Constitution of Nepal 2006, as amended to 2015


Affirmative Action (Broadly)

(1) All citizens shall be equal before law. No person shall be denied the equal protection of law.
(2) There shall be no discrimination in the application of general laws on the grounds of origin, religion, race, caste, tribe, sex, physical conditions, disability, health condition, matrimonial status, pregnancy, economic condition, language or geographical region, or ideology or any other such grounds.
(3) The state shall not discriminate among citizens on grounds of origin, religion, race, caste, tribe, sex, economic condition, language or geographical region, ideology and such other matters.
Provided that nothing shall be deemed to bar the making of special provisions by law for the protection, empowerment or advancement of the women lagging behind socially and culturally, Dalits, Adibasi, Madhesi, Tharus, Muslims, oppressed class, backward communities, minorities, marginalized groups, peasants, laborers, youths, children, senior citizens, sexual minorities, persons with disability, pregnant, incapacitated and the helpless persons, and of the citizens who belong to backward regions and financially deprived citizens including the Khas Arya.
… (Art. 18)

Affirmative Action (Broadly)

(4) Women shall have the right to access participate in all state structures and bodies on the basis of the principle of proportional inclusion.
(5) Women shall have the right to special opportunity in the spheres of education, health, employment and social security on the basis of positive discrimination.
… (Art. 38)

Citizenship and Nationality

(1) No Nepali citizen shall be denied the right to acquire citizenship.
(2) There shall be a provision of single federal citizenship with provincial identity in Nepal. (Art. 10)

Citizenship and Nationality

(1) The persons who have acquired citizenship of Nepal at the commencement of this Constitution and the persons who are eligible to acquire citizenship of Nepal under this Part shall be deemed to be the citizens of Nepal.
(2) The following persons who have their permanent domicile in Nepal shall be deemed to be citizens of Nepal by descent: -
(a) A person who has acquired the citizenship of Nepal by descent before the commencement of this constitution.
(b) Any person whose father or mother was a citizen of Nepal at the birth of such a person.
(3) A child of a citizen who has acquired citizenship of Nepal by birth before the commencement of this Constitution shall, if his/her father and mother both are the citizens of Nepal, shall be entitled to Nepali citizenship by descent upon his/her attaining the age of majority.
(4) Every child found in Nepal whereabouts of whose paternity and maternity is not known shall, until the mother or father is traced, be deemed a citizen of Nepal by descent.
(5) A person born to a Nepali citizen mother and having his/her domicile in Nepal but whose father is not traced, shall be conferred the Nepali citizenship by descent. Provided that in case his/her father is found to be a foreigner, the citizenship of such a person shall be converted to naturalized citizenship according to the Federal law.
(6) If a foreign woman married to a Nepali citizen so wishes, she may acquire naturalized citizenship of Nepal as provided for in a Federal law.
(7) Notwithstanding anything contained elsewhere in this Article, in case of a person born to Nepali woman citizen married to a foreign citizen, he/she may acquire naturalized citizenship of Nepal as provided for by a Federal law if he/she is having the permanent domicile in Nepal and he/she has not acquired citizenship of the foreign country.
Provided that if his/her father and mother both are the citizen of Nepal at the time of acquisition of the citizenship, he/she, if born in Nepal, may acquire citizenship by descent.
(8) Except provided for in this Article, Government of Nepal may confer naturalized citizenship of Nepal according to Federal law.
(9) Government of Nepal may confer honorary citizenship according to Federal law.
(10) In case any area is annexed into Nepal by merger, the persons having domicile in such area shall be citizens of Nepal subject to a Federal law. (Art. 11)

Citizenship and Nationality

The person who is entitled to the citizenship of Nepal by descent may obtain the citizenship certificate of Nepal from name of his/her mother or father along with gender identity. (Art. 12)

Citizenship and Nationality

Other provisions as to acquisition, requisition and termination of citizenship shall be as provided for in a Federal law. (Art. 13)

Citizenship and Nationality

The person who has acquired citizenship of a foreign country and residing in a country other than the country which is a member of the South Asian Association of Regional Cooperation (SAARC) and who or whose father or mother, grandfather or grandmother was a citizen of Nepal by descent or birth and later on has acquired citizenship of the foreign country, may be conferred with the nonresidential citizenship of Nepal entitling him/her to the economic, social and cultural rights as provided for in a Federal law. (Art. 14)

Citizenship and Nationality

20. Citizenship … (Schedule 5, List of Federal Powers/Jurisdiction)

Jurisdiction and Access

(1) There shall be a Supreme Court in Nepal.
(2) The Supreme Court shall be the Court of Record. Unless otherwise provided in this Constitution, all other courts and judicial institutions shall be under the Supreme Court. The Supreme Court shall have the final power to interpret the Constitution and law.
… (Art. 128)

Jurisdiction and Access

(1) Any Nepali citizen may file a petition in the Supreme Court to have any law or any part thereof declared void on the ground of inconsistency with this Constitution because it imposes an unreasonable restriction on the enjoyment of the fundamental rights conferred by this Constitution or on any other ground, or any law formulated by the Provincial Assembly is inconsistent with the law formulated by Federal Parliament or any law formulated by Municipal Assembly or Village Assembly is inconsistent with the law formulated by Federal Parliament or Provincial Assembly, and extra-ordinary power shall rest with the Supreme Court to declare that law void either ab initio or from the date of its decision if it appears that the law in question is inconsistent. (2) The Supreme Court shall, for the enforcement of the fundamental rights conferred by this Constitution, for the enforcement of any other legal right for which no other remedy has been provided or for which the remedy even though provided appears to be inadequate or ineffective, or for the settlement of any constitutional or legal question involved in any dispute of public interest or concern, have the extraordinary power to issue necessary and appropriate orders to enforce such rights or settle the dispute.

(5) The Supreme Court shall hear appeal of cases that have been initiated and executed by the High Court, a subject of public interest litigation including a question related to the interpretation of the constitution and law or a case referred by the High Court along with its opinion that it would be appropriate for the Supreme Court to decide on it.
(6) Other rights and procedural of the Supreme Court shall be as per the Federal law. (Art. 133)

Jurisdiction and Access

(1) There shall be a Constitutional Bench in the Supreme Court. The Bench shall comprise of the Chief Justice and other four Justices appointed by the Chief Justice on the recommendation of Judicial Council.
(2) The Bench under clause (1) shall hear and decide on the following cases in addition to the petitions filed according to clause (1) of Article (133):
(a) Related to disputes over the jurisdiction between the Federation and Province, among Provinces, between a Province and local level and among the local levels (of government),
(b) Related to disputes concerning the election of members of the Federal Parliament or Provincial Assembly, and ineligibility of the member of the Federal Parliament or Provincial Assembly.
(3) Notwithstanding anything written in Article (133), the Chief Justice may allocate any cases under consideration at Supreme Court containing question of serious constitutional explanation to the Bench under clause (1).
(4) Other arrangements related to the procedures of the Constitutional Bench shall be as determined by the Supreme Court. (Art. 137)

Education

(1) Every citizen shall have the right to access to basic education.
(2) Every citizen shall have the right to compulsory and free basic education, and free education up to the secondary level.

(5) Every Nepali community living in Nepal shall have the right to acquire education in its mother tongue up to the secondary level, and the right to open and run schools and educational institutions as provided for by law. (Art. 31)

Education

8. Basic and secondary education
… (Schedule 8, List of Powers/Jurisdiction for Local Level)

Education

2. Education, … (Schedule 9, List of concurrent Powers/Jurisdiction for Federation, Province and Local Level)

Employment Rights and Protection

(2) Every citizen shall have the following freedoms:

(f) freedom to engage in any occupation or be engaged in employment, establish and operate industry, trade and business in any part of Nepal.
… (Art. 17)

Employment Rights and Protection

(4) There shall not be any gender discriminations regarding remuneration for the same work and social security.
… (Art. 18)

Employment Rights and Protection

(1) Every citizen shall have the right to employment. Terms and conditions of employment and unemployment benefits shall be as determined by Federal law.
(2) Every citizen shall have the right to select employment. (Art. 33)

Employment Rights and Protection

(1) Every laborer shall have the right to proper work practices.
Explanation: For the purpose of this Article, "laborer" means a worker or laborer who offers physical or mental work for an employer for remuneration.
(2) Every laborer shall have the right to appropriate remuneration, facilities and contribution-based social security.
… (Art. 34)

Employment Rights and Protection

The State shall pursue the following policies:

(i) Policies regarding labor and employment:
(1) Creating a condition to ensure employment for all and employment opportunities in the country itself by making the labor power, which is the main social and economic force, competent and professional.
(2) Guaranteeing social security by ensuring the basic rights of all laborers in accordance with the concept of dignity of labor.

