef;rIrsm; jzpfay:aecsdef? (yk'fr 379)

Limitations and/or Derogations

atmufazmfjyyg tajctaeESifhtcsdeftcgrSwpfyg; EkdifiHom;rsm;. w&m;0if&ydkifcGifh&Sdaom epfemcsufrsm;twGuf Oya'jzifhowfrSwfxm; aom &,lydkifcGifhrsm;udk
jiif;y,fjcif;rjyK& -
(u) wkdif;wpfyg;rS usL;ausmf0ifa&mufwkdufcdkufcsdef/
( c ) qlylaomif;usef;r_rsm; jzpfay:aecsdef/
( * ) ta&;ay:tajctae jzpfay:aecsdef? (yk'fr 381)

Limitations and/or Derogations

EkdifiHawmforRwonf Oya'uJhodk@tm%mwnfonfh trdef@xkwfjyefI ta&;ay:tajctae a=unmonfhtcg -
(u) ,if;trdef@wGif ta&;ay:tajctae tusKd;oufa&mufonfh e,f ajra'oESihf tcsdefumvwdk@udk owfrSwfazmfjy&rnf/
(c) vdktyfygu ta&;ay:tajctae tusKd;oufa&mufonfh e,fajr a'otwGif;aexdkif=uaom EkdifiHom;rsm;. rlvtcGifhta&; wpf&yf&yf udkjzpfap/ wpf&yfxufydkIjzpfap vdktyfovdk
uef@owfEkdifonf odk@r[kwf &yfqdkif;xm;Edkifonf? (yk'fr 414)

Limitations and/or Derogations

wyfrawmfumuG,fa&;OD;pD;csKyfonf ta&;ay:tajctae a=unm xm;pOfumvtwGif; vkdtyfonhfe,fajra'owGif EkdifiHom;rsm;. rlvtcGihf ta&;wpf&yf&yfukdjzpfap/ wpf&yfxufykdIjzpfap vkdtyfovkd uef@owfEkdif onf okd@r[kwf &yfqkdif;xm;Ekdifonf? (yk'fr 420)

Marriage and Family Life

(c) EdkifiHawmfonf EdkifiHh0efxrf;rsm;. vkyfief;cGiftmrcHcsuf&&Sda&;/ pm; 0wfaer_zlvHka&;/ tdrfaxmif&SiftrsKd;orD;0efxrf;rsm; rD;zGm;jcif;qdkif &m
tusKd;cHpm;cGifh&&Sda&;ESifh t+idrf;pm;0efxrf;rsm; pm;0wfaer_ oufom acsmifcsda&;wdk@twGuf vdktyfonfhOya'rsm; jyXmef;&rnf? (yk'fr 26)

Marriage and Family Life

EdkifiHawmfonf -
(u) rdcifESihfuav;oli,frsm;/ rdbrJhuav;rsm;/ usqHk;aomwyfrawmf om;rsm;.uav;rsm;/ tdkrif;rpGrf;olrsm;/ roefrpGrf;olrsm;tm; =unfh&_apmihfa&Smuf&rnf/
--- (yk'fr 32)

Marriage and Family Life

rdcifrsm;/ uav;oli,frsm;ESifh udk,f0efaqmiftrsKd;orD;rsm;onf Oya' t& owfrSwfxm;aom oufqdkif&mtcGifhta&;rsm;udk tnDtr# cHpm; cGifh&Sdap&rnf? (yk'fr 351)

Marriage and Family Life

9? vlr_a&;u¾
---
(ps) rdcifESifhuav;apmifha&Smufa&;/
---
(X) uav;oli,frsm;/ vli,frsm;/ trsKd;orD;rsm;/ roefrpGrf;olrsm;/
ouf}uD;&G,ftdkrsm;/ tajctaerJhrsm;tm; apmifha&Smufa&;/
---
(y) arG;zGm;jcif;ESifh aoqHk;jcif;qdkif&m rSwfyHkwifa&;?
---
11? w&m;pD&ifa&;u¾
---
(C) w&m;rOya'rsm;/ usifhxkH;rsm;tygt0if/ yËdnmOf/ tEknmw pD&if
qkH;jzwfa&;/ w&m;pGJqkdykdifcGifh&Sdaom epfemcsufrsm;/ vlrGJtjzpfcH,ljcif;/
,kHrSwftyfESHjcif;ESifh ,kHrSwftyfESHxm;ojzifh pDrHykdifcGifh&Sdolrsm;/ tarGxdef; ESifh ypPnf;xdef;/ rdom;pkqkdif&mOya'rsm;/ tkyfxdef;olrsm;ESifh tkyfxdef;
cH&olrsm;/ ---
(Z,m; 1/ jynfaxmifpkOya'jyKpm&if;/ yk'fr 96)

Participation in Public Life and Institutions

EdkifiHom;rsm;onf atmufygvkyfief;rsm;udk vkyfudkifaqmif&Guf&mwGif wlnDaom tcGihftvrf;&&Sdap&rnf -
(u) jynfol@0efxrf; wm0efxrf;aqmifr_/
--- (yk'fr 349)

Participation in Public Life and Institutions

EdkifiHawmfonf tvkyftudkifcef@xm;&mwGifjzpfap/ EdkifiHh0efxrf;a&G;cs,f wm0efay;&mwGifjzpfap owfrSwfaom t&nftcsif;ESifhjynfhpHkygu
jynfaxmifpkorRwjrefrmEkdifiHawmf. rnfonfhEdkifiHom;udkr# vlrsKd;/ Zmwd/ udk;uG,f&mbmom omoem/ trsKd;om;/ trsKd;orD;udk ta=umif;jyKvsuf
&mxl;a&G;cs,fcef@xm;jcif;udk cGJjcm;r_rjyK&? odk@&mwGif trsKd;om;rsm;ESifhom avsmfuefoifhjrwfonfh &mxl;wm0ef rsm;twGuf trsKd;om;rsm;tm;
a&G;cs,fcef@xm;jcif;udk Tyk'frt& t[ef@twm;rjzpfap&? (yk'fr 352)

Political Rights and Association

(u) EdkifiHom;wdkif;onf Oya'ESifhtnD a&G;aumufwifajr‡mufcGifhESifh a&G;aumufwifajrSmufcHydkifcGifh &Sdonf? --- (yk'fr 38)

Political Rights and Association

EdkifiHom;wdkif;onf EdkifiHawmfvHkjcHKa&;/ w&m;Oya'pdk;rdk;a&;/ &yf&Gm at; csrf;om,ma&; odk@r[kwf jynfolwdk@.udkf,fusifhw&m;tusdK;iSm jyXmef;
xm;onfhOya'rsm;ESifh rqef@usifv#if atmufygtcGifhta&;rsm; udk vGwfvyfpGmoHk;pGJaqmif&GufcGifh&Sdonf -
---
(*) toif;tzGJ@ odk@r[kwf tpnf;t&Hk;rsm; zGJ@pnf;aqmif&GufcGifh/
--- (yk'fr 354)

Political Rights and Association

(u) EdkifiHom;wdkif;onf TzGJ@pnf;yHktajccHOya'ESifhjzpfap/ oufqdkif&m Oya'rsm;ESifhjzpfap rqef@usifv#if jynfol@v$wfawmf/ trsKd;om; v$wfawmf/
wdkif;a'o}uD;v$wfawmf odk@r[kwf jynfe,fv$wfawmf wpf&yf&yfwGif a&G;aumufwifajr‡mufcGifhESifh a&G;aumufwifajrSmuf cHydkifcGifh&Sdonf?
--- (yk'fr 369)

Political Rights and Association

v$wfawmfrsm;odk@ jynfol@udk,fpm;vS,frsm;udk a&G;aumufwifajr‡muf &mwGif -
(u) a&G;aumufyGJpwifusif;yonfhae@&ufY touf 18 ESpf jynfhI Oya' t& t&nftcsif;ysuf,Gif;olr[kwfonfhtjyif qENrJay;ydkifcGifh&Sd aom EdkifiHom;ESifh Oya't& qENrJay;cGifh&Sdolwdkif;onf qENrJay;ydkif cGifh&Sdonf/
--- (yk'fr 391)

Political Rights and Association

TzGJ@pnf;ykHtajccHOya'yg jyXmef;csufrsm;t&aomfvnf;aumif;/ a&G;aumufwifajr‡mufjcif;qdkif&m Oya'ygjyXmef;csufrsm;t&aomf vnf;aumif;/ t&nftcsif;ysuf,Gif;olr[kwfygu EdkifiHom;wdkif;onf v$wfawmfwpf&yf&yfodk@ a&G;aumuf wifajr‡mufcHydkifcGifh&Sdonf? (yk'fr 395)

Political Parties

EdkifiHawmfonf ppfrSefI pnf;urf;jynfh0aom ygwDpHk'Drdkua&pDpepf xGef;um;a&;twGuf EdkifiHa&;ygwDrsm;udk pepfwuszGJ@pnf;Edkif&ef vdktyf onfhOya'
jyXmef;aqmif&Guf&rnf? (yk'fr 39)

Political Parties

EdkifiHa&;ygwDwpf&yfonf -
(u)jynfaxmifpkr+ydKuGJa&;/ wdkif;&if;om;pnf;vHk;nD!Gwfr_r+ydKuGJa&;ESifh tcsKyftjcmtm%mwnfwHhcdkif+rJa&;wdk@udkOD;wnfcsufxm;&Sd&rnf/
(c) EdkifiHawmf.aus;Zl;opPmudk apmihfod&dkao&rnf? (yk'fr 404)

Political Parties

EdkifiHa&;ygwDwpf&yfonf -
(u) ppfrSefIpnf;urf;jynfh0aom ygwDpHk'Drdkua&pDpepfudk vufcHusifh oHk;&rnf/
(c) TzGJ@pnf;yHktajccHOya'ESifh wnfqJOya'rsm;udk av;pm;vdkufem &rnf/
(*) EdkifiHa&;ygwDtjzpf Oya'ESifhtnD zGJ@pnf;rSwfyHkwifxm;&rnf? (yk'fr 405)

Political Parties

EdkifiHa&;ygwDwpf&yfonf EdkifiHawmftwGif; Oya'ESifhtnD -
(u) vGwfvyfpGmpnf;&Hk;cGihf&Sdonf/
( c ) a&G;aumufyGJrsm;wGif yg0if,SOf+ydKifcGifh&Sdonf? (yk'fr 406)

Political Parties

EdkifiHa&;ygwDwpf&yf&yfonf atmufygta=umif;wpfckckESifh +idpGef;v#if qufvuf &yfwnfydkifcGifhr&Sdap& -
(u) wnfqJOya't& rw&m;toif;tjzpf a=unmcH&jcif;/
(c) EdkifiHawmftm; vufeufpGJudkifI awmfvSefykefuefaeaom aomif;usef;ol tzGJ@tpnf; odk@r[kwf t=urf;zufvkyf&yfrsm;ukd usL;vGefonf[k EkdifiHawmfu
owfrSwfaomtzJG@tpnf;ESifh yk*~dKvfrsm; okd@r[kwf rw&m;toif;tjzpf a=unmcHxm;&aom tzJG@tpnf;ESifh wdkuf&dkufjzpfap/ oG,f0dkufIjzpfap qufoG,fjcif; okd@r[kwf tm;ay; ulnDjcif;?
(*) EdkifiHjcm;wdkif;jynfwpfckckrS tpdk;& odk@r[kwf bmoma&;tzGJ@tpnf;
odk@r[kwf tjcm;tzGJ@tpnf;wpfckck odk@r[kwf yk*~dKvfwpfOD;OD;xHrS aiGa=u;/ ypPnf;/ tjcm;taxmuftyHhudk wdkuf&dkufjzpfap/ oG,f0dkufI jzpfap &,loHk;pGJjcif;?
(C) bmoma&;udk EdkifiHa&;twGuf tvGJoHk;pm;jyKjcif;? (yk'fr 407)

Electoral Bodies

jynfaxmifpka&G;aumufyGJaumfr&Sif. wm0efrsm;rSmatmufygtwdkif; jzpfonf -
(u) v$wfawmfa&G;aumufyGJrsm; usif;yjcif;/
(c) v$wfawmfa&G;aumufyGJrsm;udk }uD;=uyfjcif;/ aumfr&SiftzGJ@cGJ tqifhqifh udk zGJ@pnf;jcif;ESifh }uD;=uyfapjcif;/
(*) rJqENe,frsm;owfrSwfjcif;ESifh jyifqifowfrSwfjcif;/
(C) rJpm&if;rsm;jyKpkjcif;ESifh jyifqifjcif;/
(i) obm0ab;tEW&m,fa=umifh aomfvnf;aumif;/ e,fajrvHkjcHKa&; tajctaet& aomfvnf;aumif; vGwfvyf+yD;w&m;r#waom a&G;aumufyGJ usif;yEdkifjcif;r&Sdonfh rJqENe,frsm;.
a&G;aumufyGJrsm; udk a&$@qdkif;jcif;/
(p) a&G;aumufyGJqdkif&m odk@r[kwf EdkifiHa&;ygwDrsm;qdkif&m enf;Oya' rsm;udk TzGJ@pnf;ykHtajccHOya'yg jyXmef;csufrsm;ESifhtnDvnf;aumif;/ vkyfxHk;vkyfenf;rsm;/ !$ef=um;csufponfrsm;udk oufqdkif&mOya'rsm; ESifhtnDvnf;aumif; xkwfjyefjcif;/
(q) a&G;aumufyGJqdkif&m tjiif;yGm;r_rsm;udk ppfaq;Edkifa&;twGuf Oya' ESifhtnD a&G;aumufyGJcHktzGJ@rsm; zGJ@pnf;jcif;/
(Z) Oya'wpf&yf&yft& ay;tyfonfhwm0efrsm;udk xrf;aqmifjcif;? (yk'fr 399)

Head of State

EdkifiHawmft}uD;tuJESifh EdkifiHawmftkyfcsKyfa&;t}uD;tuJonf EkdifiHawmforRw jzpfonf? (yk'fr 16)

Head of State

EdkifiHawmforRwESihf 'kwd,orRwrsm;. t&nftcsif;rsm;rSm atmufyg twdkif; jzpfonf -
(u) EdkifiHawmfESihf EdkifiHom;rsm;tay: opPm&Sdol jzpf&rnf/
(c) rdrdESihfrdrd.rdbESpfyg;vkH; EdkifiHawmf.tm%mydkifeuftwGif;Y arG;zGm;aom wdkif;&if;om;rSjzpfonhf jrefrmEdkifiHom; jzpf&rnf/
(*) a&G;cs,fwifajr‡mufjcif;cH&olonf tenf;qkH; touf 45 ESpfjynfh +yD;ol jzpf&rnf/
(C) EdkifiHawmfta&;t&mrsm;jzpfaom EdkifiHa&;/ tkyfcsKyfa&;/ pD;yGm;a&;/ ppfa&;ponhf tjrifrsm;&Sd&rnf/
(i) orRwtjzpf a&G;cs,fwifajrSmufcH&onhf tcsdefESihfwpfqufwnf; tenf;qkH;tESpf 20 EdkifiHawmfwGif tajccsaexdkifcJholjzpf&rnf/
c|if;csuf? EdkifiHawmf.cGifhjyKcsufjzifh EdkifiHjcm;odk@ w&m;0ifoGm;a&muf onfh umvrsm;udkvnf; EdkifiHawmfwGif tajccs aexdkifcJhonfh umv tjzpf xnfhoGif;a&wGuf&rnf?
(p) rdrdudk,fwdkifaomfvnf;aumif;/ rdrd.rdb wpfyg;yg;aomf vnf;aumif;/ rdrd.ZeD; odk@r[kwf cifyGef;aomfvnf;aumif;/ rdrd. w&m;0ifom;orD; wpfOD;OD;aomfvnf;aumif;/ xdkw&m;0if om;orD; wpfOD;OD;. ZeD; odk@r[kwf cifyGef;aomfvnf;aumif; EdkifiHjcm;tpdk;&. aus;Zl;opPmawmfudk cH,lapmihfa&Smuf&dkaool odk@r[kwf EdkifiHjcm; tpdk;&. vufatmufcHjzpfol odk@r[kwf wdkif;wpfyg;. EdkifiHom;jzpfol rsm;rjzpfap&? xdkolrsm;onf EdkifiHjcm;tpdk;&. vufatmufcHjzpfol aomfvnf;aumif;/ wdkif;wpfyg;.EdkifiHom;aomfvnf;aumif; cHpm;& aom tcGihfta&;rsm;ESihf aus;Zl;cHpm;cGihfrsm;udk cHpm;EdkifcGihf&Sdolrsm; rjzpfap&/
(q) v$wfawmfa&G;aumufyGJY a&G;aumufwifajr‡mufcHydkifcGihftwGuf owfrSwfxm;onhf t&nftcsif;rsm;tjyif EdkifiHawmforRw twGuf oD;jcm;owfrSwfxm;aom t&nftcsif;rsm;ESihfvnf; jynfhpkH&rnf? (yk'fr 59)

Head of State

(u) EdkifiHawmforRwudk orRwa&G;cs,fwifajr‡mufa&;tzGJ@jzihf a&G;cs,f wifajr‡muf&rnf?
(c) orRwa&G;cs,fwifajr‡mufa&;tzGJ@udk jynfaxmifpkv$wfawmf udk,fpm;vS,ftpktzGJ@oHk;zGJ@jzifh atmufygtwdkif; zGJ@pnf;&rnf-
(1) wdkif;a'o}uD;rsm;ESihf jynfe,frsm;rS udk,fpm;vS,fOD;a& wlnD pGm a&G;aumufwifajr‡mufonhf v$wfawmf&Sd a&G;aumufwif ajr‡muf jcif;cH&aom
v$wfawmfudk,fpm;vS,frsm;tpktzGJ@/
(2) +rdK@e,fudktajccHIvnf;aumif;/ vlOD;a&udktajccHI vnf;aumif; a&G;aumufwifajr‡mufonhfv$wfawmf&Sd a&G;aumufwifajr‡muf jcif;cH&onhf v$wfawmfudk,fpm;vS,f rsm;tpktzGJ@/
(3) azmfjyygv$wfawmfESpf&yftwGuf wyfrawmfumuG,fa&; OD;pD;csKyfu trnfpm&if;wifoGif;onhf wyfrawmfom; v$wfawmf udk,fpm;vS,frsm;tpktzGJ@?
(*) ,if;tpktzGJ@wpfzGJ@pDu 'kwd,orRwwpfOD;pDudk v$wfawmf udk,fpm;vS,frsm;xJrSjzpfap/ v$wfawmfudk,fpm;vS,fr[kwfol rsm;xJrSjzpfap a&G;cs,fwifajr‡muf&rnf?
(C) 'kwd,orRwrsm;onf EdkifiHawmforRwtwGuf owfrSwfxm; onfh t&nftcsif;rsm;ESihf jynhfpkHjcif;&Sd-r&Sdudk jynfaxmifpk v$wfawmfESihf jynfaxmifpkv$wfawmfwGif
yg0ifaom v$wfawmf ESpf&yf. t}uD;trSL;rsm;ESihf 'kwd,t}uD;trSL;rsm; yg0ifonhf tzGJ@ u pdppf&rnf?
(i) jynfaxmifpkv$wfawmfudk,fpm;vS,f tm;vkH;yg0ifaom orRw a&G;cs,fwifajr‡mufa&;tzGJ@u EdkifiHawmforRwavmif;rsm; jzpfonhf 'kwd, orRwoHk;OD;teuf
rdrdwdk@}udKufESpfoufonhf 'kwd,orRw wpfOD;udk EdkifiHawmforRwtjzpf qENrJay; a&G;cs,f wifajr‡muf&rnf?
(p) xdkodk@ EdkifiHawmforRwESifh 'kwd,orRwrsm; a&G;cs,fwifajr‡mufEdkif &ef vdktyfonhfOya'udk jyXmef;ay;&rnf? (yk'fr 60)

Vice-President

EdkifiHawmforRwESifh 'kwd,orRwrsm;onf EdkifiHawmfudk udk,fpm; jyKonf? (yk'fr 57)

Vice-President

EdkifiHawmforRwESihf 'kwd,orRwrsm;. t&nftcsif;rsm;rSm atmufyg twdkif;jzpfonf -
(u) EdkifiHawmfESihf EdkifiHom;rsm;tay: opPm&Sdol jzpf&rnf/
(c) rdrdESihfrdrd. rdbESpfyg;vkH; EdkifiHawmf.tm%m ydkifeuftwGif;Y arG;zGm;aom wdkif;&if;om;rSjzpfonhf jrefrmEdkifiHom; jzpf&rnf/
(*) a&G;cs,fwifajr‡mufjcif;cH&olonf tenf;qkH; touf 45 ESpfjynfh +yD;ol jzpf&rnf/
(C) EdkifiHawmfta&;t&mrsm;jzpfaom EdkifiHa&;/ tkyfcsKyfa&;/ pD;yGm;a&;/
ppfa&;ponhf tjrifrsm;&Sd&rnf/
(i) orRwtjzpf a&G;cs,fwifajr‡mufcH&onhf tcsdefESihfwpfqufwnf;
tenf;qkH;tESpf 20 EdkifiHawmfwGif tajccsaexdkifcJholjzpf&rnf/
c|if;csuf? EdkifiHawmf.cGifhjyKcsufjzifh EdkifiHjcm;odk@ w&m;0ifoGm;a&muf onfhumvrsm;udkvnf; EdkifiHawmfwGif tajccsaexdkifcJhonfh umv
tjzpf xnfhoGif;a&wGuf&rnf?
(p) rdrdudk,fwdkifaomfvnf;aumif;/ rdrd.rdb wpfyg;yg; aomf vnf;aumif;/ rdrd.ZeD; odk@r[kwf cifyGef;aomfvnf;aumif;/ rdrd. w&m;0if om;orD;wpfOD;OD;aomfvnf;aumif;/
xdkw&m;0ifom;orD; wpfOD;OD;. ZeD; odk@r[kwf cifyGef;aomfvnf;aumif; EdkifiHjcm;tpdk;&. aus;Zl;opPmawmfudk cH,lapmihfa&Smuf&dkaool odk@r[kwf EdkifiHjcm;
tpdk;&. vufatmufcHjzpfol odk@r[kwf wdkif;wpfyg;. EdkifiHom;jzpfol rsm; rjzpfap&/ xdkolrsm;onf EdkifiHjcm;tpdk;&. vufatmufcHjzpfol aomfvnf;aumif;/ wdkif;wpfyg;.
EdkifiHom;aomfvnf;aumif; cHpm; &aom tcGihfta&;rsm;ESihf aus;Zl;cHpm;cGihfrsm;udk cHpm;EdkifcGihf&Sdolrsm; rjzpfap&/
(q) v$wfawmfa&G;aumufyGJY a&G;aumufwifajr‡muf cHydkifcGihftwGuf
owfrSwfxm;onhf t&nftcsif;rsm;tjyif EdkifiHawmforRwtwGuf
oD;jcm;owfrSwfxm;aom t&nftcsif;rsm;ESihfvnf; jynfhpkH&rnf? (yk'fr 59)

Vice-President

(c) orRwa&G;cs,fwifajr‡mufa&;tzGJ@udk jynfaxmifpkv$wfawmf udk,fpm;vS,ftpktzGJ@oHk;zGJ@jzifh atmufygtwdkif; zGJ@pnf;&rnf -
(1) wdkif;a'o}uD;rsm;ESihf jynfe,frsm;rS udk,fpm;vS,fOD;a& wlnDpGm a&G;aumufwifajr‡mufonhf v$wfawmf&Sd a&G;aumufwifajr‡muf jcif;cH&aom
v$wfawmfudk,fpm;vS,frsm;tpktzGJ@/
(2) +rdK@e,fudktajccHIvnf;aumif;/ vlOD;a&udktajccHI vnf;aumif; a&G;aumufwifajr‡mufonhfv$wfawmf&Sd a&G;aumuf wifajr‡mufjcif; cH&onhf
v$wfawmfudk,fpm;vS,frsm;tpktzGJ@/
(3) azmfjyygv$wfawmfESpf&yftwGuf wyfrawmfumuG,fa&; OD;pD;csKyfutrnfpm&if;wifoGif;onhf wyfrawmfom;v$wfawmf
udk,fpm;vS,frsm;tpktzGJ@?
(*) ,if;tpktzGJ@wpfzGJ@pDu 'kwd,orRwwpfOD;pDudk v$wfawmf udk,fpm;vS,frsm;xJrSjzpfap/ v$wfawmfudk,fpm;vS,fr[kwfolrsm;xJrS jzpfap a&G;cs,fwifajr‡muf&rnf?
(C) 'kwd,orRwrsm;onf EdkifiHawmforRwtwGuf owfrSwfxm; onfh t&nftcsif;rsm;ESihf jynhfpkHjcif;&Sd/ r&Sdudk jynfaxmifpkv$wfawmf ESihf jynfaxmifpkv$wfawmfwGif yg0ifaom v$wfawmfESpf&yf. t}uD; trSL;rsm;ESihf 'kwd,t}uD;trSL;rsm; yg0ifonhftzGJ@u pdppf&rnf?
--- (yk'fr 60)

Government

EkdifiHawmforRwonf jynfaxmifpkv$wfawmf. oabmwlnDcsufjzifh-
(u) jynfaxmifpktpkd;&0ef}uD;Xmersm;ukd vkdtyfovkd owfrSwfEkdif onf? xkd@jyif 0ef}uD;Xmersm;ukd jyifqifowfrSwfjcif;/ jznfhpGufjcif; jyKEkdifonf/
--- (yk'fr 202)

Government

(u) EkdifiHawmforRwonf atmufazmfjyyg t&nftcsif;rsm;ESihf jynfhpkH olrsm;ukd jynfaxmifpk0ef}uD;rsm;tjzpf cef@tyfwm0efay;Ekdifonf -
(1) touf 40 ESpf jynfh+yD;ol/
(2) toufuef@owfcsufrSty yk'fr 120 wGifazmfjyxm;onfh jynfol@v$wfawmf ukd,fpm;vS,frsm;twGuf owfrSwfxm;onfh
t&nftcsif;rsm;ESifh jynfhpkHol/
(3) yk'fr 121 wGif azmfjyxm;onfh jynfol@v$wfawmf ukd,fpm;vS,frsm;tjzpf a&G;aumufwifajr‡mufcHydkifcGifhr&Sdapaom jyXmef;csufrsm;ESifhvnf; +idpGef;jcif;r&Sdol/
(4) EkdifiHawmfESifh EkdifiHom;rsm;tay: opPm&Sdol?
--- (yk'fr 232)

Legislature

(u) EdkifiHawmf. Oya'jyKa&;tm%mudk jynfaxmifpkv$wfawmf/ wdkif;a'o}uD;v$wfawmfESihf jynfe,fv$wfawmfrsm;tm; cGJa0tyfESif; onf?
udk,fydkiftkyfcsKyfcGihf&pD&ifpkrsm;tm; TzGJ@pnf;ykHtajccHOya'u owfrSwfaom Oya'jyKa&;tmPmudk cGJa0tyfESif;onf/
(c) jynfaxmifpkv$wfawmfwGif +rdK@e,fukdtajccHIvnf;aumif;/ vlOD;a&ukd tajccHIvnf;aumif;/ a&G;aumufwifajr‡mufonfh v$wfawmfwpf&yf/ wdkif;a'o}uD;rsm;ESifh jynfe,frsm;rS ukd,fpm;vS,f OD;a& wlnDpGm a&G;aumufwifajr‡mufonfh v$wfawmfwpf&yf[lI v$wfawmfESpf&yf yg&Sdonf? (yk'fr 12)

Legislature

jynfaxmifpkv$wfawmfwGif atmufyg v$wfawmfESpf&yfyg0ifonf -
(u) yk'fr 109 yg jyXmef;csufrsm;ESifhtnD +rdK@e,fudktajccHI vnf;aumif;/ vlOD;a&udktajccHIvnf;aumif; a&G;aumufwifajr‡muf onhf v$wfawmfudk,fpm;vS,frsm;ESihf
wyfrawmfumuG,fa&;OD;pD;csKyf u trnfpm&if;wifoGif;aom wyfrawmfom; v$wfawmf udk,fpm;vS,frsm;jzihf zGJ@pnf;onhf jynfol@v$wfawmf/
(c) yk'fr 141 yg jyXmef;csufrsm;ESifhtnD wdkif;a'o}uD;rsm;ESifh jynfe,f rsm;rSOD;a&wlnDpGm a&G;aumufwifajr‡mufonhf v$wfawmfudk,fpm; vS,frsm;ESihf
wyfrawmfumuG,fa&;OD;pD;csKyfu trnfpm&if;wifoGif; aom wyfrawmfom; v$wfawmfudk,fpm;vS,frsm;jzihf zGJ@pnf;onhf trsKd;om;v$wfawmf? (yk'fr 74)

Legislature

atmufygt&nftcsif;rsm;ESihf jynfhpHkolonf jynfol@v$wfawmfodk@ v$wfawmfudk,fpm;vS,ftjzpf a&G;aumufwifajr‡mufcHydkifcGihf&Sdonf -
(u) touf 25 ESpfjynfh+yD;ol/
(c) EdkifiHom;rdbESpfyg;rS arG;zGm;aom EkdifiHom;jzpfol/
(*) jynfol@v$wfawmf udk,fpm;vS,ftjzpf a&G;aumufwifajr‡mufcH& onhf tcsdefESihf wpfqufwnf; jynfaxmifpkjrefrmEdkifiHawmfwGif tenf;qHk; 10 ESpf tajccsaexdkifcJhol/ c|if;csuf? EdkifiHawmf. cGihfjyKcsufjzihf EdkifiHjcm;odk@ w&m;0ifoGm;a&muf onhf umvrsm;udkvnf; EkdifiHawmfwGif tajccsaexkdifcJhonhf umv tjzpf xnfhoGif;a&wGuf&rnf?
(C) a&G;aumufwifajr‡mufjcif;qdkif&mOya'wGif owfrSwfxm;onhf t&nftcsif;rsm;ESihf jynhfpHkol? (yk'fr 120)

Legislature

trsKd;om;v$wfawmf udk,fpm;vS,frsm;onf -
(u) touf 30 ESpf jynfh+yD;olrsm; jzpf&rnf/
(c) toufuef@owfcsufrSty yk'fr 120 wGif azmfjyxm;onfh jynfol@ v$wfawmfudk,fpm;vS,frsm;tjzpf a&G;aumufwifajr‡mufcHydkifcGihf&Sd aom t&nftcsif;rsm;ESifh jynhfpHk&rnf/
(*) yk'fr 121 wGif azmfjyxm;onfh jynfol@v$wfawmfudk,fpm;vS,f tjzpf a&G;aumufwifajr‡mufcHydkifcGihf r&Sdapaom jyXmef;csufrsm;ESihf vnf; oufqdkifap&rnf? (yk'fr 152)

Legislature

TzGJ@pnf;ykHtajccHOya'yg jyXmef;csufrsm;t&aomfvnf;aumif;/ a&G; aumufwifajr‡mufjcif;qdkif&m Oya'ygjyXmef;csufrsm;t&aomfvnf; aumif;/ t&nftcsif;ysuf,Gif;olr[kwfygu EdkifiHom;wdkif;onf v$wf awmfwpf&yf&yfodk@ a&G;aumufwifajr‡mufcHydkifcGifh&Sdonf? (yk'fr 395)

Property, Inheritance and Land Tenure

EdkifiHawmfonf-
---
(*) EdkifiHom;rsm;tm; ypPnf;ydkifqdkifcGifh/ tarGqufcHcGifh/ udk,fydkifvkyf udkifcGifh/ wDxGifcGifhESifh rlydkifcGifhwkd@udk Oya'jyXmef;csufESifhtnD cGifhjyK &rnf? (yk'fr 37)

Property, Inheritance and Land Tenure

EdkifiHawmfonf EdkifiHom;rsm;. w&m;0if&&Sdydkifqkdifxm;aom a&$@ajymif; EkdifaomypPnf;/ ra&$@rajymif;EkdifaomypPnf;rsm;ESifhpyfvsOf;I Oya't& umuG,fay;&rnf? (yk'fr 356)

Property, Inheritance and Land Tenure

TzGJ@pnf;yHktajccHOya'yg jyXmef;csufrsm;ESifhrqef@usifv#if EdkifiHawmf onf EdkifiHom;rsm;. aetdrfOypmvHk+cHKr_/ ypPnf;vHk+cHKr_/ pmay;pm,lESifh tjcm;qufoG,fa&; qdkif&mvHk+cHKr_rsm;twGuf Oya't&umuG,fay; &rnf? (yk'fr 357)