(j) Policies regarding social justice and inclusion:
(1) Making appropriate arrangements of livelihoods by prioritizing employment for single women who are in helpless conditions on the basis of skill, capability and merit.
… (Art. 51)

Employment Rights and Protection

25. Employment and aid to unemployed (Schedule 7, List of Concurrent (federal and provincial) Powers/Jurisdiction)

Equality and Non-Discrimination

We, the people of Nepal, in exercise of the sovereign powers inherent in us, …
Ending all forms of discriminations and oppression created by the feudal, autocratic, centralized and unitary system,
Embracing multi-caste, multi-lingual, multi-cultural and diverse geographical specificities, by ending discriminations relating to class, caste, region, language, religion and gender discrimination including all forms of racial untouchability, in order to protect and promote unity in diversity, social and cultural solidarity, tolerance and harmonious attitudes, we also express our determination to create an egalitarian society on the basis of the principles of proportional inclusion and participation, to ensure equitable economy, prosperity and social justice, … (Preamble)

Equality and Non-Discrimination

(1) All citizens shall be equal before law. No person shall be denied the equal protection of law.
(2) There shall be no discrimination in the application of general laws on the grounds of origin, religion, race, caste, tribe, sex, physical conditions, disability, health condition, matrimonial status, pregnancy, economic condition, language or geographical region, or ideology or any other such grounds.
(3) The state shall not discriminate among citizens on grounds of origin, religion, race, caste, tribe, sex, economic condition, language or geographical region, ideology and such other matters.
Provided that nothing shall be deemed to bar the making of special provisions by law for the protection, empowerment or advancement of the women lagging behind socially and culturally, Dalits, Adibasi, Madhesi, Tharus, Muslims, oppressed class, backward communities, minorities, marginalized groups, peasants, laborers, youths, children, senior citizens, sexual minorities, persons with disability, pregnant, incapacitated and the helpless persons, and of the citizens who belong to backward regions and financially deprived citizens including the Khas Arya.
… (Art. 18)

Equality and Non-Discrimination

(1) No person shall be treated with any kind of untouchability or discrimination in any private or public place on grounds of caste, ethnicity, origin, community, occupation, or physical condition.
(2) No person belonging to a particular caste or ethnicity shall be prevented from buying an object or getting services or facilities in the process of production of such objects or in the distribution or delivery of services, or no such objects shall be sold to, or facilities or services distributed or delivered to persons belonging to a particular caste or ethnicity only.
(3) Racial discriminations shall not be encouraged in any way, or there shall not be any behavioral attitude to exhibit high or low status on grounds of a particular caste, ethnicity or community, or physical condition of a person, or there shall not be any behavioral attitude that justifies social discrimination based on caste, ethnicity, or untouchability, or encouragement for the propagation of attitudes based on caste superiority and untouchability, or hatred.
(4) There shall not be any racial discrimination in the workplace by indulging or not indulging in untouchability. (5) All forms of untouchability or discrimination contrary to this provision shall be punishable by law as a serious social crime, and the victim of such an act shall have the right to compensation as provided for by law. (Art. 24)

Equality and Non-Discrimination

(1) It shall be the political objective of the State to strengthen a federal democratic republican system to ensure an atmosphere where democratic rights are exercised by acknowledging sovereignty, independence and integrity of the country to be of utmost importance; by protecting freedom, equality, property and all citizens through rule of law; by embracing the norms and values of fundamental rights and human rights, gender equality, proportional inclusion, participation and social justice; and by maintaining a just system in all spheres of national life in order to establish a government system aimed at public welfare, while maintaining relations between federal units on the basis of cooperation between them, and internalizing the principle of inclusion in the governance system on the basis of local autonomy and decentralization,
(2) It shall be the socio-cultural objective of the State to build a civilized and egalitarian society by ending all forms of discrimination, oppression and injustice based on religion, culture, cultural practices, customs, traditional practices, or on any other grounds; develop socio-cultural values based on national pride, democracy, people orientation, dignity of labor, entrepreneurship, discipline, dignity and tolerance, by respecting cultural diversity and maintaining communal harmony, solidarity and amity.
… (Art. 50)

Equality and Non-Discrimination

(6) The Federation, provinces and local levels shall protect Nepal’s independence, sovereignty, territorial integrity, autonomy, national interests, overall development, multi-party competitive democratic republic and federal system of governance, human rights and fundamental rights, rule of law, separation of powers and check and balance, equitable society based on plurality and equality, and inclusive representation and identity. (Art. 56)

Gender Equality Machineries

(1) There shall be a National Women Commission in Nepal consisting of a Chairperson and four other members.

(6) Any person who possesses the following qualifications is eligible to be appointed as the Chairperson or member of National Women Commission:-
(a) a woman who has made a significant contribution for the rights, interest of women or gender justice or women development or in the field of human rights and law for at least ten years,
(b) holds a Bachelor's Degree from a recognized university in case of the Chairperson,
(c) has attained the age of forty-five,
(d) is not a member of any political party immediately before the appointment, and
(e) possesses high moral character,
… (Art. 252)

Gender Equality Machineries

(1) Functions, duties and powers of the Federal Women Commission shall be as follows:-
(a) To formulate policies and programs regarding women welfare for the Government of Nepal and forward them to the Government for implementation,
(b) To review whether or not statutes related to women’s welfare are executed, and whether the international covenant signed by Nepal, as a signatory, has been executed, and to forward a recommendation to the Government of Nepal in case they are found not to have been executed,
(c) To monitor, review and evaluate policies and programs implemented by the State to bring women into the mainstream of national development such as proportionate representation in all of the state agencies, and to forward a recommendation to the Government of Nepal for an effective implementation of those provisions, (d) To carry out research and studies regarding gender equality, women empowerment, other legal provisions concerning women, and to forward a recommendation to the concerned bodies regarding the areas to be amended in those laws, and to monitor the same,
(e) To monitor the government regarding report to be submitted by the Government of Nepal in matters related to international covenant and treaties to which Nepal is a party,
(f) To forward a recommendation to concerned authority to lodge a petition in the court, in accordance with the law, in matters related with gender violence, and women deprived of women rights due to social malpractices, (2) The National Women Commission may delegate, some of its rights to the Chairperson of the Commission, member, or an officer of the Government of Nepal, to be exercised in compliance with the conditions specified. (3) Other functions, duties and powers of the National Women Commission shall be as specified in Federal law. (Art. 253)

Obligations of the State

We, the people of Nepal, in exercise of the sovereign powers inherent in us,…
Expressing commitment to create the bases of socialism by adopting democratic norms and values, including peoples' competitive multi-party democratic governance system, civil liberty, fundamental rights, human rights, adult franchise, periodic elections, complete press freedom and an independent, impartial and competent judiciary, and the concept of rule of law, … (Preamble)

Obligations of the State

(1) Independence, sovereignty, territorial integrity, nationality, autonomy, self-respect, protection of rights and interests of Nepali people, protection of boundaries, and economic progress and prosperity, shall be the fundamental subjects of Nepal’s national interest.
… (Art. 5)

Obligations of the State

For the enforcement of the rights conferred in this Part, the State shall make legal provisions, as required, within three years of the commencement of this constitution. (Art. 47)

Obligations of the State

(1) It shall be the political objective of the State to strengthen a federal democratic republican system to ensure an atmosphere where democratic rights are exercised by acknowledging sovereignty, independence and integrity of the country to be of utmost importance; by protecting freedom, equality, property and all citizens through rule of law; by embracing the norms and values of fundamental rights and human rights, gender equality, proportional inclusion, participation and social justice; and by maintaining a just system in all spheres of national life in order to establish a government system aimed at public welfare, while maintaining relations between federal units on the basis of cooperation between them, and internalizing the principle of inclusion in the governance system on the basis of local autonomy and decentralization,
… (Art. 50)