Property, Inheritance and Land Tenure

TzGJ@pnf;yHktajccHOya'yg jyXmef;csufrsm;ESifhvnf;aumif;/ wnfqJ Oya'rsm;yg jyXmef;csufrsm;ESifhvnf;aumif; rqef@usifapbJ pD;yGm;a&; udpPrsm; udk aqmif&Guf&mwGif ypPnf;ydkifqkdifcGifh/ oHk;pGJcGifhESifh udk,fydkif wDxGifcGifh/ rlydkifcGifhwdk@udk EdkifiHawmfu tmrcHonf? (yk'fr 372)

Property, Inheritance and Land Tenure

5? pkdkdufysKd;a&;ESihfarG;jrLa&;u¾
(u) ajr,mpDrHcef@cGJr_/
---
10? pDrHcef@cGJa&;u¾
---
(c) &Gmajr/ +rdK@ajr pDrHcef@cGJa&;/
---
11? w&m;pD&ifa&;u¾
---
(C) w&m;rOya'rsm;/ usifhxkH;rsm;tygt0if/ yËdnmOf/ tEknmw pD&if
qkH;jzwfa&;/ w&m;pGJqkdykdifcGifh&Sdaom epfemcsufrsm;/ vlrGJtjzpfcH,ljcif;/
,kHrSwftyfESHjcif;ESifh ,kHrSwftyfESHxm;ojzifh pDrHykdifcGifh&Sdolrsm;/ tarGxdef; ESifh ypPnf;xdef;/ rdom;pkqkdif&mOya'rsm;/ tkyfxdef;olrsm;ESifh tkyfxdef;
cH&olrsm;/ ypPnf;v$Jajymif;jcif;/ tarGqufcHa&;/
--- (Z,m; 1/ jynfaxmifpkOya'jyKpm&if;/ yk'fr 96)

Protection from Violence

EdkifiHawmfonf aus;u|efjyKr_ESifh vlukeful;r_rsm;udk wm;jrpfonf? (yk'fr 358)

Protection from Violence

EdkifiHawmfonf Oya'usL;vGefI jypf'%fay;jcif;udkcH&ojzifh tvkyf'%f
xrf;aqmifcdkif;jcif;ESifh trsm;jynfoltusKd;twGufaqmif&Guf&ef EdkifiH awmfu Oya'ESifhtnD wm0efcsxm;jcif;rSwpfyg; t"rRapcdkif;jcif;udk wm;jrpfonf? (yk'fr 359)

Public Institutions and Services

(c) EdkifiHawmfonf EdkifiHh0efxrf;rsm;. vkyfief;cGiftmrcHcsuf&&Sda&;/ pm; 0wfaer_zlvHka&;/ tdrfaxmif&SiftrsKd;orD;0efxrf;rsm; rD;zGm;jcif;qdkif &m
tusKd;cHpm;cGifh&&Sda&;ESifh t+idrf;pm;0efxrf;rsm; pm;0wfaer_ oufomacsmifcsda&;wdk@twGuf vdktyfonfhOya'rsm; jyXmef;&rnf? (yk'fr 26)

Public Institutions and Services

EdkifiHawmfonf -
(u) jynfolrsm;. ynma&;ESifhusef;rma&; wdk;wufapa&;wdk@twGuf tav;xm;aqmif&Guf&rnf/
--- (yk'fr 28)

Public Institutions and Services

EdkifiHawmfonf -
(u) rdcifESihfuav;oli,frsm;/ rdbrJhuav;rsm;/ usqHk;aomwyfrawmf om;rsm;. uav;rsm;/ tdkrif;rpGrf;olrsm;/ roefrpGrf;olrsm;tm; =unfh&_ apmihfa&Smuf&rnf/
--- (yk'fr 32)

Status of the Constitution

(c) Oya'wpf&yfu tyfESif;onhf vkyfydkifcGihft&jyKvkyfaom enf;Oya'/ pnf;rsOf;/ pnf;urf;/ trdef@a=umfjimpm/ trdef@/ !$ef=um;csufESihf vkyfxHk; vkyfenf;rsm;onf zGJ@pnf;yHktajccHOya'yg jyXmef;csufrsm;ESihf vnf;aumif;/ oufqdkif&mOya'yg jyXmef;csufrsm;ESihfvnf;aumif;
nD!Gwfr_&Sd&rnf/
--- (yk'fr 97)

Status of the Constitution

EdkifiHom;wdkif;onf TzGJ@pnf;yHktajccHOya'yg jyXmef;csufrsm;udk vdkufem apmifhxdef;&ef wm0ef&Sdonf? (yk'fr 384)

Status of the Constitution

TzGJ@pnf;yHktajccHOya'onf EdkifiHawmftwGif;&Sd Oya'tm;vHk;. tajccH Oya'jzpfonf? (yk'fr 449)

Status of International Law

TzGJ@pnf;yHktajccHOya' tm%mrwnfrDumvu jynfaxmifpkjrefrm EdkifiHawmftpdk;&ESifh tjcm;EdkifiHtpdk;&wdk@ csKyfqdktwnfjzpfcJhaom pmcsKyf rsm;t&aomfvnf;aumif;/ oabmwlnDcsufrsm;t&aomf vnf;aumif; ay:xGufvmaom w&m;r#wonfhwm0efrsm;udk tqdkyg tjcm; EdkifiHuvnf; jynfaxmifpkjrefrmEdkifiHESihfpyfvsOf;I xm;&Sdtyf aom yÉdnmOfrsm; udkav;pm;ygu jynfaxmifpkorRwjrefrmEdkifiHawmf uvnf; av;pm;onf? (yk'fr 456)

Religious Law

EdkifiHawmfonf Ak'<bmomomoemawmfudk EdkifiHawmf. EdkifiHom; trsm; qHk;udk;uG,f&mjzpfaom *k%fxl;0daooESifhjynfhpHkonfh bmom omoem jzpfonf[k EdkifiHawmfu todtrSwfjyKonf? (yk'fr 361)

Religious Law

EkdifiHawmfonf c&pf,mefbmomomoem/ tpPvmrfbmom omoem/ [dENLbmomomoemESifh
ewfudk;uG,faombmomwdk@udk TzGJ@pnf;yHk tajccHOya'tm%mwnfaomae@Y EdkifiHawmfwGif&Sdae=u aom udk;uG,f &mbmomrsm;[lI todtrSwfjyKonf? (yk'fr 362)

Religious Law

EdkifiHawmfonf todtrSwfjyKxm;aom bmomomoemrsm;udk wwf Edkifor# ulnDapmifha&Smufrnf? (yk'fr 363)

Customary Law

EdkifiHom;wdkif;onf EdkifiHawmfvHkjcHKa&;/ w&m;Oya'pdk;rdk;a&;/ &yf&Gm at;csrf;om,ma&; odk@r[kwf
jynfolwkdk@.udk,fusifhw&m;tusdK;iSm jyXmef;xm;onfhOya'rsm;ESifh rqef@usifv#if atmufygtcGifhta&;rsm; u
dk vGwfvyfpGmoHk;pGJaqmif&GufcGifh&Sdonf -
---
(C) wkdif;&if;om;vlrsKd; wpfrsKd;ESifhwpfrsKd; odk@r[kwf wkdif;&if;om; vlrsKd; tcsif;csif;ukdvnf;aumif;/ tjcm;bmomomoemukd vnf;aumif; xdcdkufepfemr_r&SdapbJ
rdrdcspfcifjrwfEdk;onfh pum;/ pmay/ ,Ofaus;r_/ udk;uG,fonfhbmomomoemESifh "avh xHk;wrf;rsm;udk vGwfvyfpGm aqmif&GufydkifcGifh? (yk'fr 354)

Customary Law

EdkifiHom;wdkif;onf Oya'ESifhtnD rdrdwdk@tjrwfwEkd;xm;&Sdaom pmay/ ,Ofaus;r_/ tEkynmESifh"avhxHk;wrf;wdk@udk vGwfvyfpGm jyKpkysKd;axmif
aqmif&GufydkifcGifh&Sdonf? ,if;odk@aqmif&Guf&mwGif wkdif;&if;om; pnf;vHk; nD!Gwfa&;udk xdyg;r_r&Sdap&ef a&SmifusOf&rnf? xdk@jyif rdrdwdk@. aqmif&Gufr_onf
tjcm;wdkif;&if;om; vlrsKd;wpfrsKd;udkjzpfap/ vlrsKd;rsm; udkjzpfap xdcdkufepfemapEdkifv#if oufqdkifolrsm;tcsif;csif;nd‡Ed_if;I ajyvnfr_ &&Sd+yD; rSom
aqmif&GufcGifh&Sdonf? (yk'fr 365)

Citizenship and Nationality

English

All persons who have either one of the following qualifications are citizens of the Republic of the Union of Myanmar:
(a) person born of parents both of whom are nationals of the Republic of the Union of Myanmar;
(b) person who is already a citizen according to law on the day this Constitution comes into operation. (Sec. 345)

Burmese

atmufazmfjyyg t&nftcsif;wpf&yf&yfESifh jynfhpHkolrsm;onf jynfaxmifpk orRw jrefrmEdkifiHawmf. EdkifiHom;rsm;jzpf=uonf- (u) jynfaxmifpkorRwjrefrmEdkifiHawmf. wdkif;&if;om;rdb ESpfyg;rS arG;zGm;ol/ v (c) zGJ@pnf;yHktajccHOya' twnfjyKjyXmef;onfhae@wGif Oya't& EdkifiH om;jzpf+yD;ol? (yk'fr 345)

Citizenship and Nationality

English

Citizenship, naturalization and revocation of citizenship shall be as prescribed by law. (Sec. 346)

Burmese

EdkifiHom;jzpfjcif;/ EdkifiHom;jyKjcif;ESifh EkdifiHom;tjzpfrS &yfpJjcif;wdk@onf Oya'jzifhjyXmef;onfhtwdkif; jzpfap&rnf? (yk'fr 346)

Citizenship and Nationality

English

10. Management Sector

(j) Citizenship, naturalization, termination and revocation of citizenship, citizenship scrutiny and registration;
… (Schedule One, Union Legislative List [Section 96])

Burmese

10? pDrHHcef@cGJa&;u¾ v ---
(n) EdkifiHom;jzpfjcif;/ EdkifiHom;jyKjcif;/ EdkifiHom;tjzpfrS&yfpJjcif;/ &kyfodrf;jcif;/ EdkifiHom;pdppfa&;ESifh rSwfykHwifvkyfief;/ --- (Z,m; 1/ jynfaxmifpkOya'jyKpm&if;/ yk'fr 96)

Jurisdiction and Access

English

A Constitutional Tribunal shall be set up to interpret the provisions of the Constitution, to scrutinize whether or not laws enacted by the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw, the Region Hluttaws and the State Hluttaws and functions of executive authorities of Pyidaungsu, Regions, States and Self-Administered Areas are in conformity with the Constitution, to decide on disputes relating to the Constitution between Pyidaungsu and Regions, between Pyidaungsu and States, among Regions, among States, and between Regions or States and SelfAdministered Areas and among Self-Administered Areas themselves, and to perform other duties prescribed in this Constitution. (Sec. 46)

Burmese

TzGJ@pnf;ykHtajccHOya'yg jyXmef;csufrsm;udk teuft"dy`m,f zGifhqdk jcif;/ jynfaxmifpkv$wfawmf/
wdkif;a'o}uD;v$wfawmfrsm;ESifh jynfe,f v$wfawmfrsm;u jyXmef;onfh Oya'rsm;onfvnf;aumif;/ jynfaxmifpk/
wdkif;a'o}uD;rsm;/ jynfe,frsm;ESifh udk,fydkiftkyfcsKyfcGifh& pD&ifpkrsm;. tkyfcsKyfr_qdkif&mtm%mydkifrsm;. aqmif&Gufcsufrsm; onfvnf;aumif;/ EdkifiHawmfzGJ@pnf;ykHtajccHOya'ESifh nD!Gwfr_&Sd/ r&Sdpdppfjcif;/ jynfaxmifpkESifh wdkif;a'o}uD;t=um;/ jynfaxmifpkESifh jynfe,ft=um;/ wdkif;a'o=uD;tcsif;csif;/ jynfe,ftcsif;csif;/ wdkif; a'o}uD; odk@r[kwf jynfe,fESifh udk,fydkiftkyfcsKyfcGifh&pD&ifpkt=um;/
udk,fydkiftkyfcsKyfcGifh&pD&ifpktcsif;csif; jzpfay:onfh EdkifiHawmfzGJ@pnf;yHk
tajccHOya'qdkif&m tjiif;yGm;r_rsm;udk =um;emqHk;jzwfjcif;ESifh T zGJ@pnf;yHk tajccHOya'u tyfESif;onfh tjcm;wm0efrsm; aqmif&Guf jcif;wdk@udk jyKEdkif&ef
EdkifiHawmfzGJ@pnf;yHk tajccHOya'qdkif&m cHk&Hk;wpf&Hk;udk zGJ@pnf;&rnf? (yk'fr 46)

Jurisdiction and Access

English

The functions and the duties of the Constitutional Tribunal of the Union are as follows :
(a) interpreting the provisions under the Constitution;
(b) vetting whether the laws promulgated by the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw, the Region Hluttaw, the State Hluttaw or the Self-Administered Division Leading Body and the Self-Administered Zone Leading Body are in conformity with the Constitution or not;
(c) vetting whether the measures of the executive authorities of the Union, the Regions, the States, and the Self-Administered Areas are in conformity with the Constitution or not;
(d) deciding Constitutional disputes between the Union and a Region, between the Union and a State, between a Region and a State, among the Regions, among the States, between a Region or a State and a Self-Administered Area and among the Self-Administered Areas;
(e) deciding disputes arising out of the rights and duties of the Union and a Region, a State or a Self-Administered Area in implementing the Union Law by a Region, State or Self-Administered Area;
(f) vetting and deciding matters intimated by the President relating to the Union Territory;
(g) functions and duties conferred by laws enacted by the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw. (Sec. 322)

Burmese

EdkifiHawmfzGJ@pnf;ykHtajccHOya'qdkif&mckH&Hk;. vkyfief;wm0efrsm;rSm atmufyg twdkif;jzpfonf
(u) zGJ@pnf;ykHtajccHOya'yg jyXmef;csufrsm;udk teuft"dy`m,f zGifhqdk jcif;/
(c) jynfaxmifpkv$wfawmf/ wdkif;a'o}uD;v$wfawmf/ jynfe,f v$wfawmf odk@r[kwf udk,fydkiftkyfcsKyfcGifh& wdkif;OD;pD;tzGJ@ESifh udk,fydkif tkyfcsKyfcGifh&a'oOD;pD;tzGJ@wdk@u jyXmef;onfhOya'rsm;onf zGJ@pnf;ykH tajccHOya'ESifh nD!wfjcif;&Sd-r&Sd pdppfjcif;/
(*) jynfaxmifpk/ wdkif;a'o}uD;rsm;/ jynfe,frsm;ESifh udk,fydkiftkyfcsKyfcGifh &pD&ifpkrsm;. tkyfcsKyfr_qdkif&mtm%mydkifrsm;. aqmif&Gufcsufrsm; onf zGJ@pnf;ykHtajccHOya'ESifh nD!Gwfjcif; &Sd-r&Sd pdppfjcif;/
(C) jynfaxmifpkESifh wdkif;a'o}uD;t=um;/ jynfaxmifpkESifh jynfe,f t=um;/ wkdif;a'o=uD;ESifh jynfe,ft=um;/ wdkif;a'}uD;tcsif;csif;/ jynfe,ftcsif;csif;/ wdkif;a'o}uD; odk@r[kwf jynfe,fESifh udk,fydkif tkyfcsKyfcGifh& pD&ifpkt=um;/ udk,fydkiftkyfcsKyfcGihf&pD&ifpktcsif;csif; jzpfay: onfh zGJ@pnf;ykHtajccHOya'qdkif&m tjiif;yGm;r_rsm;udk qkH;jzwfjcif;/
(i) wdkif;a'o}uD;/ jynfe,f odk@r[kwf udk,fydkiftkyfcsKyfcGihf& pD&ifpkwdk@u
jynfaxmifpkOya'udk taumiftxnfazmf aqmif&Guf&mwGif jynfaxmifpkESifh wdkif;a'o}uD;/ jynfe,f odk@r[kwf udk,fydkiftkyfcsKyfcGifh&
pD&ifpkwdk@. tcGifhta&;ESifh wm0efrsm;ESifhpyfvsOf;I ay:aygufonfh tjiif;yGm;rIrsm;udk qkH;jzwfjcif;/
(p) jynfaxmifpke,fajrrsm;ESifhpyfvsOf;I EkdifiHawmforRwu ta=umif;=um;vmonfh udpP&yfrsm;ukd pdppfqkH;jzwfjcif;/
(q) jynfaxmifpkv$wfawmfu jyXmef;onfhOya'rsm;u ay;tyfonfh
vkyfief;wm0efrsm;? (yk'fr 322)