Obligations of the State

The State shall pursue the following policies:

(b) Policies regarding political and governance system:

(2) Maintaining rule of law by protecting and practicing human rights.
… (Art. 51)

Obligations of the State

It shall be the obligation of the State to maintain Nepal's independence, sovereignty, territorial integrity, autonomy of Nepal, protecting and promoting fundamental rights and human rights, and to observe the directive principles of the State and gradually implementing the policies. (Art. 52)

Obligations of the State

(6) The Federation, provinces and local levels shall protect Nepal’s independence, sovereignty, territorial integrity, autonomy, national interests, overall development, multi-party competitive democratic republic and federal system of governance, human rights and fundamental rights, rule of law, separation of powers and check and balance, equitable society based on plurality and equality, and inclusive representation and identity. (Art. 56)

Judicial Protection

There shall be right to constitutional remedy pursuant to the Articles 133 or 144 in course of implementation of rights granted in this part. (Art. 46)

Judicial Protection

(1) Any Nepali citizen may file a petition in the Supreme Court to have any law or any part thereof declared void on the ground of inconsistency with this Constitution because it imposes an unreasonable restriction on the enjoyment of the fundamental rights conferred by this Constitution or on any other ground, or any law formulated by the Provincial Assembly is inconsistent with the law formulated by Federal Parliament or any law formulated by Municipal Assembly or Village Assembly is inconsistent with the law formulated by Federal Parliament or Provincial Assembly, and extra-ordinary power shall rest with the Supreme Court to declare that law void either ab initio or from the date of its decision if it appears that the law in question is inconsistent. (2) The Supreme Court shall, for the enforcement of the fundamental rights conferred by this Constitution, for the enforcement of any other legal right for which no other remedy has been provided or for which the remedy even though provided appears to be inadequate or ineffective, or for the settlement of any constitutional or legal question involved in any dispute of public interest or concern, have the extraordinary power to issue necessary and appropriate orders to enforce such rights or settle the dispute.
… (Art. 133)

Judicial Protection

(1) The High Court shall, for the enforcement of the fundamental rights conferred by this Constitution, for the enforcement of any other legal right for which no other remedy has been provided or for which the remedy even though provided appears to be inadequate or ineffective, or for the settlement of any legal question involved in any dispute of public interest or concern, have the right to issue necessary and appropriate orders in the name of governments, office-bearers, institutions or individuals within its provincial jurisdiction.
… (Art. 144)

National Human Rights Bodies

(1) It shall be the duty of the National Human Rights Commission to ensure the respect, protection and promotion of human rights and their effective implementation.
(2) In order to perform the duty pursuant to Clause (1), the National Human Rights Commission may carry out the following functions:-
(a) conduct inquiries into, and investigations of, and recommendation for action against the perpetrator of, instances of violation or abetment of violation the human rights of any person or a group of persons, upon a petition or complaint presented to the Commission by the victim herself/himself or any person on her/his behalf or upon information received from any sources, or on its own initiative,
(b) forward a recommendation to the authority concerned to take departmental action against any authority that has the duty of responsibility to prevent violations of human rights, if it failed to perform such duty or responsibility or showed recklessness or lack of interest in performing that duty,
(c) make recommendations if necessary, to lodge a petition in the court, in accordance with the law, against a person or institution that has violated human rights,
(d) work jointly and in a coordinated manner with civil society to enhance awareness of human rights, (e) forward a recommendation to the relevant authority for taking departmental action against or imposing punishment on the violators of human rights, giving clear reasons and basis therefor,
(f) review existing laws relating to human rights on a periodic basis and to recommend to the Government of Nepal necessary reforms and amendment thereto,
(g) recommend with reasons to the Government of Nepal that it become a party to any international treaties and agreements on human rights, if it is desirable to do so, and to monitor the implementation of the international treaties and agreements on human rights to which Nepal is a party and if found not to be implemented, forward recommendations to the Government of Nepal for effective implementation of such agreements,
(h) Publicize the names of any official, person or bodies not following or implementing the recommendations and directions of the National Human Rights Commission regarding the violations of human rights in accordance with law, and to record them as human rights violators.
… (Art. 249)

Indigenous Peoples

The State shall pursue the following policies:

(j) Policies regarding social justice and inclusion:

(8) Making special arrangements to ensure the rights of Adivasi Janajatis (indigenous ethnic groups) to lead a dignified life with their respective identities, and making them participate In decision making processes that concern them, and preserving and maintaining the traditional knowledge, skill, experience, culture and social practices of Adivasi Janajatis and local communities.
… (Art. 51)

Indigenous Peoples

(6) The representation of women, Dalit, indigenous, indigenous nationalities, Khas Arya, Madhesi, Muslim, backward region and minorities community on the basis of geography and population in the nominations filed by the political parties for the election to be held for the Provincial Assembly through the proportional representation (PR) election system shall be made on the basis of closed list in accordance with Federal law.
… (Art. 176)

Indigenous Peoples

(3) The entry of women, Dalit, indigenous community, Khash Arya, Madhesi, Tharu, Muslim, people of backward class and backward region shall be ensured in Nepal Army, based on the principle of equality and principles of inclusion as provided for in the Federal law.
… (Art. 267)

Limitations and/or Derogations

(1) In case a grave emergency arises in relation to the sovereignty or territorial integrity of Nepal or the security of any part thereof, whether by war, external attack, armed revolt, extreme economic breakdown, natural calamity or epidemic outbreak, the President may, by Proclamation or Order, declare a state of emergency to be enforced in Nepal or any specified part thereof.

(10) While issuing the Proclamation or Order of state of emergency pursuant to clause (1), the President may suspend the fundamental rights provided in Part 3 so long as the Proclamation or Order is in operation. Provided that, Article 16, section (c) and (d) of Article 17(2), Article 18, 19 (2), 20, 21, 22, 24, 26 (1), 29, 30, 31, 32, 35, 36 (1) and (2), 38, 39, 40 (2) and (3), 41, 42, 43, 45 and the right to constitutional remedy and right to habeas corpus related to Article 46 shall not be suspended.
(11) In circumstances where any Article of this constitution is suspended pursuant to clause (10), no petition may be made in any court of law, nor any question be raised for the enforcement of the fundamental rights conferred by such Article.
… (Art. 273)

Marriage and Family Life

(5) There shall be no gender discrimination regarding the right to parental property with regard to all family members. (Art. 18)

Marriage and Family Life

(1) Every woman shall have equal right to lineage without any gender discriminations.
(2) Every woman shall have the right relating to safe motherhood and reproductive health.

(6) Both the spouses shall have equal rights in property and family affairs. (Art. 38)

Marriage and Family Life

The State shall pursue the following policies:

(h) Policies regarding the basic needs of citizens:

(10) It shall be the policy of the State to increase general life expectancy by decreasing maternity-infant mortality rate by encouraging family planning population management based on the need and capacity of the country.

(j) Policies regarding social justice and inclusion:

(3) Ensuring the use of necessary services and facilities during the reproductive stage
(4) Economically evaluating the works and contribution in regard to child care and care for the family.
… (Art. 51)

Marriage and Family Life

5. Laws related to family affairs (marriage, property transfer, divorce, endangered, orphan, adopted child, successors and joint family).

10. Planning, family planning and population management
… (Schedule 7, List of Concurrent (federal and provincial) Powers/Jurisdiction)

Marriage and Family Life

11. Registration of personal incidents, birth, death, marriage and statistics
… (Schedule 9, List of concurrent Powers/Jurisdiction for Federation, Province and Local Level)

Minorities

(3) The state shall not discriminate among citizens on grounds of origin, religion, race, caste, tribe, sex, economic condition, language or geographical region, ideology and such other matters.
Provided that nothing shall be deemed to bar the making of special provisions by law for the protection, empowerment or advancement of the women lagging behind socially and culturally, Dalits, Adibasi, Madhesi, Tharus, Muslims, oppressed class, backward communities, minorities, marginalized groups, peasants, laborers, youths, children, senior citizens, sexual minorities, persons with disability, pregnant, incapacitated and the helpless persons, and of the citizens who belong to backward regions and financially deprived citizens including the Khas Arya.
… (Art. 18)

Minorities

(1) Dalit shall have the right to participate in all agencies of the state based on the principle of proportional inclusion. There shall be special legal provision of empowerment, representation, and participation of Dalit community for employment in other area also including the public service.
(2) Provisions of free education with scholarships shall be made for Dalit students from the primary to higher level of education as provided for in law. Special provision shall be made in law for Dalits to pursue higher education in technical and professional subjects.
(3) In order to provide health care and social security to Dalit community, special arrangements shall be made in accordance with law.
(4) Dalit community shall have the right to use, preserve and develop their traditional occupation, knowledge, skill and technology. The State shall give priority to modern profession of Dalits in relation to their traditional occupation, by providing them with necessary skill and resources.
(5) The State shall, according to law, provide land to landless Dalits for one time.
(6) The State shall, according to law, make housing arrangements for Dalits who do not have housing of their own.
(7) The facilities provided to the Dalit community according to this Article, shall have to be justly distributed to Dalit women and men and all the Dalit communities living in different parts of the country, ensuring that all Dalits receive the facilities proportionally. (Art. 40)

Minorities

(1) Socially backward women, Dalits, Adibasi, Janajati, Adibasi Janajati, Madhesi, Tharu, minority groups, persons with disability, marginalized groups, Muslim, backward classes, gender and sexually minority groups, youths, peasants, laborers, the oppressed and the citizens of backward regions, and economically poor Khas Arya shall have the right to employment in state structures on the basis of the principle of inclusion.
(2) Citizens who are economically very poor and communities on the verge of extinction, shall have the right to special opportunity and facilities in the areas of education, health, housing, employment, food and social security, for their protection, progress, empowerment and development.
… (Art. 42)

Minorities

The State shall pursue the following policies:

(j) Policies regarding social justice and inclusion:

(8) Making special arrangements to ensure the rights of Adivasi Janajatis (indigenous ethnic groups) to lead a dignified life with their respective identities, and making them participate In decision making processes that concern them, and preserving and maintaining the traditional knowledge, skill, experience, culture and social practices of Adivasi Janajatis and local communities.
(9) Making special arrangements for minority communities to exercise their social and cultural rights by maintaining their identity.
(10) Making special arrangements for the Madhesi community to have equal distribution of benefits of economic, social and cultural opportunities, and also for the protection, progress, empowerment and development of the very poor and backward classes within the Madhesi community.
… (Art. 51)

Minorities

(6) The representation of women, Dalit, indigenous, indigenous nationalities, Khas Arya, Madhesi, Muslim, backward region and minorities community on the basis of geography and population in the nominations filed by the political parties for the election to be held for the Provincial Assembly through the proportional representation (PR) election system shall be made on the basis of closed list in accordance with Federal law.
… (Art. 176)

Minorities

(1) Functions, duties and powers of National Dalit Commission shall be as follows:-
(a) To carry out research and studies regarding Dalit community of Nepal so as to identify legal and institutional reforms to be made and make a recommendation to the Government of Nepal,
(b) To formulate national policies and programs in matters related with ending caste discrimination, untouchability, suppression and to enhance Dalit’s status and development, and to forward a recommendation to the Government of Nepal for implementation,
(c) To monitor, so as to ensure whether the special provisions and laws related with Dalit welfare have been implemented or not, and to forward a recommendation to the government of Nepal, in case these provisions are found not to have been implemented,
(d) To review or monitor the Government of Nepal, so as to ensure that the Government of Nepal submits the report as a signatory to the international treaties and agreement, as provisioned by those treaties,
(e) To monitor, review and evaluate the policies and programs implemented by the State to bring Dalit community into the mainstream of national development such as proportionate representation in all of the state agencies, and to forward a recommendation to the Government of Nepal for an effective implementation of those provisions, (f) To recommend to respective agencies on filing petitions in court according to the law, against any person or organization if it is deemed necessary on subjects of discriminations on caste and untouchability or victim of social malpractices or disallowing or depriving of exercising the right of Dalits.
(2) The National Dalit Commission may delegate, as required, some of its powers to the Chairperson of the Commission, member, or an officer of the Government of Nepal, to be exercised in compliance with the conditions specified.
(3) Other functions, duties and powers of the National Dalit Commission, shall be as specified by Federal law. (Art. 256)

Minorities

(1) Functions, duties and powers of National Inclusion Commission shall be as follows:-
(a) To carry out research and studies for protecting rights and welfare of Khash Arya, backward class, persons with disability, senior citizens, laborers, peasants, marginalized and minoritycommunities, people of Karnali region and economically disadvantaged people,
(b) To review the policies of the Government of Nepal for inclusion of the persons as mentioned in section (a) above and their implementation, and to forward necessary recommendation to the government for reform,
(c) To conduct study about the rightful representation of the persons as mentioned in section (a) above in the state mechanisms, and to forward a recommendation to the Government of Nepal to review the provision to ensure their representation therein,
(d) To study whether protection, empowerment and development of the persons as mentioned in section (a) is satisfactory and to forward a recommendation to the Government of Nepal regarding the policies to be adopted for the future,
(e) To recommend the Government of Nepal regarding policies and programs to be implemented for development and prosperity of Karnali and other backward regions, (f) To recommend for timely revision in the laws related to minorities and marginalized communities,
(g) To monitor the situation of implementation of rights and interests of minorities and marginalized communities, and to make recommendations for revision based on reports of periodic census and human development indices.
(2) The National Inclusion Commission may delegate, as required, some of its powers to the Chairperson of the Commission, member, or an officer of the Government of Nepal, to be exercised in compliance with the conditions specified.
(3) Other functions, duties and powers of the National Inclusion Commission shall be as specified by Federal law. (Art. 259)

Minorities

(3) The entry of women, Dalit, indigenous community, Khash Arya, Madhesi, Tharu, Muslim, people of backward class and backward region shall be ensured in Nepal Army, based on the principle of equality and principles of inclusion as provided for in the Federal law.
… (Art. 267)

Minorities

The Government of Nepal shall review and revise, along with census of every ten years, the provisions regarding special rights of the women and Dalit community and its implementation and effectiveness based on human development index. (Art. 281)

Minorities

(1) Unless the subject or context otherwise requires, in this Constitution:-
(a) “Minority” means those caste, language, and religious communities, whose population is less than that determined by the law, and who has their own specialties, and who aim to protect them; it also signifies those groups who have faced discrimination and harassed.

(m) “Marginalized” means those who have been forced to fall backward politically, economically and socially, those who have been unable to avail services because of discrimination and harassment, and because of geographical disconnection, and those communities whose standard of living has been below the legal standard as specified in the Human Development indicators. It also signifies the ultra-marginalized and communities on verge of extinction.
… (Art. 306)

Participation in Public Life and Institutions

(4) Women shall have the right to access participate in all state structures and bodies on the basis of the principle of proportional inclusion.
… (Art. 38)

Participation in Public Life and Institutions

(1) Socially backward women, Dalits, Adibasi, Janajati, Adibasi Janajati, Madhesi, Tharu, minority groups, persons with disability, marginalized groups, Muslim, backward classes, gender and sexually minority groups, youths, peasants, laborers, the oppressed and the citizens of backward regions, and economically poor Khas Arya shall have the right to employment in state structures on the basis of the principle of inclusion.
… (Art. 42)

Participation in Public Life and Institutions

(1) There shall be an organization of Nepal Army, committed to democratic principles, inclusive in character and national in form, for the protection of Nepal’s independence, sovereignty, territorial integrity, autonomy and national unity.