Jurisdiction and Access

English

In hearing a case by a Court, if there arises a dispute whether the provisions contained in any law contradict or conform to the Constitution, and if no resolution has been made by the Constitutional Tribunal of the Union on the said dispute, the said Court shall stay the trial and submit its opinion to the Constitutional Tribunal of the Union in accord with the prescribed procedures and shall obtain a resolution. In respect of the said dispute, the resolution of the Constitutional Tribunal of the Union shall be applied to all cases. (Sec. 323)

Burmese

w&m;&kH;wpf&kH;onf tr_wpfr_udk ppfaq;pD&if&mwGif Oya' wpf&yf&yfyg jyXmef;csufonf zGJ@pnf;ykHtajccHOya'ESifh qef@usifr_&Sd-r&Sd/ nD!Gwfr_&Sd-r&Sd
tjiif;yGm;r_ay:aygufygu xdktjiif;yGm;r_ESifhpyfvsOf;I EdkifiHawmf zGJ@pnf;ykH tajccHOya'qdkif&mckH&kH;uvnf; wpfpkHwpf&mqkH;jzwfcsuf csrSwfxm;jcif; r&Sdao;v#if
tqdkygw&m;&kH;onf tr_ppfaq;pD&ifjcif; udk &yfqdkif;xm;+yD; rdrd.xifjrifcsufudk owfrSwfxm;onfh enf;vrf; rsm;ESifhtnD EdkifiHawmf
zGJ@pnf;ykHtajccHOya'qdkif&mckH&kH;odk@ wifjyI tqkH;tjzwf&,l&rnf? ,if;tjiif;yGm;r_ESifhpyfvsOf;I EdkifiHawmf zGJ@pnf;ykH tajccHOya'qdkif&mckH&kH;. qkH;jzwfcsufonf tr_tm;vkH;ESifh oufqkdifap&rnf? (yk'fr 323 )

Jurisdiction and Access

English

The following persons and organizations shall have the right to submit matters directly to obtain the interpretation, resolution and opinion of the Constitutional Tribunal of the Union:
(a) the President;
(b) the Speaker of the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw;
(c) the Speaker of the Pyithu Hluttaw;
(d) the Speaker of the Amyotha Hluttaw;
(e) the Chief Justice of the Union;
(f) the Chairperson of the Union Election Commission. (Sec. 325)

Burmese

zGJ@pnf;ykHtajccHOya'qdkif&mckH&Hk;. t"dy`m,fzGifhqdkcsuf/ qkH;jzwfcsuf/ oabmxm;&,l&efudpPrsm;udk atmufazmfjyyg yk*~dKvfrsm;onf EdkifiHawmf
zGJ@pnf;ykHtajccHOya'qdkif&mckH&kH;odk@ wdkuf&dkufwifoGif;cGifh &Sdonf
(u) EdkifiHawmforRw/
(c) jynfaxmifpkv$wfawmfem,u/
(*) jynfol@v$wfawmfOuUX/
(C) trsKd;om;v$wfawmfOuUX/
(i) jynfaxmifpkw&m;ol}uD;csKyf/
(p) jynfaxmifpka&G;aumufyGJaumfr&SifOuUX? (yk'fr 325)

Jurisdiction and Access

English

The following persons and organizations shall have the right to submit matters to obtain the interpretation, resolution and opinion of the Constitutional Tribunal of the Union in accord with the prescribed procedures :
(a) the Chief Minister of the Region or State;
(b) the Speaker of the Region or State Hluttaw;
(c) the Chairperson of the Self-Administered Division Leading Body or the Self-Administered Zone Leading Body;
(d) Representatives numbering at least ten percent of all the representatives of the Pyithu Hluttaw or the Amyotha Hluttaw. (Sec. 326)

Burmese

atmufygyk*~dKvf odk@r[kwf tzGJ@tpnf;rsm;onf zGJ@pnf;ykHtajccHOya' qdkif&mckH&kH;. t"dy`m,fzGifhqdkcsuf/ qkH;jzwfcsuf/ oabmxm;&,l&efudpP rsm;udk
owfrSwfxm;aom enf;vrf;rsm;ESifhtnD EdkifiHawmfzGJ@pnf;ykH tajccHOya'qdkif&mckH&kH;odk@ wifoGif;cGifh&Sdonf
(u) wdkif;a'o}uD; odk@r[kwf jynfe,f0ef}uD;csKyf/
(c) wdkif;a'o}uD; odk@r[kwf jynfe,fv$wfawmfOuUX/
(*) udk,fydkiftkyfcsKyfcGifh&wdkif;OD;pD;tzGJ@ odk@r[kwf udk,fydkiftkyfcsKyfcGifh& a'o OD;pD;tzGJ@OuUX/
(C) jynfol@v$wfawmf odk@r[kwf trsKd;om;v$wfawmf udk,fpm;vS,f tm;vkH;. tenf;qkH; 10 &mcdkifE_ef; ta&twGuf&Sdaom udk,fpm;vS,frsm;? (yk'fr 326)

Education

English

The Union shall:

(c) implement free, compulsory primary education system;
... (Sec. 28)

Burmese

EdkifiHawmfonf -
---
(*) tcrJhroifrae&rlvwef;ynma&;pepfazmfaqmif&rnf/
--- (yk'fr 28)

Education

English

Every citizen, in accord with the educational policy laid down by the Union:
(a) has the right to education;
(b) shall be given basic education which the Union prescribes by law as compulsory;
... (Sec. 366)

Burmese

EdkifiHom;wdkif;onf EdkifiHawmfucsrSwfxm;aom ynma&;qdkif&mrl0g' rsm;ESifhtnD -
(u) ynmoif=um;ydkifcGifh&Sdonf/
(c) Oya'jzifhjyXmef;onfh roifrae&tajccHynmrsm;udkoif=um;&rnf/
--- (yk'fr 366)

Education

English

The Union shall honour and assist citizens who are outstanding in education irrespective of race, religion and sex according to their qualifications. (Sec. 368)

Burmese

EdkifiHawmfonf ynm&nfxl;c|efaom EdkifiHom;rsm;tm; vlrsKd;/ udk;uG,f&m bmom/ trsKd;om;/ trsKd;orD;cGJjcm;r_rxm;&SdbJ ,if;wdk@. t&nftcsif; tvdkuf
csD;ajr‡mufaxmufyHhrnf? (yk'fr 368)

Education

English

9. Social Sector
(a) Educational curricula, syllabus, teaching methodology, research, plans, projects and standards;
(b) Universities, degree colleges, institutes and other institutions of higher education;
… (Schedule One, Union Legislative List [Sec. 96))

Burmese

9? vlr_a&;u¾
(u) ynmoif=um;a&;qdkif&m oif&dk;!Gef;wrf;/ oif&dk;rmwdum/ oifjy enf;pepf/ okawoe/ pDrHudef;/ pDrHcsufESifhpHrsm;/
(c) wuUodkvf/ 'D*&Daumvdyf/ ody`Hponfhoifwef;rsm;ESifh tqifhjrifh ynmtjcm;tzGJ@tpnf;rsm;/
--- (Z,m; 1/ jynfaxmifpkOya'jyKpm&if;/ yk'fr 96)

Employment Rights and Protection

English

The Union shall enact necessary laws to protect the rights of workers. (Sec. 24)

Burmese

EdkifiHawmfonf tvkyform;rsm;. tcGifhta&;rsm; muG,fapmifha&Smuf &ef vdktyfonfhOya'rsm; jyXmef;aqmif&Gufrnf? (yk'fr 24)

Employment Rights and Protection

English

Citizens shall enjoy equal opportunity in carrying out the following functions:

(b) occupation;
(c) trade;
(d) business;
(e) technical know-how and vocation;
… (Sec. 349)

Burmese

EdkifiHom;rsm;onf atmufygvkyfief;rsm;udk vkyfudkifaqmif&Guf&mwGif wlnDaom tcGihftvrf;&&Sdap&rnf -
---
(c) tvkyfvkyfudkifr_/
(*) ukefoG,fa&mif;0,f azmufum;r_/
(C) pD;yGm;a&;vkyfief; vkyfudkifr_/
(i) twwfynmESifh toufarG;0rf;ausmif;r_/
--- (yk'fr 349)

Employment Rights and Protection

English

Women shall be entitled to the same rights and salaries as that received by men in respect of similar work. (Sec. 350)

Burmese

trsKd;orD;rsm;onf wlnDaomtvkyftwGuf trsKd;om;rsm;cHpm;cGifh&Sd aom tcGifhta&;ESifhvpmwkd@udk cHpm;cGifh&Sdonf? (yk'fr 350)

Employment Rights and Protection

English

9. Social Sector

(o) Working hours, resting-hours, holidays and occupational safety;
… (Schedule One, Union Legislative List [Sec. 96])

Burmese

9? vlr_a&;u¾
---
(%) tvkyfvkyfcsdef/ em;csdef/ tvkyfydwf&ufrsm;ESifh vkyfief;cGifqdkif&m ab;tEW&m,f uif;&Sif;a&;/
--- ( Z,m; 1 jynfaxmifpk Oya'jyKpm&if; yk'fr 96)

Equality and Non-Discrimination

English

We, the National people, firmly resolve that we shall:

- stalwartly strive for further burgeoning the eternal principles namely justice, liberty, equality and perpetuation of peace and prosperity of the National people;
… (Preamble)

Burmese

u|Ekfyfwdk@wdkif;&if;om;jynfoltaygif;wdk@onf -
---
- EdkifiHawmfY w&m;r#wjcif;/ vGwfvyfjcif;ESifh nDr#jcif;wnf;[laom avmuygvw&m;rsm; xGef;um;apvsuf wdkif;&if;om;jynfol trsm; +idrf;csrf;om,m0ajyma&;udk
wnfwHhcdkif+rJatmif pOfquf rjywf aqmif&Gufxdef;odrf;oGm;=urnf[k oEMdXmef csrSwfI vnf;aumif;/
--- (ed'gef;)

Equality and Non-Discrimination

English

The Union’s consistent objectives are:

(e) enhancing the eternal principles of Justice, Liberty and Equality in the Union;
… (Sec. 6)

Burmese

EdkifiHawmfonf -
---
(i) EdkifiHawmfY w&m;r#wjcif;/ vGwfvyfjcif;ESihf nDr#jcif;wnf;[laom avmuygvw&m;rsm; ydkrdkxGef;um;a&;ESifh --- wdk@udk tpOfwpdkufOD; wnfonf?
--- (yk'fr 6)

Equality and Non-Discrimination

English

(a) Every citizen shall enjoy the right of equality, the right of liberty and the right of justice, as prescribed in this Constitution.
… (Sec. 21)

Burmese

(u) EdkifiHom;wdkif;onf TzGJ@pnf;yHktajccHOya'wGif owfrSwfjyXmef; xm;onfh wef;wlnDr#r_tcGifhta&;/ vGwfvyfr_tcGifhta&;/ w&m; r#wr_tcGifhta&;wdk@ cHpm;cGifh &Sdonf/
--- (yk'fr 21)

Equality and Non-Discrimination

English

The Union shall guarantee any person to enjoy equal rights before the law and shall equally provide legal protection. (Sec. 347)

Burmese

EkdifiHawmfonf rnfol@udkrqdk Oya't&mwGif wef;wlnDr#tcGifhta&; &&Sdap&rnf? xkd@jyif Oya'.tumtuG,fudkvnf; wef;wlnDr#pGm &,l ydkifcGifhay;&rnf? (yk'fr 347)

Equality and Non-Discrimination

English

The Union shall not discriminate any citizen of the Republic of the Union of Myanmar, based on race, birth, religion, official position, status, culture, sex and wealth. (Sec. 348)

Burmese

EkdifiHawmfonf jynfaxmifpkorRwjrefrmEdkifiHawmf. rnfonfh EdkifiHom;udkr# vlrsKd;/ Zmwd/ udk;uG,f&mbmom/ &mxl;XmeEœ&/ tqifh twef;/ ,Ofaus;r_/ trsKd;om;/ trsKd;orD;/ qif;&Jcsrf;omwdk@udk ta=umif;jyKI cGJjcm;r_r&Sdap&? (yk'fr 348)

Obligations of the State

English

(a) Every citizen shall enjoy the right of equality, the right of liberty and the right of justice, as prescribed in this Constitution.

(d) Necessary law shall be enacted to make citizens’ freedoms, rights, benefits, responsibilities and restrictions effective, steadfast and complete. (Sec. 21)

Burmese

(u) EdkifiHom;wdkif;onf TzGJ@pnf;yHktajccHOya'wGif owfrSwfjyXmef; xm;onfh wef;wlnDr#r_tcGifhta&;/ vGwfvyfr_tcGifhta&;/ w&m; r#wr_ tcGifhta&;wdk@
cHpm;cGifh&Sdonf?
---
(C) EdkifiHom;rsm;. vGwfvyfcGifh/ vkyfydkifcGifh/ cHpm;cGifh/ wm0efESifh wm;jrpfcsufrsm; xda&mufcdkifrmjynfhpHkap&ef vdktyfaomOya' jyXmef; &rnf? (yk'fr 21)

Judicial Protection

English

In order to obtain a right given by this Chapter3, application shall be made in accord with the stipulations, to the Supreme Court of the Union. (Sec. 377)

Burmese

Ttcef;Y ay;tyfxm;aom tcGifhta&;wpf&yf&yfudk &,lvdkygv#if owf rSwfcsufrsm;ESifhtnD jynfaxmifpk w&m;v$wfawmfcsKyfodk@ av#mufxm; ydkifcGifh&Sd&rnf? (yk'fr 377)

Indigenous Peoples

English

We, the National people, firmly resolve that we shall:
...
- uphold racial equality, living eternally in unity fostering the firm Union Spirit of true patriotism;
... (Preamble)

Burmese

u|Ekfyfwdk@wdkif;&if;om;jynfoltaygif;wdk@onf-
---
- EdkifiHawmftwGif; vlrsKd;a&;wef;wlrIjzifh ppfrSefaom rsKd;cspfpdwf"mwf jzpfonfh jynfaxmifpkpdwf"mwfudk cdkif+rJpGmarG;jrLvsuf xm0pOf pnf;vHk;nD!GwfpGm twlwuG vufwGJaexdkif=urnf[k oEMdXmefcsrSwf I vnf;aumif;/
--- (ed'gef;)

Indigenous Peoples

English

3. The State is where multi-National races collectively reside.
… (Sec. 3)

Burmese

3? EkdifiHawmfonf wkdif;&if;om;vlrsKd;aygif;pkHwkd@ pkaygif;aexdkif=uaom EkdifiH jzpfonf?
--- (yk'fr 3)

Indigenous Peoples

English

For National races with suitable population, National races representatives are entitled to participate in legislature of Regions or States and Self-Administered Areas concerned. (Sec. 15)

Burmese

avsmfuefoifhjrwfaom vlOD;a&&Sdonfh wdkif;&if;om;vlrsKd;rsm;twGuf oufqdkif&m wdkif;a'o}uD; odk@r[kwf jynfe,fESifh udk,fydkiftkyfcsKyfcGihf& pD&ifpk Oya'jyKa&;wGif xdkwdkif;&if;om;vlrsKd;udk,fpm;vS,frsm; yg0ifcGihf &Sdonf? (yk'fr 15)

Indigenous Peoples

English

(c) For National races of which representatives are so permitted to participate in legislature of Regions, States or Self-Administered Areas in accord with Section 15, such representatives are to be permitted to participate, mainly, to undertake their National races affairs. (Sec. 17)