(3) The entry of women, Dalit, indigenous community, Khash Arya, Madhesi, Tharu, Muslim, people of backward class and backward region shall be ensured in Nepal Army, based on the principle of equality and principles of inclusion as provided for in the Federal law.
… (Art. 267)

Political Rights and Association

(2) Every citizen shall have the following freedoms:

(c) freedom to form political party,
(d) freedom to form unions and associations,
… (Art. 17)

Political Rights and Association

(4) Women shall have the right to access participate in all state structures and bodies on the basis of the principle of proportional inclusion.
… (Art. 38)

Political Rights and Association

(5) Every Nepali citizen who has attained the age of eighteen years, as provided in law, shall be entitled to vote in any constituency.
… (Art. 84)

Political Rights and Association

(1) Persons who are committed to a common political ideology, philosophy and program shall, subject to the laws under section (b), clause (2) of the Article (17), be entitled to form and operate the political parties and to generate or cause to be generated publicity in order to secure public support and cooperation from the general public for their ideology, philosophy and program, and to carry out any other activities for that purpose.
… (Art. 269)

National level

(1) The House of Representatives shall consist of two hundred and seventy five members as follows:-
(a) One hundred and sixty five members elected through the first-past-the-post electoral system consisting of one member from each of the one hundred and sixty five electoral constituencies formed by dividing Nepal into 165 constituencies based on geography, and population.
(b) One hundred and ten members elected from proportional representation electoral system where voters vote for parties, while treating the whole country as a single electoral constituency.
(2) Provision shall be made according to Federal law for the representation of political parties to file candidacy for the election of the House of Representatives for proportional representation system through closed list of women, Dalit, Adibasi Janajati, Khas Arya, Madhesi, Tharu, Muslim, and backward regions. Balance in geography and province shall be considered for such candidacy.
Explanation: For the purpose of this provision, Khas Arya means Chhetri, Brahmin, Thakuri and Sannyasi (Dasnami) community.

(8) Notwithstanding anything contained elsewhere in this Article, women should account for at least one third of total members elected from each party in Federal Parliament. In case, one-third percentage of women are not elected while being elected under section (a) of clause (1), and section (a), clause (2) of Article 84, the party that fails to ensure one-third representation shall have to elect at least one-third of total numbers as woman in the Federal Parliament while electing members under section (b) of clause (1).
… (Art. 84)

National level

(1) National Assembly shall be a permanent house.
(2) There shall be fifty-nine members in the National Assembly as follows:-
(a) Fifty six members elected from an Electoral College comprising members of Provincial Assembly and chairpersons and vice-chairpersons of Village councils and Mayors and Deputy Mayors of Municipal councils, with different weights of votes for each, with eight members from each province, including at least three women, one Dalit, one person with disability or minority;
(b) Three members, including at least one woman, to be nominated by the President on the recommendation of Government of Nepal.
… (Art. 86)

National level

(1) The House of Representatives shall, within fifteen days of commencement of first meeting, elect a Speaker and a Deputy Speaker from among its members.
(2) While electing Speaker and Deputy Speaker as per clause (1), either Speaker or Deputy Speaker shall be a woman and belong to different parties.
… (Art. 91)

National level

(1) After the commencement of its first session, the National Assembly shall, within fifteen days of commencement of first meeting, elect a Chairperson and Vice chairperson from among its members.
(2) While electing as per clause (1), either Chairperson or Vice chairperson Chairman of the National Assembly shall be a woman.
… (Art. 92)

Subnational levels

(1) Every Provincial Assembly shall consist of the following number of members: -
(a) Members equal to double the number of members to be elected through the first-past-the-post (FPTP) election system to the House of Representatives from the concerned province,
(b) The number of members to be elected through the Proportional Representation (PR) election system equal to the number equivalent to the remaining forty per cent when the number of members maintained pursuant to section (a) is regarded as sixty per cent.

(6) The representation of women, Dalit, indigenous, indigenous nationalities, Khas Arya, Madhesi, Muslim, backward region and minorities community on the basis of geography and population in the nominations filed by the political parties for the election to be held for the Provincial Assembly through the proportional representation (PR) election system shall be made on the basis of closed list in accordance with Federal law.
Explanation: ‘Khas Arya’ shall mean Chettri, Brahman, Thakuri, Sanyasi (Dashanami) community.

(9) Notwithstanding anything contained elsewhere in this Article, at least one third of the total number of members to be elected from each political party to the Provincial Assembly shall have to be women. In case at least one third of the candidates elected from a political party pursuant to section (a) of clause (1) are not women, the political party shall have to make provision of electing at least one third women while electing members pursuant to section (b) of the same clause.
… (Art. 176)

Subnational levels

(1) The Provincial Assembly shall elect a Speaker and a Deputy Speaker from among its members within fifteen days of the first meeting of the Assembly.
(2) While electing speaker and deputy speaker as per clause (1), either of Speaker or Deputy Speaker shall be woman and they shall belong to different parties.… (Art. 182)

Subnational levels

(1) There shall be a Head of Village executive in every Village Council. The Village executive shall be formed under her/his chairpersonship.
(2) The Village executive, pursuant to Clause (1), shall have a Deputy Head and ward chairpersons elected from each ward and members elected as per clause (4) below.
(3) The election of the Head and Deputy Head shall be held through secret ballot based on one person one vote according to the the first-past-thepost electoral system by the voters of the concerned Village Council area.
Explanation: For the purpose of this Article, ‘Head and Deputy Head’ shall mean the Head and Deputy Head of the Village executive.
(4) Four women members that are elected by the Village Assembly members from among themselves and two persons elected from the Dalit or minority community with qualifications pursuant to Clause (5) below shall also be members of the Village executive and this election shall be held within 15 days following the final result of the election of Village Assembly as per Article 222.
… (Art. 215)

Subnational levels

(1) There shall be a Mayor of the Municipal Executive in every municipality. The municipal executive shall be formed under her/his chair.
(2) The Municipal Executive, pursuant to Clause (1), shall have a Deputy Mayor, ward chairperson elected from each ward and members elected as per clause (4) below.
(3) The election of the Mayor and Deputy Mayor shall be held through secret ballot based on one person one vote according to the first-past-the-post electoral system by the voters of the concerned Municipal Council area.
Explanation: For the purpose of this Article, ‘Mayor and Deputy Mayor’ shall mean the Head and Deputy Head of the Municipal executive.
(4) Five women members that are elected by the Municipal Assembly members from among themselves and three persons elected from the Dalit or minority community with qualifications pursuant to Clause (5) below shall also be members of the Municipal executive and this election shall be held within 15 days following the final result of the election of Municipal Assembly as per Article 223.
… (Art. 216)

Subnational levels

(3) The District Assembly shall, pursuant to Provincial laws, elect a District Coordination Committee with a maximum of nine members including a Head, a Deputy Head, at least three women and at least one person from the Dalit or minority community. The District Coordination Committee shall execute all tasks to be carried out on behalf of the District Assembly.
… (Art. 220)

Subnational levels

(1) There shall be a Village Assembly in each Village Council.
(2) The Village Assembly referred to in clause (1) shall comprise a village executive Head, a Deputy Head and four members elected from every Ward of the Village council and member of the village executive elected from the Dalit or minority community pursuant to clause (4) of Article 215.
(3) The Village Assembly to be constituted pursuant to Clause (1) shall have the representation of at least two women from every Ward of the Village Council.
… (Art. 222)

Subnational levels

(1) There shall be one Municipal Assembly in each Municipality.
(2) The Municipal Assembly referred to in clause (1) shall comprise the Mayor and Deputy Mayor, ward Chairperson and four members elected from every Ward of the Municipal council and member of the Municipal executive elected from the Dalit or minority community pursuant to clause (4) of Article 216.
(3) The Municipal Assembly to be constituted pursuant to Clause (1) shall have the representation of at least two women from every Ward of the Municipality.
… (Art. 223)

Political Parties

(2) Every citizen shall have the following freedoms:

(c) freedom to form political party,

Provided that,

(3) Nothing in section (c) shall be deemed to prevent the making of an Act to impose reasonable restrictions on any act which may undermine the nationality, sovereignty, indivisibility or Nepal, or an act of espionage against the nation, or disclosing national secrets, or helping foreign state or organization that may jeopardize Nepal’ security, or an act of treason, or an act that undermines the harmonious relations subsisting between federal units, or instigates communal animosity, or jeopardizes the harmonious relations subsisting among different caste, ethnicity, religious groups and communities, or an act of acquiring or depriving the membership of a political party only on the grounds of caste, language, religion, community or gender, or the formation of a political party that creates discrimination against citizens, or an act that incites violence, or is contrary to decent public behavior.
… (Art. 17)

Political Parties

(1) The House of Representatives shall consist of two hundred and seventy five members as follows:-
(a) One hundred and sixty five members elected through the first-past-the-post electoral system consisting of one member from each of the one hundred and sixty five electoral constituencies formed by dividing Nepal into 165 constituencies based on geography, and population.
(b) One hundred and ten members elected from proportional representation electoral system where voters vote for parties, while treating the whole country as a single electoral constituency.
(2) Provision shall be made according to Federal law for the representation of political parties to file candidacy for the election of the House of Representatives for proportional representation system through closed list of women, Dalit, Adibasi Janajati, Khas Arya, Madhesi, Tharu, Muslim, and backward regions. Balance in geography and province shall be considered for such candidacy.
Explanation: For the purpose of this provision, Khas Arya means Chhetri, Brahmin, Thakuri and Sannyasi (Dasnami) community.