Burmese

(*) yk'fr 15 t& oufqdkif&m wdkif;a'o}uD; odk@r[kwf jynfe,fESihf udk,fydkif tkyfcsKyfcGihf&pD&ifpkOya'jyKa&;wGif udk,fpm;vS,fyg0ifcGifh&&Sd onhf
wdkif;&if;om;vlrsKd;jzpfv#if xdkwdkif;a'o}uD; odk@r[kwf jynfe,f ESihf udk,fydkiftkyfcsKyfcGihf&pD&ifpk tkyfcsKyfa&;wGif t"dutm;jzihf xkd
wkdif;&if;om;vlrsKd;rsm;a&;&mudk aqmif&GufEdkifa&;twGuf wdkif;&if;om; vlrsKd; udk,fpm;vS,frsm; yg0ifcGihfjyK&rnf? (yk'fr 17)

Indigenous Peoples

English

The Union shall assist:
(a) to develop language, literature, fine arts and culture of the National races;
(b) to promote solidarity, mutual amity and respect and mutual assistance among the National races;
(c) to promote socio-economic development including education, health, economy, transport and communication, so forth, of less-developed National races. (Sec. 22)

Burmese

EdkifiHawmfonf —
(u) wkdif;&if;om;rsm;. pum;/ pmay/ tEkynm/ ,Ofaus;r_wdk@udk zGH@+zdK; wkd;wufap&ef ulnDaqmif&Gufrnf/
(c) wkdif;&if;om;tcsif;csif; pnf;vHk;nD!Gwfa&;/ cspf=unfav;pm;a&; ESifh &dkif;yif;ulnDa&;wdk@ wdk;wufjzpfxGef;ap&ef ulnDaqmif&Gufrnf/
(*) wdk;wufzGH@+zdK;r_enf;yg;aeonfh wkdif;&if;om;rsm;. ynma&;/ usef;rma&;/ pD;yGm;a&;/ vrf;yef;qufoG,fa&; ponfwkd@yg0ifaom vlr_pD;yGm;a&;
wdk;wufzGH@+zdK;a&;twGuf ulnDaqmif&Gufrnf? (yk'fr 22)

Indigenous Peoples

English

Every citizen shall be at liberty in the exercise of the following rights, if not contrary to the laws, enacted for Union security, prevalence of law and order, community peace and tranquility or public order and morality:

(d) to develop their language, literature, culture they cherish, religion they profess, and customs without prejudice to the relations between one national race and another or among national races and to other faiths. (Sec. 354)

Burmese

EdkifiHom;wdkif;onf EdkifiHawmfvHkjcHKa&;/ w&m;Oya'pdk;rdk;a&;/ &yf&Gm at;csrf;om,ma&; odk@r[kwf jynfolwkdk@.udk,fusifhw&m;tusdK;iSm
jyXmef;xm;onfhOya'rsm;ESifh rqef@usifv#if atmufygtcGifhta&;rsm; udk vGwfvyfpGmoHk;pGJaqmif&GufcGifh&Sdonf -
---
(C) wkdif;&if;om;vlrsKd; wpfrsKd;ESifhwpfrsKd; odk@r[kwf wkdif;&if;om; vlrsKd; tcsif;csif;ukdvnf;aumif;/ tjcm;bmomomoemukd vnf;aumif; xdcdkufepfemr_r&SdapbJ rdrdcspfcifjrwfEdk;onfh pum;/ pmay/ ,Ofaus;r_/ udk;uG,fonfhbmomomoemESifh "avh xHk;wrf;rsm;udk vGwfvyfpGm aqmif&GufydkifcGifh? (yk'fr 354)

Indigenous Peoples

English

Every citizen shall, in accord with the law, have the right to freely develop literature, culture, arts, customs and traditions they cherish. In the process, they shall avoid any act detrimental to national solidarity. Moreover, any particular action which might adversely affect the interests of one or several other national races shall be taken only after coordinating with and obtaining the settlement of those affected. (Sec. 365)

Burmese

EdkifiHom;wdkif;onf Oya'ESifhtnD rdrdwdk@tjrwfwEkd;xm;&Sdaom pmay/ ,Ofaus;r_/ tEkynmESifh"avhxHk;wrf;wdk@udk vGwfvyfpGm jyKpkysKd;axmif
aqmif&GufydkifcGifh&Sdonf? ,if;odk@aqmif&Guf&mwGif wkdif;&if;om; pnf;vHk; nD!Gwfa&;udk xdyg;r_r&Sdap&ef a&SmifusOf&rnf? xdk@jyif rdrdwdk@. aqmif&Gufr_onf tjcm;wdkif;&if;om; vlrsKd;wpfrsKd;udkjzpfap/ vlrsKd;rsm; udkjzpfap xdcdkufepfemapEdkifv#if oufqdkifolrsm;tcsif;csif;nd‡Ed_if;I ajyvnfr_ &&Sd+yD;rSom
aqmif&GufcGifh&Sdonf? (yk'fr 365)

Indigenous Peoples

English

Every citizen, with the Union Spirit, has the duty to enhance unity among national races and to ensure public peace and stability. (Sec. 387)

Burmese

EdkifiHom;wkdif;onf jynfaxmifpkpdwf"mwfudktajccHI wdkif;&if;om; vlrsKd; tcsif;csif; pnf;vHk;nD!Gwfa&;ESifh jynfolwpf&yfvHk;at;csrf; om,ma&; wdk@twGuf
}udK;yrf;tm;xkwfaqmif&Guf&ef wm0ef&Sdonf? (yk'fr 387)

Indigenous Peoples

English

In electing people’s representatives to the Hluttaws :
(a) every citizen who has attained 18 years of age on the day on which the election commences, who is not disqualified by law, who is eligible to vote, and person who has the right to vote under the law, shall have the right to vote;
(b) every citizen who is eligible to vote and person who has the right to vote under the law shall cast a vote only for each Hluttaw at a constituency in an election;
(c) Moreover, the relevant national races having right to vote in accord with the provisions contained in this Constitution have also the right to vote to elect Hluttaw representatives of national races for their Region or State Hluttaw;
… (Sec. 391)

Burmese

v$wfawmfrsm;odk@ jynfol@udk,fpm;vS,frsm;udk a&G;aumufwifajr‡muf &mwGif -
(u) a&G;aumufyGJpwifusif;yonfhae@&ufY touf 18 ESpf jynfhI Oya' t& t&nftcsif;ysuf,Gif;olr[kwfonfhtjyif qENrJay;ydkifcGifh&Sd aom EdkifiHom;ESifh Oya't&
qE@rJay;cGifh&Sdolwdkif;onf qENrJay;ydkif cGifh&Sdonf/
(c) qENrJay;ydkifcGifh&SdaomEdkifiHom;ESifh Oya't& qENrJay;cGifh&Sdolwdkif; onf a&G;aumufyGJwpf&yfY rJqENe,fwpfe,fwGif v$wfawmf wpf&yf pDtwGuf qENrJwpfrJom ay;ydkifcGifh&Sdonf/
(*) xkd@jyif TzGJ@pnf;ykHtajccHOya'yg jyXmef;csufrsm;ESifhtnD qENrJay; ydkifcGifh&Sdaom oufqdkif&mwkdif;&if;om;rsm;onf rdrdwdk@.wdkif;a'o }uD; odk@r[kwf jynfe,fv$wfawmftwGuf wdkif;&if;om;vlrsKd; v$wfawmf udk,fpm;vS,frsm; a&G;aumufwifajr‡muf&mwGifvnf; qEN rJay;ydkifcGifh &Sdonf/
--- (yk'fr 391)

Limitations and/or Derogations

English

At the time of the occurrence the following situation, the rights under Section 3774 shall not be suspended unless the public safety may so require:
(a) in time of war;
(b) in time of foreign invasion;
(c) in time of insurrection. (Sec. 379)

Burmese

atmufazmfjyyg tajctaewpf&yf&yfay:aygufcsdefwGif trsm;jynfol vHkjcHKa&;twGuf vdktyfonfhudpPrSwpfyg; yk'fr 377 yg tcGifhta&;rsm; awmif;cHydkifcGifhudk
&yfqdkif;xm;jcif;rjyK& -
(u) ppfrufjzpfyGm;csdef/
(c) wkdif;wpfyg;rS usL;ausmf0ifa&mufwdkufcdkufcsdef/
(*) qlylaomif;usef;rIrsm; jzpfay:aecsdef? (yk'fr 379)

Limitations and/or Derogations

English

Except in the following situations and time, no citizen shall be denied redress by due process of law for grievances entitled under law:
(a) in time of foreign invasion;
(b) in time of insurrection;
(c) in time of emergency (Sec. 381)

Burmese

atmufazmfjyyg tajctaeESifhtcsdeftcgrSwpfyg; EkdifiHom;rsm;. w&m;0if&ydkifcGifh&Sdaom epfemcsufrsm;twGuf Oya'jzifhowfrSwfxm; aom &,lydkifcGifhrsm;udk
jiif;y,fjcif;rjyK& -
(u) wkdif;wpfyg;rS usL;ausmf0ifa&mufwkdufcdkufcsdef/
( c ) qlylaomif;usef;r_rsm; jzpfay:aecsdef/
( * ) ta&;ay:tajctae jzpfay:aecsdef? (yk'fr 381)

Limitations and/or Derogations

English

The President, in promulgating an ordinance and declaring a state of emergency :
(a) shall specify in the said ordinance the areas and the duration that the state of emergency is in operation;
(b) may, if necessary, restrict or suspend as required, one or more fundamental rights of the citizens residing in the areas where the state of emergency is in operation. (Sec. 414)

Burmese

EkdifiHawmforRwonf Oya'uJhodk@tm%mwnfonfh trdef@xkwfjyefI ta&;ay:tajctae a=unmonfhtcg -
(u) ,if;trdef@wGif ta&;ay:tajctae tusKd;oufa&mufonfh e,f ajra'oESihf tcsdefumvwdk@udk owfrSwfazmfjy&rnf/
(c) vdktyfygu ta&;ay:tajctae tusKd;oufa&mufonfh e,fajr a'otwGif;aexdkif=uaom EkdifiHom;rsm;. rlvtcGifhta&; wpf&yf&yf udkjzpfap/ wpf&yfxufydkIjzpfap vdktyfovdk
uef@owfEkdifonf odk@r[kwf &yfqdkif;xm;Edkifonf? (yk'fr 414)

Limitations and/or Derogations

English

The Commander-in-Chief of the Defence Services may, during the duration of the declaration of a state of emergency, restrict or suspend as required, one or more fundamental rights of the citizens in the required area. (Sec. 420)

Burmese

wyfrawmfumuG,fa&;OD;pD;csKyfonf ta&;ay:tajctae a=unm xm;pOfumvtwGif; vkdtyfonhfe,fajra'owGif EkdifiHom;rsm;. rlvtcGihf ta&;wpf&yf&yfukdjzpfap/ wpf&yfxufykdIjzpfap vkdtyfovkd uef@owfEkdif onf okd@r[kwf &yfqkdif;xm;Ekdifonf? (yk'fr 420)

Marriage and Family Life

English

(b) The Union shall enact necessary laws for Civil Services personnel to have security and sufficiency of food, clothing and shelter, to get maternity benefits for married women in service, and to ease livelihood for welfare of retired Service personnel. (Sec. 26)

Burmese

(c) EdkifiHawmfonf EdkifiHh0efxrf;rsm;. vkyfief;cGiftmrcHcsuf&&Sda&;/ pm; 0wfaer_zlvHka&;/ tdrfaxmif&SiftrsKd;orD;0efxrf;rsm; rD;zGm;jcif;qdkif &m
tusKd;cHpm;cGifh&&Sda&;ESifh t+idrf;pm;0efxrf;rsm; pm;0wfaer_ oufom acsmifcsda&;wdk@twGuf vdktyfonfhOya'rsm; jyXmef;&rnf? (yk'fr 26)

Marriage and Family Life

English

The Union shall:
(a) care for mothers and children, orphans, fallen Defence Services personnel’s children, the aged and the disabled;
... (Sec. 32)

Burmese

EdkifiHawmfonf -
(u) rdcifESihfuav;oli,frsm;/ rdbrJhuav;rsm;/ usqHk;aomwyfrawmf om;rsm;.uav;rsm;/ tdkrif;rpGrf;olrsm;/ roefrpGrf;olrsm;tm; =unfh&_apmihfa&Smuf&rnf/
--- (yk'fr 32)

Marriage and Family Life

English

Mothers, children and expectant women shall enjoy equal rights as prescribed by law. (Sec. 351)

Burmese

rdcifrsm;/ uav;oli,frsm;ESifh udk,f0efaqmiftrsKd;orD;rsm;onf Oya' t& owfrSwfxm;aom oufqdkif&mtcGifhta&;rsm;udk tnDtr# cHpm; cGifh&Sdap&rnf? (yk'fr 351)

Marriage and Family Life

English

9. Social Sector

(i) Maternal and child welfare;

(l) Welfare of children, youths, women, the disabled, the aged and the homeless;

(u) Registration of births and deaths.

11. Judicial Sector

(d) Civil Laws and procedures including contract, arbitration, actionable wrong, insolvency, trust and trustees, administrator and receiver, family laws, guardians and wards, …
(Schedule One, Union Legislative List [Section 96])

Burmese

9? vlr_a&;u¾
---
(ps) rdcifESifhuav;apmifha&Smufa&;/
---
(X) uav;oli,frsm;/ vli,frsm;/ trsKd;orD;rsm;/ roefrpGrf;olrsm;/
ouf}uD;&G,ftdkrsm;/ tajctaerJhrsm;tm; apmifha&Smufa&;/
---
(y) arG;zGm;jcif;ESifh aoqHk;jcif;qdkif&m rSwfyHkwifa&;?
---
11? w&m;pD&ifa&;u¾
---
(C) w&m;rOya'rsm;/ usifhxkH;rsm;tygt0if/ yËdnmOf/ tEknmw pD&if
qkH;jzwfa&;/ w&m;pGJqkdykdifcGifh&Sdaom epfemcsufrsm;/ vlrGJtjzpfcH,ljcif;/
,kHrSwftyfESHjcif;ESifh ,kHrSwftyfESHxm;ojzifh pDrHykdifcGifh&Sdolrsm;/ tarGxdef; ESifh ypPnf;xdef;/ rdom;pkqkdif&mOya'rsm;/ tkyfxdef;olrsm;ESifh tkyfxdef;
cH&olrsm;/ ---
(Z,m; 1/ jynfaxmifpkOya'jyKpm&if;/ yk'fr 96)

Participation in Public Life and Institutions

English

Citizens shall enjoy equal opportunity in carrying out the following functions:
(a) public employment;
… (Sec. 349)

Burmese

EdkifiHom;rsm;onf atmufygvkyfief;rsm;udk vkyfudkifaqmif&Guf&mwGif wlnDaom tcGihftvrf;&&Sdap&rnf -
(u) jynfol@0efxrf; wm0efxrf;aqmifr_/
--- (yk'fr 349)

Participation in Public Life and Institutions

English

The Union shall, upon specified qualifications being fulfilled, in appointing or assigning duties to civil service personnel, not discriminate for or against any citizen of the Republic of the Union of Myanmar, based on race, birth, religion, and sex. However, nothing in this Section shall prevent appointment of men to the positions that are suitable for men only. (Sec. 352)

Burmese

EdkifiHawmfonf tvkyftudkifcef@xm;&mwGifjzpfap/ EdkifiHh0efxrf;a&G;cs,f wm0efay;&mwGifjzpfap owfrSwfaom t&nftcsif;ESifhjynfhpHkygu
jynfaxmifpkorRwjrefrmEkdifiHawmf. rnfonfhEdkifiHom;udkr# vlrsKd;/ Zmwd/ udk;uG,f&mbmom omoem/ trsKd;om;/ trsKd;orD;udk ta=umif;jyKvsuf
&mxl;a&G;cs,fcef@xm;jcif;udk cGJjcm;r_rjyK&? odk@&mwGif trsKd;om;rsm;ESifhom avsmfuefoifhjrwfonfh &mxl;wm0ef rsm;twGuf trsKd;om;rsm;tm;
a&G;cs,fcef@xm;jcif;udk Tyk'frt& t[ef@twm;rjzpfap&? (yk'fr 352)