(8) Notwithstanding anything contained elsewhere in this Article, women should account for at least one third of total members elected from each party in Federal Parliament. In case, one-third percentage of women are not elected while being elected under section (a) of clause (1), and section (a), clause (2) of Article 84, the party that fails to ensure one-third representation shall have to elect at least one-third of total numbers as woman in the Federal Parliament while electing members under section (b) of clause (1).
… (Art. 84)

Political Parties

(1) Every Provincial Assembly shall consist of the following number of members: -
(a) Members equal to double the number of members to be elected through the first-past-the-post (FPTP) election system to the House of Representatives from the concerned province,
(b) The number of members to be elected through the Proportional Representation (PR) election system equal to the number equivalent to the remaining forty per cent when the number of members maintained pursuant to section (a) is regarded as sixty per cent.

(6) The representation of women, Dalit, indigenous, indigenous nationalities, Khas Arya, Madhesi, Muslim, backward region and minorities community on the basis of geography and population in the nominations filed by the political parties for the election to be held for the Provincial Assembly through the proportional representation (PR) election system shall be made on the basis of closed list in accordance with Federal law.
Explanation: ‘Khas Arya’ shall mean Chettri, Brahman, Thakuri, Sanyasi (Dashanami) community.

(9) Notwithstanding anything contained elsewhere in this Article, at least one third of the total number of members to be elected from each political party to the Provincial Assembly shall have to be women. In case at least one third of the candidates elected from a political party pursuant to section (a) of clause (1) are not women, the political party shall have to make provision of electing at least one third women while electing members pursuant to section (b) of the same clause.
… (Art. 176)

Political Parties

(1) Persons who are committed to a common political ideology, philosophy and program shall, subject to the laws under section (b), clause (2) of the Article (17), be entitled to form and operate the political parties and to generate or cause to be generated publicity in order to secure public support and cooperation from the general public for their ideology, philosophy and program, and to carry out any other activities for that purpose.
(2) The political parties formed under clause (1) shall be required to register their names under the Election Commission in accordance with the procedure determined by law.
(3) While submitting application for registration pursuant to clause (2) above, the political parties shall be required to submit the documents relating to constitution of the party, annual auditing report and other documents as required by law.
(4) While applying for the registration of the parties pursuant to clause (2) above, the political parties shall have to meet the following conditions:-
(a) The constitution and rules of the political party should be democratic,
(b) There should be the provision, in the constitution of the political party, of the election of the office bearers in the federal and provincial levels, at least once in five years. Provided that in case election of the office bearers could not be held within five years due to situation arising out of special circumstance, there shall be no hindrance to make provision in the statute of a political party to hold such election within a period of six months.
(c) There should be the provision of proportional participation so as to reflect the diversity of Nepal, in the executive committees at various levels of the party.
(5) No political party shall be registered if its name, objective, symbol and flag is of a character that may disturb the country’s religious or communal unity or is divisive in character. (Art. 269)

Political Parties

(1) Any provision, law or the decision that prohibits formation, registration and operation of political parties under Article 269, and generate or cause to be generated publicity in order to secure public support and cooperation from the general public for ideology, philosophy and program of the parties, shall be deemed against this constitution and shall ipso facto be void.
(2) Any law, arrangement or decision which allows for participation or involvement of only a single political party or persons having a single political ideology, philosophy or programs in the election, political system of the country or conduct of sates affairs shall be considered against this constitution and shall ipso facto be void. (Art. 270)

Electoral Bodies

(1) The Election Commission shall, subject to this Constitution and other laws, conduct, supervise, direct and control the election of the President, the VicePresident, Federal Parliament, Provincial assemblies, local bodies. The Election Commission shall be responsible for preparing the voters’ list for the purpose of election.
(2) The Election Commission shall hold referendum on subject of national importance as per this Constitution and Federal laws.
(3) If candidacy nominations have been registered for the election of the President, the Vice-President, the member of Federal Parliament and Provincial Assembly but a question arises before the completion of the election about the illegitimacy of a candidate, a final decision thereon shall be made by the Election Commission.
(4) The Election Commission may delegate any of its functions, duties and powers to the Chief Election Commissioner, Election Commissioner or any employee of the Government of Nepal to be exercised and followed in compliance with the conditions specified.
(5) Other functions, duties and powers and working procedures of the Election Commission shall be as regulated by law. (Art. 246)

Head of State

(1) There shall be a President in Nepal.
(2) The President shall be the head of the State. He/she shall perform his/her duties according to this Constitution and Federal laws.
… (Art. 61)

Head of State

(1) An electoral college, consisting of voting members of the Federal Parliament and the members of Provincial Assembly, shall elect the President. It shall be done as provided for in law with the difference of weightage in voting of the members of the Federal Parliament and the members of Provincial Assembly.
(2) Notwithstanding anything contained in clause (1), it shall not be deemed to prevent the formation of an electoral college for the use of the election of the President simply because of the reason that an election of Provincial Assembly has not been held in any province.
… (Art. 62)

Head of State

(1) A person shall be eligible to be President if he/she fulfils the following qualifications:
(a) He/she is eligible to be a member of the Federal Parliament.
(b) He/she has attained at least 45 years of age, and
(c) Is not ineligible by any law.
… (Art. 64)

Head of State

While conducting election of the President and Vice-President under this constitution, the election shall be held so as to represent different gender or communities. (Art. 70)

Vice-President

(1) A person shall be eligible to be President if he/she fulfils the following qualifications:
(a) He/she is eligible to be a member of the Federal Parliament.
(b) He/she has attained at least 45 years of age, and
(c) Is not ineligible by any law.
… (Art. 64)

Vice-President

(1) There shall be a Vice-President in Nepal.
(2) The Vice-President shall perform the duties of the President until a new President is elected in the case when the President ceases to hold Office due to reasons other than when the President is absent or the term of office has expired.
… (Art. 67)

Vice-President

The qualification of the VicePresident, election process, and other provisions regarding the term of office, shall be similar to that of the President. (Art. 69)

Vice-President

While conducting election of the President and Vice-President under this constitution, the election shall be held so as to represent different gender or communities. (Art. 70)

Government

(1) The executive power of Nepal shall rest with the Council of Ministers in accordance with this Constitution and law.
… (Art. 75)

Government

(1) The President shall appoint the parliamentary party leader of the political party with the majority in the House of Representatives as a Prime Minister, and a Council of Ministers shall be formed in his/her chairmanship.
(2) If there is not a clear majority of any party according to clause (1), the President shall appoint as Prime Minister the member of the House of Representatives who can have the majority with the support of two or more political parties represented in the House of Representatives.
(3) If there is a situation wherein it is not possible to make the appointment of the Prime Minister as provided for in clause (2) within 30 days of the final result of the election of the House of Representatives, or if the appointed Prime Minister, as provided for in clause (4), fails to receive a vote of confidence, the President shall appoint the leader of the party with the highest number of members in the House of Representatives as the Prime Minister.