Political Rights and Association

English

(a) Every citizen shall have the right to elect and be elected in accord with the law. ... (Sec. 38)

Burmese

(u) EdkifiHom;wdkif;onf Oya'ESifhtnD a&G;aumufwifajr‡mufcGifhESifh a&G;aumufwifajrSmufcHydkifcGifh &Sdonf? --- (yk'fr 38)

Political Rights and Association

English

Every citizen shall be at liberty in the exercise of the following rights, if not contrary to the laws, enacted for Union security, prevalence of law and order, community peace and tranquility or public order and morality:

(c) to form associations and organizations;
… (Sec. 354)

Burmese

EdkifiHom;wdkif;onf EdkifiHawmfvHkjcHKa&;/ w&m;Oya'pdk;rdk;a&;/ &yf&Gm at; csrf;om,ma&; odk@r[kwf jynfolwdk@.udkf,fusifhw&m;tusdK;iSm jyXmef;
xm;onfhOya'rsm;ESifh rqef@usifv#if atmufygtcGifhta&;rsm; udk vGwfvyfpGmoHk;pGJaqmif&GufcGifh&Sdonf -
---
(*) toif;tzGJ@ odk@r[kwf tpnf;t&Hk;rsm; zGJ@pnf;aqmif&GufcGifh/
--- (yk'fr 354)

Political Rights and Association

English

(a) Subject to this Constitution and relevant laws, every citizen has the right to elect and right to be elected to the Pyithu Hluttaw, the Amyotha Hluttaw, and the Region or State Hluttaw.
... (Sec. 369)

Burmese

(u) EdkifiHom;wdkif;onf TzGJ@pnf;yHktajccHOya'ESifhjzpfap/ oufqdkif&m Oya'rsm;ESifhjzpfap rqef@usifv#if jynfol@v$wfawmf/ trsKd;om; v$wfawmf/
wdkif;a'o}uD;v$wfawmf odk@r[kwf jynfe,fv$wfawmf wpf&yf&yfwGif a&G;aumufwifajr‡mufcGifhESifh a&G;aumufwifajrSmuf cHydkifcGifh&Sdonf?
--- (yk'fr 369)

Political Rights and Association

English

In electing people’s representatives to the Hluttaws:
(a) every citizen who has attained 18 years of age on the day on which the election commences, who is not disqualified by law, who is eligible to vote, and person who has the right to vote under the law, shall have the right to vote;
... (Sec. 391)

Burmese

v$wfawmfrsm;odk@ jynfol@udk,fpm;vS,frsm;udk a&G;aumufwifajr‡muf &mwGif -
(u) a&G;aumufyGJpwifusif;yonfhae@&ufY touf 18 ESpf jynfhI Oya' t& t&nftcsif;ysuf,Gif;olr[kwfonfhtjyif qENrJay;ydkifcGifh&Sd aom EdkifiHom;ESifh Oya't& qENrJay;cGifh&Sdolwdkif;onf qENrJay;ydkif cGifh&Sdonf/
--- (yk'fr 391)

Political Rights and Association

English

Every citizen who is not disqualified by the provisions under this Constitution or the provisions of the election law shall have the right to stand for election to any Hluttaw. (Sec. 395)

Burmese

TzGJ@pnf;ykHtajccHOya'yg jyXmef;csufrsm;t&aomfvnf;aumif;/ a&G;aumufwifajr‡mufjcif;qdkif&m Oya'ygjyXmef;csufrsm;t&aomf vnf;aumif;/ t&nftcsif;ysuf,Gif;olr[kwfygu EdkifiHom;wdkif;onf v$wfawmfwpf&yf&yfodk@ a&G;aumuf wifajr‡mufcHydkifcGifh&Sdonf? (yk'fr 395)

Political Parties

English

The Union shall enact necessary law to systematically form political parties for flourishing of a genuine, disciplined multi-party democratic system. (Sec. 39)

Burmese

EdkifiHawmfonf ppfrSefI pnf;urf;jynfh0aom ygwDpHk'Drdkua&pDpepf xGef;um;a&;twGuf EdkifiHa&;ygwDrsm;udk pepfwuszGJ@pnf;Edkif&ef vdktyf onfhOya'
jyXmef;aqmif&Guf&rnf? (yk'fr 39)

Political Parties

English

A political party shall:
(a) set the objective of non-disintegration of the Union, non-disintegration of national solidarity and perpetuation of sovereignty;
(b) be loyal to the State. (Sec. 404)

Burmese

EdkifiHa&;ygwDwpf&yfonf -
(u)jynfaxmifpkr+ydKuGJa&;/ wdkif;&if;om;pnf;vHk;nD!Gwfr_r+ydKuGJa&;ESifh tcsKyftjcmtm%mwnfwHhcdkif+rJa&;wdk@udkOD;wnfcsufxm;&Sd&rnf/
(c) EdkifiHawmf.aus;Zl;opPmudk apmihfod&dkao&rnf? (yk'fr 404)

Political Parties

English

A political party shall:
(a) accept and practise a genuine and discipline-flourishing multi-party democratic system;
(b) abide by and respect this Constitution and the existing laws;
(c) form and register as a political party in accord with the law. (Sec. 405)

Burmese

EdkifiHa&;ygwDwpf&yfonf -
(u) ppfrSefIpnf;urf;jynfh0aom ygwDpHk'Drdkua&pDpepfudk vufcHusifh oHk;&rnf/
(c) TzGJ@pnf;yHktajccHOya'ESifh wnfqJOya'rsm;udk av;pm;vdkufem &rnf/
(*) EdkifiHa&;ygwDtjzpf Oya'ESifhtnD zGJ@pnf;rSwfyHkwifxm;&rnf? (yk'fr 405)

Political Parties

English

A political party shall, in accord with the law, have the right in the Union to:
(a) organize freely;
(b) participate and compete in the elections. (Sec. 406)

Burmese

EdkifiHa&;ygwDwpf&yfonf EdkifiHawmftwGif; Oya'ESifhtnD -
(u) vGwfvyfpGmpnf;&Hk;cGihf&Sdonf/
( c ) a&G;aumufyGJrsm;wGif yg0if,SOf+ydKifcGifh&Sdonf? (yk'fr 406)

Political Parties

English

If a political party infringe one of the following stipulations, it shall have no right of continued existence :
(a) having been declared an unlawful association under the existing law;
(b) directly or indirectly contacting or abetting the insurgent group launching armed rebellion against the Union or the associations and persons determined by the Union to have committed terrorist acts or the association declared to be an unlawful association;
(c) directly or indirectly receiving and expending financial, material and other assistance from a foreign government, a religious association, other association or a person from a foreign country;
(d) abusing religion for political purpose. (Sec. 407)

Burmese

EdkifiHa&;ygwDwpf&yf&yfonf atmufygta=umif;wpfckckESifh +idpGef;v#if qufvuf &yfwnfydkifcGifhr&Sdap& -
(u) wnfqJOya't& rw&m;toif;tjzpf a=unmcH&jcif;/
(c) EdkifiHawmftm; vufeufpGJudkifI awmfvSefykefuefaeaom aomif;usef;ol tzGJ@tpnf; odk@r[kwf t=urf;zufvkyf&yfrsm;ukd usL;vGefonf[k EkdifiHawmfu
owfrSwfaomtzJG@tpnf;ESifh yk*~dKvfrsm; okd@r[kwf rw&m;toif;tjzpf a=unmcHxm;&aom tzJG@tpnf;ESifh wdkuf&dkufjzpfap/ oG,f0dkufIjzpfap qufoG,fjcif; okd@r[kwf tm;ay; ulnDjcif;?
(*) EdkifiHjcm;wdkif;jynfwpfckckrS tpdk;& odk@r[kwf bmoma&;tzGJ@tpnf;
odk@r[kwf tjcm;tzGJ@tpnf;wpfckck odk@r[kwf yk*~dKvfwpfOD;OD;xHrS aiGa=u;/ ypPnf;/ tjcm;taxmuftyHhudk wdkuf&dkufjzpfap/ oG,f0dkufI jzpfap &,loHk;pGJjcif;?
(C) bmoma&;udk EdkifiHa&;twGuf tvGJoHk;pm;jyKjcif;? (yk'fr 407)

Electoral Bodies

English

The duties of the Union Election Commission are as follows:
(a) holding Hluttaw elections;
(b) supervising Hluttaw elections; forming different levels of sub-commissions and supervising thereof;
(c) designating and amending the constituencies;
(d) compiling lists of voters and amending thereof;
(e) postponing elections of the constituencies where free and fair election cannot be held due to natural disaster or due to local security situation;
(f) prescribing rules relating to elections or political parties in accord with the provisions of this Constitution, and procedures, directives, so forth, in accord with the relevant laws;
(g) constituting the election tribunals for trial of disputes relating to election in accord with the law;
(h) performing duties assigned under a law. (Sec. 399)

Burmese

jynfaxmifpka&G;aumufyGJaumfr&Sif. wm0efrsm;rSmatmufygtwdkif; jzpfonf -
(u) v$wfawmfa&G;aumufyGJrsm; usif;yjcif;/
(c) v$wfawmfa&G;aumufyGJrsm;udk }uD;=uyfjcif;/ aumfr&SiftzGJ@cGJ tqifhqifh udk zGJ@pnf;jcif;ESifh }uD;=uyfapjcif;/
(*) rJqENe,frsm;owfrSwfjcif;ESifh jyifqifowfrSwfjcif;/
(C) rJpm&if;rsm;jyKpkjcif;ESifh jyifqifjcif;/
(i) obm0ab;tEW&m,fa=umifh aomfvnf;aumif;/ e,fajrvHkjcHKa&; tajctaet& aomfvnf;aumif; vGwfvyf+yD;w&m;r#waom a&G;aumufyGJ usif;yEdkifjcif;r&Sdonfh rJqENe,frsm;.
a&G;aumufyGJrsm; udk a&$@qdkif;jcif;/
(p) a&G;aumufyGJqdkif&m odk@r[kwf EdkifiHa&;ygwDrsm;qdkif&m enf;Oya' rsm;udk TzGJ@pnf;ykHtajccHOya'yg jyXmef;csufrsm;ESifhtnDvnf;aumif;/ vkyfxHk;vkyfenf;rsm;/ !$ef=um;csufponfrsm;udk oufqdkif&mOya'rsm; ESifhtnDvnf;aumif; xkwfjyefjcif;/
(q) a&G;aumufyGJqdkif&m tjiif;yGm;r_rsm;udk ppfaq;Edkifa&;twGuf Oya' ESifhtnD a&G;aumufyGJcHktzGJ@rsm; zGJ@pnf;jcif;/
(Z) Oya'wpf&yf&yft& ay;tyfonfhwm0efrsm;udk xrf;aqmifjcif;? (yk'fr 399)

Head of State

English

The Head of the Union and the Head of Executive of the Union is the President. (Sec. 16)

Burmese

EdkifiHawmft}uD;tuJESifh EdkifiHawmftkyfcsKyfa&;t}uD;tuJonf EkdifiHawmforRw jzpfonf? (yk'fr 16)

Head of State

English

Qualifications of the President and Vice-Presidents are as follows:
(a) shall be loyal to the Union and its citizens;
(b) shall be a citizen of Myanmar who was born of both parents who were born in the territory under the jurisdiction of the Union and being Myanmar Nationals;
(c) shall be an elected person who has attained at least the age of 45;
(d) shall be well acquainted with the affairs of the Union such as political, administrative, economic and military;
(e) shall be a person who has resided continuously in the Union for at least 20 years up to the time of his election as President;
Proviso: An official period of stay in a foreign country with the permission of the Union shall be counted as a residing period in the Union;
(f) shall he himself, one of the parents, the spouse, one of the legitimate children or their spouses not owe allegiance to a foreign power, not be subject of a foreign power or citizen of a foreign country. They shall not be persons entitled to enjoy the rights and privileges of a subject of a foreign government or citizen of a foreign country;
(g) shall possess prescribed qualifications of the President, in addition to qualifications prescribed to stand for election to the Hluttaw. (Sec. 59)

Burmese

EdkifiHawmforRwESihf 'kwd,orRwrsm;. t&nftcsif;rsm;rSm atmufyg twdkif; jzpfonf -
(u) EdkifiHawmfESihf EdkifiHom;rsm;tay: opPm&Sdol jzpf&rnf/
(c) rdrdESihfrdrd.rdbESpfyg;vkH; EdkifiHawmf.tm%mydkifeuftwGif;Y arG;zGm;aom wdkif;&if;om;rSjzpfonhf jrefrmEdkifiHom; jzpf&rnf/
(*) a&G;cs,fwifajr‡mufjcif;cH&olonf tenf;qkH; touf 45 ESpfjynfh +yD;ol jzpf&rnf/
(C) EdkifiHawmfta&;t&mrsm;jzpfaom EdkifiHa&;/ tkyfcsKyfa&;/ pD;yGm;a&;/ ppfa&;ponhf tjrifrsm;&Sd&rnf/
(i) orRwtjzpf a&G;cs,fwifajrSmufcH&onhf tcsdefESihfwpfqufwnf; tenf;qkH;tESpf 20 EdkifiHawmfwGif tajccsaexdkifcJholjzpf&rnf/
c|if;csuf? EdkifiHawmf.cGifhjyKcsufjzifh EdkifiHjcm;odk@ w&m;0ifoGm;a&muf onfh umvrsm;udkvnf; EdkifiHawmfwGif tajccs aexdkifcJhonfh umv tjzpf xnfhoGif;a&wGuf&rnf?
(p) rdrdudk,fwdkifaomfvnf;aumif;/ rdrd.rdb wpfyg;yg;aomf vnf;aumif;/ rdrd.ZeD; odk@r[kwf cifyGef;aomfvnf;aumif;/ rdrd. w&m;0ifom;orD; wpfOD;OD;aomfvnf;aumif;/ xdkw&m;0if om;orD; wpfOD;OD;. ZeD; odk@r[kwf cifyGef;aomfvnf;aumif; EdkifiHjcm;tpdk;&. aus;Zl;opPmawmfudk cH,lapmihfa&Smuf&dkaool odk@r[kwf EdkifiHjcm; tpdk;&. vufatmufcHjzpfol odk@r[kwf wdkif;wpfyg;. EdkifiHom;jzpfol rsm;rjzpfap&? xdkolrsm;onf EdkifiHjcm;tpdk;&. vufatmufcHjzpfol aomfvnf;aumif;/ wdkif;wpfyg;.EdkifiHom;aomfvnf;aumif; cHpm;& aom tcGihfta&;rsm;ESihf aus;Zl;cHpm;cGihfrsm;udk cHpm;EdkifcGihf&Sdolrsm; rjzpfap&/
(q) v$wfawmfa&G;aumufyGJY a&G;aumufwifajr‡mufcHydkifcGihftwGuf owfrSwfxm;onhf t&nftcsif;rsm;tjyif EdkifiHawmforRw twGuf oD;jcm;owfrSwfxm;aom t&nftcsif;rsm;ESihfvnf; jynfhpkH&rnf? (yk'fr 59)

Head of State

English

(a) The President shall be elected by the Presidential Electoral College.
(b) The Presidential Electoral College shall be formed with three groups of the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw representatives as follows:
(i) group formed with elected Hluttaw representatives in the Hluttaw with an equal number of representatives elected from Regions and States;
(ii) group formed with elected Hluttaw representatives in the Hluttaw elected on the basis of township and population;
(iii) group formed with the Defence Services personnel Hluttaw representatives nominated by the Commander-in-Chief of the Defence Services for the said two Hluttaws.
(c) Each group shall elect a Vice-President from among the Hluttaw representatives or from among persons who are not Hluttaw representatives.
(d) The Pyidaungsu Hluttaw and a Body comprising the Heads and Deputy Heads of the two Hluttaws in the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw shall scrutinize whether or not the Vice-Presidents possess the qualifications prescribed for the President.
(e) The Presidential Electoral College comprising all the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw representatives shall elect by vote one of the three Vice-Presidents who are Presidential candidates, as the President.
(f) Necessary law shall be enacted for the election of President and Vice Presidents. (Sec. 60)

Burmese

(u) EdkifiHawmforRwudk orRwa&G;cs,fwifajr‡mufa&;tzGJ@jzihf a&G;cs,f wifajr‡muf&rnf?
(c) orRwa&G;cs,fwifajr‡mufa&;tzGJ@udk jynfaxmifpkv$wfawmf udk,fpm;vS,ftpktzGJ@oHk;zGJ@jzifh atmufygtwdkif; zGJ@pnf;&rnf-
(1) wdkif;a'o}uD;rsm;ESihf jynfe,frsm;rS udk,fpm;vS,fOD;a& wlnD pGm a&G;aumufwifajr‡mufonhf v$wfawmf&Sd a&G;aumufwif ajr‡muf jcif;cH&aom
v$wfawmfudk,fpm;vS,frsm;tpktzGJ@/
(2) +rdK@e,fudktajccHIvnf;aumif;/ vlOD;a&udktajccHI vnf;aumif; a&G;aumufwifajr‡mufonhfv$wfawmf&Sd a&G;aumufwifajr‡muf jcif;cH&onhf v$wfawmfudk,fpm;vS,f rsm;tpktzGJ@/
(3) azmfjyygv$wfawmfESpf&yftwGuf wyfrawmfumuG,fa&; OD;pD;csKyfu trnfpm&if;wifoGif;onhf wyfrawmfom; v$wfawmf udk,fpm;vS,frsm;tpktzGJ@?
(*) ,if;tpktzGJ@wpfzGJ@pDu 'kwd,orRwwpfOD;pDudk v$wfawmf udk,fpm;vS,frsm;xJrSjzpfap/ v$wfawmfudk,fpm;vS,fr[kwfol rsm;xJrSjzpfap a&G;cs,fwifajr‡muf&rnf?
(C) 'kwd,orRwrsm;onf EdkifiHawmforRwtwGuf owfrSwfxm; onfh t&nftcsif;rsm;ESihf jynhfpkHjcif;&Sd-r&Sdudk jynfaxmifpk v$wfawmfESihf jynfaxmifpkv$wfawmfwGif
yg0ifaom v$wfawmf ESpf&yf. t}uD;trSL;rsm;ESihf 'kwd,t}uD;trSL;rsm; yg0ifonhf tzGJ@ u pdppf&rnf?
(i) jynfaxmifpkv$wfawmfudk,fpm;vS,f tm;vkH;yg0ifaom orRw a&G;cs,fwifajr‡mufa&;tzGJ@u EdkifiHawmforRwavmif;rsm; jzpfonhf 'kwd, orRwoHk;OD;teuf
rdrdwdk@}udKufESpfoufonhf 'kwd,orRw wpfOD;udk EdkifiHawmforRwtjzpf qENrJay; a&G;cs,f wifajr‡muf&rnf?
(p) xdkodk@ EdkifiHawmforRwESifh 'kwd,orRwrsm; a&G;cs,fwifajr‡mufEdkif &ef vdktyfonhfOya'udk jyXmef;ay;&rnf? (yk'fr 60)

Vice-President

English

The President and Vice-Presidents represent the Union. (Sec. 57)

Burmese

EdkifiHawmforRwESifh 'kwd,orRwrsm;onf EdkifiHawmfudk udk,fpm; jyKonf? (yk'fr 57)

Vice-President

English

Qualifications of the President and Vice-Presidents are as follows:
(a) shall be loyal to the Union and its citizens;
(b) shall be a citizen of Myanmar who was born of both parents who were born in the territory under the jurisdiction of the Union and being Myanmar Nationals;
(c) shall be an elected person who has attained at least the age of 45;
(d) shall be well acquainted with the affairs of the Union such as political, administrative, economic and military;
(e) shall be a person who has resided continuously in the Union for at least 20 years up to the time of his election as President;
Proviso: An official period of stay in a foreign country with the permission of the Union shall be counted as a residing period in the Union;
(f) shall he himself, one of the parents, the spouse, one of the legitimate children or their spouses not owe allegiance to a foreign power, not be subject of a foreign power or citizen of a foreign country. They shall not be persons entitled to enjoy the rights and privileges of a subject of a foreign government or citizen of a foreign country;
(g) shall possess prescribed qualifications of the President, in addition to qualifications prescribed to stand for election to the Hluttaw. (Sec. 59)

Burmese

EdkifiHawmforRwESihf 'kwd,orRwrsm;. t&nftcsif;rsm;rSm atmufyg twdkif;jzpfonf -
(u) EdkifiHawmfESihf EdkifiHom;rsm;tay: opPm&Sdol jzpf&rnf/
(c) rdrdESihfrdrd. rdbESpfyg;vkH; EdkifiHawmf.tm%m ydkifeuftwGif;Y arG;zGm;aom wdkif;&if;om;rSjzpfonhf jrefrmEdkifiHom; jzpf&rnf/
(*) a&G;cs,fwifajr‡mufjcif;cH&olonf tenf;qkH; touf 45 ESpfjynfh +yD;ol jzpf&rnf/
(C) EdkifiHawmfta&;t&mrsm;jzpfaom EdkifiHa&;/ tkyfcsKyfa&;/ pD;yGm;a&;/
ppfa&;ponhf tjrifrsm;&Sd&rnf/
(i) orRwtjzpf a&G;cs,fwifajr‡mufcH&onhf tcsdefESihfwpfqufwnf;
tenf;qkH;tESpf 20 EdkifiHawmfwGif tajccsaexdkifcJholjzpf&rnf/
c|if;csuf? EdkifiHawmf.cGifhjyKcsufjzifh EdkifiHjcm;odk@ w&m;0ifoGm;a&muf onfhumvrsm;udkvnf; EdkifiHawmfwGif tajccsaexdkifcJhonfh umv
tjzpf xnfhoGif;a&wGuf&rnf?
(p) rdrdudk,fwdkifaomfvnf;aumif;/ rdrd.rdb wpfyg;yg; aomf vnf;aumif;/ rdrd.ZeD; odk@r[kwf cifyGef;aomfvnf;aumif;/ rdrd. w&m;0if om;orD;wpfOD;OD;aomfvnf;aumif;/
xdkw&m;0ifom;orD; wpfOD;OD;. ZeD; odk@r[kwf cifyGef;aomfvnf;aumif; EdkifiHjcm;tpdk;&. aus;Zl;opPmawmfudk cH,lapmihfa&Smuf&dkaool odk@r[kwf EdkifiHjcm;
tpdk;&. vufatmufcHjzpfol odk@r[kwf wdkif;wpfyg;. EdkifiHom;jzpfol rsm; rjzpfap&/ xdkolrsm;onf EdkifiHjcm;tpdk;&. vufatmufcHjzpfol aomfvnf;aumif;/ wdkif;wpfyg;.
EdkifiHom;aomfvnf;aumif; cHpm; &aom tcGihfta&;rsm;ESihf aus;Zl;cHpm;cGihfrsm;udk cHpm;EdkifcGihf&Sdolrsm; rjzpfap&/
(q) v$wfawmfa&G;aumufyGJY a&G;aumufwifajr‡muf cHydkifcGihftwGuf
owfrSwfxm;onhf t&nftcsif;rsm;tjyif EdkifiHawmforRwtwGuf
oD;jcm;owfrSwfxm;aom t&nftcsif;rsm;ESihfvnf; jynfhpkH&rnf? (yk'fr 59)

Vice-President

English

(b) The Presidential Electoral College shall be formed with three groups of the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw representatives as follows:
(i) group formed with elected Hluttaw representatives in the Hluttaw with an equal number of representatives elected from Regions and States;
(ii) group formed with elected Hluttaw representatives in the Hluttaw elected on the basis of township and population;
(iii) group formed with the Defence Services personnel Hluttaw representatives nominated by the Commander-in-Chief of the Defence Services for the said two Hluttaws. (c) Each group shall elect a Vice-President from among the Hluttaw representatives or from among persons who are not Hluttaw representatives.
(d) The Pyidaungsu Hluttaw and a Body comprising the Heads and Deputy Heads of the two Hluttaws in the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw shall scrutinize whether or not the Vice-Presidents possess the qualifications prescribed for the President.
… (Sec. 60)

Burmese

(c) orRwa&G;cs,fwifajr‡mufa&;tzGJ@udk jynfaxmifpkv$wfawmf udk,fpm;vS,ftpktzGJ@oHk;zGJ@jzifh atmufygtwdkif; zGJ@pnf;&rnf -
(1) wdkif;a'o}uD;rsm;ESihf jynfe,frsm;rS udk,fpm;vS,fOD;a& wlnDpGm a&G;aumufwifajr‡mufonhf v$wfawmf&Sd a&G;aumufwifajr‡muf jcif;cH&aom
v$wfawmfudk,fpm;vS,frsm;tpktzGJ@/
(2) +rdK@e,fudktajccHIvnf;aumif;/ vlOD;a&udktajccHI vnf;aumif; a&G;aumufwifajr‡mufonhfv$wfawmf&Sd a&G;aumuf wifajr‡mufjcif; cH&onhf
v$wfawmfudk,fpm;vS,frsm;tpktzGJ@/
(3) azmfjyygv$wfawmfESpf&yftwGuf wyfrawmfumuG,fa&; OD;pD;csKyfutrnfpm&if;wifoGif;onhf wyfrawmfom;v$wfawmf
udk,fpm;vS,frsm;tpktzGJ@?
(*) ,if;tpktzGJ@wpfzGJ@pDu 'kwd,orRwwpfOD;pDudk v$wfawmf udk,fpm;vS,frsm;xJrSjzpfap/ v$wfawmfudk,fpm;vS,fr[kwfolrsm;xJrS jzpfap a&G;cs,fwifajr‡muf&rnf?
(C) 'kwd,orRwrsm;onf EdkifiHawmforRwtwGuf owfrSwfxm; onfh t&nftcsif;rsm;ESihf jynhfpkHjcif;&Sd/ r&Sdudk jynfaxmifpkv$wfawmf ESihf jynfaxmifpkv$wfawmfwGif yg0ifaom v$wfawmfESpf&yf. t}uD; trSL;rsm;ESihf 'kwd,t}uD;trSL;rsm; yg0ifonhftzGJ@u pdppf&rnf?
--- (yk'fr 60)

Government

English

The President, with the approval of the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw, may:
(a) designate the Ministries of the Union Government as necessary, and may make changes and additions to the ministries;
… (Sec. 202)

Burmese

EkdifiHawmforRwonf jynfaxmifpkv$wfawmf. oabmwlnDcsufjzifh-
(u) jynfaxmifpktpkd;&0ef}uD;Xmersm;ukd vkdtyfovkd owfrSwfEkdif onf? xkd@jyif 0ef}uD;Xmersm;ukd jyifqifowfrSwfjcif;/ jznfhpGufjcif; jyKEkdifonf/
--- (yk'fr 202)

Government

English

(a) The President shall appoint the Union Ministers who possess the following qualifications :
(i) person who has attained the age of 40 years;
(ii) person who has qualifications, with the exception of age limit, entitled to be elected as Pyithu Hluttaw representatives prescribed in Section 120;
(iii) person whose qualifications does not breach the provisions under Section 121 which disqualify the person from standing for election as the Pyithu Hluttaw representative;
(iv) person loyal to the Union and its citizens.
… (Sec. 232)

Burmese

(u) EkdifiHawmforRwonf atmufazmfjyyg t&nftcsif;rsm;ESihf jynfhpkH olrsm;ukd jynfaxmifpk0ef}uD;rsm;tjzpf cef@tyfwm0efay;Ekdifonf -
(1) touf 40 ESpf jynfh+yD;ol/
(2) toufuef@owfcsufrSty yk'fr 120 wGifazmfjyxm;onfh jynfol@v$wfawmf ukd,fpm;vS,frsm;twGuf owfrSwfxm;onfh
t&nftcsif;rsm;ESifh jynfhpkHol/
(3) yk'fr 121 wGif azmfjyxm;onfh jynfol@v$wfawmf ukd,fpm;vS,frsm;tjzpf a&G;aumufwifajr‡mufcHydkifcGifhr&Sdapaom jyXmef;csufrsm;ESifhvnf; +idpGef;jcif;r&Sdol/
(4) EkdifiHawmfESifh EkdifiHom;rsm;tay: opPm&Sdol?
--- (yk'fr 232)

Legislature

English

(a) The legislative power of the Union is shared among the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw, Region Hluttaws and State Hluttaws. Legislative power stipulated by this Constitution shall be shared to the Self-Administered Areas.
(b) The Pyidaungsu Hluttaw consisting of two Hluttaws, one Hluttaw elected on the basis of township as well as population, and the other on an equal number of representatives elected from Regions and States. (Sec. 12)

Burmese

(u) EdkifiHawmf. Oya'jyKa&;tm%mudk jynfaxmifpkv$wfawmf/ wdkif;a'o}uD;v$wfawmfESihf jynfe,fv$wfawmfrsm;tm; cGJa0tyfESif; onf?
udk,fydkiftkyfcsKyfcGihf&pD&ifpkrsm;tm; TzGJ@pnf;ykHtajccHOya'u owfrSwfaom Oya'jyKa&;tmPmudk cGJa0tyfESif;onf/
(c) jynfaxmifpkv$wfawmfwGif +rdK@e,fukdtajccHIvnf;aumif;/ vlOD;a&ukd tajccHIvnf;aumif;/ a&G;aumufwifajr‡mufonfh v$wfawmfwpf&yf/ wdkif;a'o}uD;rsm;ESifh jynfe,frsm;rS ukd,fpm;vS,f OD;a& wlnDpGm a&G;aumufwifajr‡mufonfh v$wfawmfwpf&yf[lI v$wfawmfESpf&yf yg&Sdonf? (yk'fr 12)

Legislature

English

The Pyidaungsu Hluttaw comprises of the following two Hluttaws:
(a) in accord with the provisions of Section 109, the Pyithu Hluttaw formed with Hluttaw representatives elected on the basis of township as well as population and Hluttaw representatives being the Defence Services Personnel nominated by the Commander-in-Chief of the Defence Services;
(b) in accord with the provisions of Section 141, the Amyotha Hluttaw formed with Hluttaw representatives elected in equal numbers from Regions and States and Hluttaw representatives being the Defence Services Personnel nominated by the Commander-in-Chief of the Defence Services. (Sec. 74)

Burmese

jynfaxmifpkv$wfawmfwGif atmufyg v$wfawmfESpf&yfyg0ifonf -
(u) yk'fr 109 yg jyXmef;csufrsm;ESifhtnD +rdK@e,fudktajccHI vnf;aumif;/ vlOD;a&udktajccHIvnf;aumif; a&G;aumufwifajr‡muf onhf v$wfawmfudk,fpm;vS,frsm;ESihf
wyfrawmfumuG,fa&;OD;pD;csKyf u trnfpm&if;wifoGif;aom wyfrawmfom; v$wfawmf udk,fpm;vS,frsm;jzihf zGJ@pnf;onhf jynfol@v$wfawmf/
(c) yk'fr 141 yg jyXmef;csufrsm;ESifhtnD wdkif;a'o}uD;rsm;ESifh jynfe,f rsm;rSOD;a&wlnDpGm a&G;aumufwifajr‡mufonhf v$wfawmfudk,fpm; vS,frsm;ESihf
wyfrawmfumuG,fa&;OD;pD;csKyfu trnfpm&if;wifoGif; aom wyfrawmfom; v$wfawmfudk,fpm;vS,frsm;jzihf zGJ@pnf;onhf trsKd;om;v$wfawmf? (yk'fr 74)

Legislature

English

Persons who possess the following qualifications shall be entitled to be elected as the Pyithu Hluttaw representatives:
(a) person who has attained the age of 25 years;
(b) citizen who was born of both parents who are citizens;
(c) person who has resided in the Union of Myanmar for at least ten consecutive years up to the time of his election as Pyithu Hluttaw representative;
Proviso: The official period of stay in a foreign country with the permission of the Union shall be counted as a residing period in the Union,
(d) person who possesses qualifications prescribed by the Election Law. (Sec. 120)