(9) The President shall, on the recommendation of the Prime Minister, form a council of ministers consisting of members not exceeding twenty five in number from among the members of the Federal Parliament on the basis of the principle of inclusion.… (Art. 76)

Legislature

There shall be a Legislature, called Federal Parliament, consisting of two Houses, namely the House of Representatives and the National Assembly. (Art. 83)

Legislature

(1) The House of Representatives shall consist of two hundred and seventy five members as follows:-
(a) One hundred and sixty five members elected through the first-past-the-post electoral system consisting of one member from each of the one hundred and sixty five electoral constituencies formed by dividing Nepal into 165 constituencies based on geography, and population.
(b) One hundred and ten members elected from proportional representation electoral system where voters vote for parties, while treating the whole country as a single electoral constituency. (2) Provision shall be made according to Federal law for the representation of political parties to file candidacy for the election of the House of Representatives for proportional representation system through closed list of women, Dalit, Adibasi Janajati, Khas Arya, Madhesi, Tharu, Muslim, and backward regions. Balance in geography and province shall be considered for such candidacy.
Explanation: For the purpose of this provision, Khas Arya means Chhetri, Brahmin, Thakuri and Sannyasi (Dasnami) community.
(3) While filing candidacy by political parties pursuant to clause (2), provision of representation of persons with disability shall also be made.
(4) The election for the members of House of Representatives pursuant to clause (1) shall be held through secret ballots as provided in the law.

(6) Subject to law, any Nepali citizen, who is entitled to vote in election for House of Representatives, and who meets the requirements under Article 87, shall be allowed to file candidacy from any constituency.
(7) In case of vacancy of a seat of a member in House of Representatives, while still ahead of six months of its terms, such vacancy shall be filled through process by which said member had been elected.
(8) Notwithstanding anything contained elsewhere in this Article, women should account for at least one third of total members elected from each party in Federal Parliament. In case, one-third percentage of women are not elected while being elected under section (a) of clause (1), and section (a), clause (2) of Article 84, the party that fails to ensure one-third representation shall have to elect at least one-third of total numbers as woman in the Federal Parliament while electing members under section (b) of clause (1).
(9) Election of House of Representatives and other matters thereto shall be pursuant to Federal laws. (Art. 84)

Legislature

(1) National Assembly shall be a permanent house.
(2) There shall be fifty-nine members in the National Assembly as follows:-
(a) Fifty six members elected from an Electoral College comprising members of Provincial Assembly and chairpersons and vice-chairpersons of Village councils and Mayors and Deputy Mayors of Municipal councils, with different weights of votes for each, with eight members from each province, including at least three women, one Dalit, one person with disability or minority;
(b) Three members, including at least one woman, to be nominated by the President on the recommendation of Government of Nepal.
… (Art. 86)

Legislature

(1) Persons who meet the following requirement shall be considered eligible to be the member of Federal Parliament:-
(a) citizen of Nepal,
(b) who has attained twenty five years of age for the House of Representatives and thirty five years of age for the National Assembly;
(c) who has not been punished for any criminal offence involving moral turpitude
(d) not ineligible under any law,
(e) not holding an office of profit.
… (Art. 87)

Legislature

(1) The House of Representatives shall, within fifteen days of commencement of first meeting, elect a Speaker and a Deputy Speaker from among its members.
(2) While electing Speaker and Deputy Speaker as per clause (1), either Speaker or Deputy Speaker shall be a woman and belong to different parties.… (Art. 91)

Legislature

(1) After the commencement of its first session, the National Assembly shall, within fifteen days of commencement of first meeting, elect a Chairperson and Vice chairperson from among its members.
(2) While electing as per clause (1), either Chairperson or Vice chairperson Chairman of the National Assembly shall be a woman.
… (Art. 92)

Property, Inheritance and Land Tenure

(5) There shall be no gender discrimination regarding the right to parental property with regard to all family members. (Art. 18)

Property, Inheritance and Land Tenure

(1) Every citizen shall, subject to laws, have the right to acquire, enjoy own, sell, have professional gains, and otherwise utilize, or dispose of property.
Explanation: For the purpose of this Article, “property” means all type of movable and immovable property and the word also includes intellectual property.
… (Art. 25)

Property, Inheritance and Land Tenure

(6) Both the spouses shall have equal rights in property and family affairs. (Art. 38)

Property, Inheritance and Land Tenure

(5) The State shall, according to law, provide land to landless Dalits for one time.

(7) The facilities provided to the Dalit community according to this Article, shall have to be justly distributed to Dalit women and men and all the Dalit communities living in different parts of the country, ensuring that all Dalits receive the facilities proportionally. (Art. 40)

Property, Inheritance and Land Tenure

(4) Each peasant shall have the right to access to land as provided for in law for agricultural purposes, along with the right to choose and preserve traditionally adopted and used endemic seeds and agricultural species.
… (Art. 42)

Property, Inheritance and Land Tenure

The State shall pursue the following policies:

(e) Policies regarding agriculture and land reform:
(1) Introducing scientific land reform by ending dual ownership of land for the benefit of farmers. … (Art. 51)

Property, Inheritance and Land Tenure

(1) Without prejudice to the fundamental norms of trusts, the Federal Parliament shall make laws concerning the rights of peasants having possession on trusts land and the rights of the trusts.
… (Art. 290)

Property, Inheritance and Land Tenure

16. Land management, record-keeping of the land
… (Schedule 6, List of Provincial Powers/Jurisdiction)

Property, Inheritance and Land Tenure

5. Laws related to family affairs (marriage, property transfer, divorce, endangered, orphan, adopted child, successors and joint family).
6. Receiving property, acquisition and creation of rights

24. Land policy and related legal provisions
… (Schedule 7, List of Concurrent (federal and provincial) Powers/Jurisdiction)

Property, Inheritance and Land Tenure

14. Distribution of land, building ownership certificates
… (Schedule 8, List of Powers/Jurisdiction for Local Level)

Protection from Violence

(2) Every citizen shall have the following freedoms:

(c) freedom to form political party,
(d) freedom to form unions and associations,

Provided that,

(3) Nothing in section (c) shall be deemed to prevent the making of an Act to impose reasonable restrictions on any act which may undermine the nationality, sovereignty, indivisibility or Nepal, or an act of espionage against the nation, or disclosing national secrets, or helping foreign state or organization that may jeopardize Nepal’ security, or an act of treason, or an act that undermines the harmonious relations subsisting between federal units, or instigates communal animosity, or jeopardizes the harmonious relations subsisting among different caste, ethnicity, religious groups and communities, or an act of acquiring or depriving the membership of a political party only on the grounds of caste, language, religion, community or gender, or the formation of a political party that creates discrimination against citizens, or an act that incites violence, or is contrary to decent public behavior.
(4) Nothing in section (d) shall be deemed to prevent the making of an Act to impose reasonable restrictions on any act which may undermine the nationality, sovereignty, indivisibility or Nepal, or an act of espionage against the nation, or disclosing national secrets, or helping foreign state or organization that may jeopardize Nepal’ security, or an act of treason, or an act that undermines the harmonious relations subsisting between federal units, or instigates communal animosity, or jeopardizes the harmonious relations subsisting among different caste groups, ethnicity, religious groups and communities, or an incitement of violence, or an act which is contrary to public morality.
… (Art. 17)

Protection from Violence

(1) There shall be no prior censorship of publications and broadcasting, or information dissemination, or printing of any news item, editorial, article, feature, or other reading material, or the use of audio-visual material by any medium, including electronic publication, broadcasting and printing.
Provided that nothing shall be deemed to prevent the making of laws to impose reasonable restriction on any act which may undermine the nationality, sovereignty, and indivisibility of Nepal, or the good relations between federal units, or jeopardizes the harmonious relations subsisting among different caste groups and tribes, or communities, or an act of treason, or defamation of social dignity of individuals through the publication and dissemination of false material, or contempt of court, or material that incites criminal offence, or an act that is contrary to decent public behavior and morality, or disrespects labor, or incites untouchability or gender discriminations.
… (Art. 19)

Protection from Violence

(1) No person in detention shall be subjected to physical or mental torture, or be treated in a cruel, inhuman or degrading manner.
… (Art. 22)

Protection from Violence

(3) Racial discriminations shall not be encouraged in any way, or there shall not be any behavioral attitude to exhibit high or low status on grounds of a particular caste, ethnicity or community, or physical condition of a person, or there shall not be any behavioral attitude that justifies social discrimination based on caste, ethnicity, or untouchability, or encouragement for the propagation of attitudes based on caste superiority and untouchability, or hatred.
… (Art. 24)