Burmese

atmufygt&nftcsif;rsm;ESihf jynfhpHkolonf jynfol@v$wfawmfodk@ v$wfawmfudk,fpm;vS,ftjzpf a&G;aumufwifajr‡mufcHydkifcGihf&Sdonf -
(u) touf 25 ESpfjynfh+yD;ol/
(c) EdkifiHom;rdbESpfyg;rS arG;zGm;aom EkdifiHom;jzpfol/
(*) jynfol@v$wfawmf udk,fpm;vS,ftjzpf a&G;aumufwifajr‡mufcH& onhf tcsdefESihf wpfqufwnf; jynfaxmifpkjrefrmEdkifiHawmfwGif tenf;qHk; 10 ESpf tajccsaexdkifcJhol/ c|if;csuf? EdkifiHawmf. cGihfjyKcsufjzihf EdkifiHjcm;odk@ w&m;0ifoGm;a&muf onhf umvrsm;udkvnf; EkdifiHawmfwGif tajccsaexkdifcJhonhf umv tjzpf xnfhoGif;a&wGuf&rnf?
(C) a&G;aumufwifajr‡mufjcif;qdkif&mOya'wGif owfrSwfxm;onhf t&nftcsif;rsm;ESihf jynhfpHkol? (yk'fr 120)

Legislature

English

The Amyotha Hluttaw representatives shall be:
(a) persons who have attained the age of 30 years;
(b) persons who have qualifications, with the exception of the age limit, entitled to be elected as Pyithu Hluttaw representatives prescribed under Section 120;
(c) persons whose qualifications does not breach the provisions under Section 121 which disqualified a person from standing for election as the Pyithu Hluttaw representatives. (Sec. 152)

Burmese

trsKd;om;v$wfawmf udk,fpm;vS,frsm;onf -
(u) touf 30 ESpf jynfh+yD;olrsm; jzpf&rnf/
(c) toufuef@owfcsufrSty yk'fr 120 wGif azmfjyxm;onfh jynfol@ v$wfawmfudk,fpm;vS,frsm;tjzpf a&G;aumufwifajr‡mufcHydkifcGihf&Sd aom t&nftcsif;rsm;ESifh jynhfpHk&rnf/
(*) yk'fr 121 wGif azmfjyxm;onfh jynfol@v$wfawmfudk,fpm;vS,f tjzpf a&G;aumufwifajr‡mufcHydkifcGihf r&Sdapaom jyXmef;csufrsm;ESihf vnf; oufqdkifap&rnf? (yk'fr 152)

Legislature

English

Every citizen who is not disqualified by the provisions under this Constitution or the provisions of the election law shall have the right to stand for election to any Hluttaw. (Sec. 395)

Burmese

TzGJ@pnf;ykHtajccHOya'yg jyXmef;csufrsm;t&aomfvnf;aumif;/ a&G; aumufwifajr‡mufjcif;qdkif&m Oya'ygjyXmef;csufrsm;t&aomfvnf; aumif;/ t&nftcsif;ysuf,Gif;olr[kwfygu EdkifiHom;wdkif;onf v$wf awmfwpf&yf&yfodk@ a&G;aumufwifajr‡mufcHydkifcGifh&Sdonf? (yk'fr 395)

Property, Inheritance and Land Tenure

English

The Union:

(c) shall permit citizens right of private property, right of inheritance, right of private initiative and patent in accord with the law. (Sec. 37)

Burmese

EdkifiHawmfonf-
---
(*) EdkifiHom;rsm;tm; ypPnf;ydkifqdkifcGifh/ tarGqufcHcGifh/ udk,fydkifvkyf udkifcGifh/ wDxGifcGifhESifh rlydkifcGifhwkd@udk Oya'jyXmef;csufESifhtnD cGifhjyK &rnf? (yk'fr 37)

Property, Inheritance and Land Tenure

English

The Union shall protect according to law movable and immovable properties of every citizen that are lawfully acquired. (Sec. 356)

Burmese

EdkifiHawmfonf EdkifiHom;rsm;. w&m;0if&&Sdydkifqkdifxm;aom a&$@ajymif; EkdifaomypPnf;/ ra&$@rajymif;EkdifaomypPnf;rsm;ESifhpyfvsOf;I Oya't& umuG,fay;&rnf? (yk'fr 356)

Property, Inheritance and Land Tenure

English

The Union shall protect the privacy and security of home, property, correspondence and other communications of citizens under the law subject to the provisions of this Constitution. (Sec. 357)

Burmese

TzGJ@pnf;yHktajccHOya'yg jyXmef;csufrsm;ESifhrqef@usifv#if EdkifiHawmf onf EdkifiHom;rsm;. aetdrfOypmvHk+cHKr_/ ypPnf;vHk+cHKr_/ pmay;pm,lESifh tjcm;qufoG,fa&; qdkif&mvHk+cHKr_rsm;twGuf Oya't&umuG,fay; &rnf? (yk'fr 357)

Property, Inheritance and Land Tenure

English

The Union guarantees the right to ownership, the use of property and the right to private invention and patent in the conducting of business if it is not contrary to the provisions of this Constitution and the existing laws. (Sec. 372)

Burmese

TzGJ@pnf;yHktajccHOya'yg jyXmef;csufrsm;ESifhvnf;aumif;/ wnfqJ Oya'rsm;yg jyXmef;csufrsm;ESifhvnf;aumif; rqef@usifapbJ pD;yGm;a&; udpPrsm; udk aqmif&Guf&mwGif ypPnf;ydkifqkdifcGifh/ oHk;pGJcGifhESifh udk,fydkif wDxGifcGifh/ rlydkifcGifhwdk@udk EdkifiHawmfu tmrcHonf? (yk'fr 372)

Property, Inheritance and Land Tenure

English

5. Agriculture and Livestock Breeding Sector
(a) Land administration;

10. Management Sector

(b) Administration of town and village land;
… 11. Judicial Sector

(d) Civil Laws and procedures including contract, arbitration, actionable wrong, insolvency, trust and trustees, administrator and receiver, family laws, guardians and wards, transfer of property and inheritance;
… (Schedule One, Union Legislative List [Section 96])

Burmese

5? pkdkdufysKd;a&;ESihfarG;jrLa&;u¾
(u) ajr,mpDrHcef@cGJr_/
---
10? pDrHcef@cGJa&;u¾
---
(c) &Gmajr/ +rdK@ajr pDrHcef@cGJa&;/
---
11? w&m;pD&ifa&;u¾
---
(C) w&m;rOya'rsm;/ usifhxkH;rsm;tygt0if/ yËdnmOf/ tEknmw pD&if
qkH;jzwfa&;/ w&m;pGJqkdykdifcGifh&Sdaom epfemcsufrsm;/ vlrGJtjzpfcH,ljcif;/
,kHrSwftyfESHjcif;ESifh ,kHrSwftyfESHxm;ojzifh pDrHykdifcGifh&Sdolrsm;/ tarGxdef; ESifh ypPnf;xdef;/ rdom;pkqkdif&mOya'rsm;/ tkyfxdef;olrsm;ESifh tkyfxdef;
cH&olrsm;/ ypPnf;v$Jajymif;jcif;/ tarGqufcHa&;/
--- (Z,m; 1/ jynfaxmifpkOya'jyKpm&if;/ yk'fr 96)

Protection from Violence

English

The Union prohibits the enslaving and trafficking in persons. (Sec. 358)

Burmese

EdkifiHawmfonf aus;u|efjyKr_ESifh vlukeful;r_rsm;udk wm;jrpfonf? (yk'fr 358)

Protection from Violence

English

The Union prohibits forced labor except hard labor as a punishment for crime duly convicted and duties assigned by the Union in accord with the law in the interest of the public. (Sec. 359)

Burmese

EdkifiHawmfonf Oya'usL;vGefI jypf'%fay;jcif;udkcH&ojzifh tvkyf'%f
xrf;aqmifcdkif;jcif;ESifh trsm;jynfoltusKd;twGufaqmif&Guf&ef EdkifiH awmfu Oya'ESifhtnD wm0efcsxm;jcif;rSwpfyg; t"rRapcdkif;jcif;udk wm;jrpfonf? (yk'fr 359)

Public Institutions and Services

English

(b) The Union shall enact necessary laws for Civil Services personnel to have security and sufficiency of food, clothing and shelter, to get maternity benefits for married women in service, and to ease livelihood for welfare of retired Service personnel. (Sec. 26)

Burmese

(c) EdkifiHawmfonf EdkifiHh0efxrf;rsm;. vkyfief;cGiftmrcHcsuf&&Sda&;/ pm; 0wfaer_zlvHka&;/ tdrfaxmif&SiftrsKd;orD;0efxrf;rsm; rD;zGm;jcif;qdkif &m
tusKd;cHpm;cGifh&&Sda&;ESifh t+idrf;pm;0efxrf;rsm; pm;0wfaer_ oufomacsmifcsda&;wdk@twGuf vdktyfonfhOya'rsm; jyXmef;&rnf? (yk'fr 26)

Public Institutions and Services

English

The Union shall:
(a) earnestly strive to improve education and health of the people;
... (Sec. 28)

Burmese

EdkifiHawmfonf -
(u) jynfolrsm;. ynma&;ESifhusef;rma&; wdk;wufapa&;wdk@twGuf tav;xm;aqmif&Guf&rnf/
--- (yk'fr 28)

Public Institutions and Services

English

The Union shall:
(a) care for mothers and children, orphans, fallen Defence Services personnel’s children, the aged and the disabled;
... (Sec. 32)

Burmese

EdkifiHawmfonf -
(u) rdcifESihfuav;oli,frsm;/ rdbrJhuav;rsm;/ usqHk;aomwyfrawmf om;rsm;. uav;rsm;/ tdkrif;rpGrf;olrsm;/ roefrpGrf;olrsm;tm; =unfh&_ apmihfa&Smuf&rnf/
--- (yk'fr 32)

Status of the Constitution

English

(b) The rules, regulations, notifications, orders, directives, and procedures issued under the power conferred by any law shall be in conformity with the provisions of the Constitution and the relevant law.
… (Sec. 97)

Burmese

(c) Oya'wpf&yfu tyfESif;onhf vkyfydkifcGihft&jyKvkyfaom enf;Oya'/ pnf;rsOf;/ pnf;urf;/ trdef@a=umfjimpm/ trdef@/ !$ef=um;csufESihf vkyfxHk; vkyfenf;rsm;onf zGJ@pnf;yHktajccHOya'yg jyXmef;csufrsm;ESihf vnf;aumif;/ oufqdkif&mOya'yg jyXmef;csufrsm;ESihfvnf;aumif;
nD!Gwfr_&Sd&rnf/
--- (yk'fr 97)

Status of the Constitution

English

Every citizen has duty to abide by the provisions of this Constitution. (Sec. 384)

Burmese

EdkifiHom;wdkif;onf TzGJ@pnf;yHktajccHOya'yg jyXmef;csufrsm;udk vdkufem apmifhxdef;&ef wm0ef&Sdonf? (yk'fr 384)

Status of the Constitution

English

This Constitution is the Basic Law of all the laws of the Union. (Sec. 449)

Burmese

TzGJ@pnf;yHktajccHOya'onf EdkifiHawmftwGif;&Sd Oya'tm;vHk;. tajccH Oya'jzpfonf? (yk'fr 449)

Status of International Law

English

The Republic of the Union of Myanmar shall honour all legitimate obligations arising out of treaties or agreements which before the commencement of this Constitution have been in operation between the Government of the Union of Myanmar and the Government of other State, provided that such other State honours any reciprocal obligations towards the Union of Myanmar. (Sec. 456)

Burmese

TzGJ@pnf;yHktajccHOya' tm%mrwnfrDumvu jynfaxmifpkjrefrm EdkifiHawmftpdk;&ESifh tjcm;EdkifiHtpdk;&wdk@ csKyfqdktwnfjzpfcJhaom pmcsKyf rsm;t&aomfvnf;aumif;/ oabmwlnDcsufrsm;t&aomf vnf;aumif; ay:xGufvmaom w&m;r#wonfhwm0efrsm;udk tqdkyg tjcm; EdkifiHuvnf; jynfaxmifpkjrefrmEdkifiHESihfpyfvsOf;I xm;&Sdtyf aom yÉdnmOfrsm; udkav;pm;ygu jynfaxmifpkorRwjrefrmEdkifiHawmf uvnf; av;pm;onf? (yk'fr 456)

Religious Law

English

The Union recognizes special position of Buddhism as the faith professed by the great majority of the citizens of the Union. (Sec. 361)

Burmese

EdkifiHawmfonf Ak'<bmomomoemawmfudk EdkifiHawmf. EdkifiHom; trsm; qHk;udk;uG,f&mjzpfaom *k%fxl;0daooESifhjynfhpHkonfh bmom omoem jzpfonf[k EdkifiHawmfu todtrSwfjyKonf? (yk'fr 361)

Religious Law

English

The Union also recognizes Christianity, Islam, Hinduism and Animism as the religions existing in the Union at the day of the coming into operation of this Constitution. (Sec. 362)

Burmese

EkdifiHawmfonf c&pf,mefbmomomoem/ tpPvmrfbmom omoem/ [dENLbmomomoemESifh
ewfudk;uG,faombmomwdk@udk TzGJ@pnf;yHk tajccHOya'tm%mwnfaomae@Y EdkifiHawmfwGif&Sdae=u aom udk;uG,f &mbmomrsm;[lI todtrSwfjyKonf? (yk'fr 362)

Religious Law

English

The Union may assist and protect the religions it recognizes to its utmost. (Sec. 363)

Burmese

EdkifiHawmfonf todtrSwfjyKxm;aom bmomomoemrsm;udk wwf Edkifor# ulnDapmifha&Smufrnf? (yk'fr 363)

Customary Law

English

Every citizen shall be at liberty in the exercise of the following rights, if not contrary to the laws, enacted for Union security, prevalence of law and order, community peace and tranquility or public order and morality:

(d) to develop their language, literature, culture they cherish, religion they profess, and customs without prejudice to the relations between one national race and another or among national races and to other faiths. (Sec. 354)

Burmese

EdkifiHom;wdkif;onf EdkifiHawmfvHkjcHKa&;/ w&m;Oya'pdk;rdk;a&;/ &yf&Gm at;csrf;om,ma&; odk@r[kwf
jynfolwkdk@.udk,fusifhw&m;tusdK;iSm jyXmef;xm;onfhOya'rsm;ESifh rqef@usifv#if atmufygtcGifhta&;rsm; u
dk vGwfvyfpGmoHk;pGJaqmif&GufcGifh&Sdonf -
---
(C) wkdif;&if;om;vlrsKd; wpfrsKd;ESifhwpfrsKd; odk@r[kwf wkdif;&if;om; vlrsKd; tcsif;csif;ukdvnf;aumif;/ tjcm;bmomomoemukd vnf;aumif; xdcdkufepfemr_r&SdapbJ
rdrdcspfcifjrwfEdk;onfh pum;/ pmay/ ,Ofaus;r_/ udk;uG,fonfhbmomomoemESifh "avh xHk;wrf;rsm;udk vGwfvyfpGm aqmif&GufydkifcGifh? (yk'fr 354)

Customary Law

English

Every citizen shall, in accord with the law, have the right to freely develop literature, culture, arts, customs and traditions they cherish. In the process, they shall avoid any act detrimental to national solidarity. Moreover, any particular action which might adversely affect the interests of one or several other national races shall be taken only after coordinating with and obtaining the settlement of those affected. (Sec. 365)

Burmese

EdkifiHom;wdkif;onf Oya'ESifhtnD rdrdwdk@tjrwfwEkd;xm;&Sdaom pmay/ ,Ofaus;r_/ tEkynmESifh"avhxHk;wrf;wdk@udk vGwfvyfpGm jyKpkysKd;axmif
aqmif&GufydkifcGifh&Sdonf? ,if;odk@aqmif&Guf&mwGif wkdif;&if;om; pnf;vHk; nD!Gwfa&;udk xdyg;r_r&Sdap&ef a&SmifusOf&rnf? xdk@jyif rdrdwdk@. aqmif&Gufr_onf
tjcm;wdkif;&if;om; vlrsKd;wpfrsKd;udkjzpfap/ vlrsKd;rsm; udkjzpfap xdcdkufepfemapEdkifv#if oufqdkifolrsm;tcsif;csif;nd‡Ed_if;I ajyvnfr_ &&Sd+yD; rSom
aqmif&GufcGifh&Sdonf? (yk'fr 365)

1

Constitution of the Republic of the Union of Myanmar 2008 (English). According to Sec. 450: “Myanmar language is the official language.”

2

Links to all sites last visited 2 March 2016

3

Chapter 8 – Citizen, Fundamental Rights and Duties of the Citizens.

4

Sec. 377 of Chapter VIII- Citizen, Fundamental Rights and Duties of the Citizens: “In order to obtain a right given by this Chapter, application shall be made in accord with the stipulations, to the Supreme Court of the Union.”