Protection from Violence

(1) Every person shall have the right against exploitation.
(2) No person shall be subjected to any kind of exploitation on the basis of religion, custom, tradition, culture, practices or any other bases.
(3) No person shall be subjected to human trafficking or bonded labor, and such an act shall be punishable by law.
(4) No person shall be subjected to forced labor.
Provided that nothing in this clause shall prevent the enactment of a law requiring citizens to be engaged in compulsory service for public purposes.
(5) Any act contrary to clause (3) and (4) shall be punishable by law and the victim of such an act shall have the right to compensation from the perpetrator. (Art. 29)

Protection from Violence

(3) There shall not be any physical, mental, sexual or psychological or any other kind of violence against women, or any kind of oppression based on religious, social and cultural tradition, and other practices. Such an act shall be punishable by law and the victim shall have the right to be compensation as provided for in law.
… (Art. 38)

Protection from Violence

(4) No child shall be employed in factories, mines, or in any other hazardous works.
(5) No child shall be subjected to child marriage, illegal trafficking, kidnapping, or being held hostage.
(6) No child shall be subjected to recruitment or any kind of use in the army, police or armed groups, neglected, or used immorally, or abused physically, mentally, or sexually, or exploited through any other means, in the name of religious or cultural practices.
(7) No child shall be subjected to physical, mental, or any other forms of torture at home, in school, or in any other places or situations.
… (Art. 39)

Protection from Violence

(3) It shall be the economic objective of the State to make the national economy self-reliant, independent, and developing it towards socialism oriented economy with equitable distribution of resources and means, by ending all forms of economic exploitation and inequality, with maximum utilization of available resources and means through the participation of cooperatives, and public and private sector for sustainable development, and to build an exploitation-free society by fair distribution of the achievements made so far.
… (Art. 50)

Protection from Violence

The State shall pursue the following policies:

(i) Policies regarding labor and employment:

(3) Ending child labor and all forms of labor exploitation.
… (Art. 51)

Public Institutions and Services

(5) The families of martyrs who sacrificed their lives in the people’s movements, armed conflicts and revolutions for a democratic progressive change in Nepal, the families of those who were disappeared, persons who fought for democracy, victims of conflict and the displaced, persons who were physically maimed, the wounded and the victims, shall have the right with priority, as provided for by law, to education, health, employment, housing and social security, with justice and appropriate respect. (Art. 42)

Public Institutions and Services

Economically poor, physically incapacitated and helpless person, helpless single women, persons with physical impairment, children, persons who cannot look after themselves and the citizens who belong to communities that are on the verge of extinction, shall have the right to social security as provided for by law. (Art. 43)

Public Institutions and Services

(3) It shall be the economic objective of the State to make the national economy self-reliant, independent, and developing it towards socialism oriented economy with equitable distribution of resources and means, by ending all forms of economic exploitation and inequality, with maximum utilization of available resources and means through the participation of cooperatives, and public and private sector for sustainable development, and to build an exploitation-free society by fair distribution of the achievements made so far.
… (Art. 50)

Public Institutions and Services

The State shall pursue the following policies:

(b) Policies regarding political and governance system:

(4) Guaranteeing good governance by ensuring equal and easy access of people to services provided by the State and making public administration clean, competent, impartial, transparent, accountable and participatory.

(f) Development policy:

(6) Prioritizing poor citizens in the distribution of the fruits of development, and making necessary arrangements for the general public to have a fair share of it.

(h) Policies regarding the basic needs of citizens:

(6) Ensuring easily available and equal access to high quality health care for all.

(13) Making a well-planned supply system by ensuring equal access of citizens to the basic needs and services, and prioritizing the remote areas and regions that were made to lag behind.
(14) Increasing investment in the transportation sector by ensuring simple, easy and equal access of all citizens to transportation facilities, and prioritizing environment friendly technology, encouraging public transportation and quality private transportation, while also making the transportation sector safe, well managed and disabled friendly.

(j) Policies regarding social justice and inclusion:

(2) Making women self reliant who are vulnerable, victims of conflict, excluded by family and the society, by making necessary arrangements of rehabilitation, protection and empowerment for them.

(6) Rehabilitation of kamaiya (bonded laborers), kamlari, haruwa, charuwa, haliya, the landless and the squatters by identifying them, and making arrangements of housing, or providing small plot of land or house, employment, or arable land for their livelihoods.

(12) Giving priority to the very poor within all communities, regions, and gender, while providing social security and social justice.
(13) Making a well planned investment in sports and sports men and women in order to produce healthy, able and disciplined citizens and developing sports as a medium of consolidating national unity and promoting national prestige in the international arena.
… (Art. 51)

Sexual and Reproductive Rights

The State shall pursue the following policies:

(h) Policies regarding the basic needs of citizens:

(10) It shall be the policy of the State to increase general life expectancy by decreasing maternity-infant mortality rate by encouraging family planning population management based on the need and capacity of the country.

(j) Policies regarding social justice and inclusion:

(3) Ensuring the use of necessary services and facilities during the reproductive stage
… (Art. 51)

Sexual and Reproductive Rights

10. Planning, family planning and population management
… (Schedule 7, List of Concurrent (federal and provincial) Powers/Jurisdiction)

Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity

(3) The state shall not discriminate among citizens on grounds of origin, religion, race, caste, tribe, sex, economic condition, language or geographical region, ideology and such other matters.
Provided that nothing shall be deemed to bar the making of special provisions by law for the protection, empowerment or advancement of the women lagging behind socially and culturally, Dalits, Adibasi, Madhesi, Tharus, Muslims, oppressed class, backward communities, minorities, marginalized groups, peasants, laborers, youths, children, senior citizens, sexual minorities, persons with disability, pregnant, incapacitated and the helpless persons, and of the citizens who belong to backward regions and financially deprived citizens including the Khas Arya.
… (Art. 18)

Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity

(1) Socially backward women, Dalits, Adibasi, Janajati, Adibasi Janajati, Madhesi, Tharu, minority groups, persons with disability, marginalized groups, Muslim, backward classes, gender and sexually minority groups, youths, peasants, laborers, the oppressed and the citizens of backward regions, and economically poor Khas Arya shall have the right to employment in state structures on the basis of the principle of inclusion.
… (Art. 42)

Status of the Constitution

(1) This constitution is the fundamental law of Nepal. All laws inconsistent with this constitution shall, to the extent of such inconsistency, be void.
(2) It shall be the duty of every person to uphold this constitution. (Art. 1)

Status of the Constitution

Each person shall the following duties:

(b) Abide by the constitution and law
… (Art. 48)

Status of the Constitution

(1) All the laws in the force at the time of commencement of this Constitution shall remain in operation until repealed or amended.
Provided that laws inconsistent with this Constitution shall, to the extent of inconsistency, ipso facto, cease to operate, one year after first session of federal legislature, in accordance with this constitution.
(2) The activities under peace process conducted according to the Interim Constitution 2007 shall be considered to be conducted according to this constitution. (Art. 304)

Status of International Law

(2) In order to perform the duty pursuant to Clause (1), the National Human Rights Commission may carry out the following functions:-

(g) recommend with reasons to the Government of Nepal that it become a party to any international treaties and agreements on human rights, if it is desirable to do so, and to monitor the implementation of the international treaties and agreements on human rights to which Nepal is a party and if found not to be implemented, forward recommendations to the Government of Nepal for effective implementation of such agreements,
… (Art. 249)

Status of International Law

(1) Functions, duties and powers of the Federal Women Commission shall be as follows:-

(b) To review whether or not statutes related to women’s welfare are executed, and whether the international covenant signed by Nepal, as a signatory, has been executed, and to forward a recommendation to the Government of Nepal in case they are found not to have been executed,

(e) To monitor the government regarding report to be submitted by the Government of Nepal in matters related to international covenant and treaties to which Nepal is a party,
… (Art. 253)

Status of International Law

(1) Functions, duties and powers of National Dalit Commission shall be as follows:-

(d) To review or monitor the Government of Nepal, so as to ensure that the Government of Nepal submits the report as a signatory to the international treaties and agreement, as provisioned by those treaties,
… (Art. 256)

Religious Law

(1) Nepal is an independent, indivisible, sovereign, secular, inclusive democratic, socialism-oriented federal democratic republican state.
Explanation: For the purpose of this article, 'secular' means protection of religion and culture being practiced since ancient times and religious and cultural freedom.
… (Art. 4)

Religious Law

(2) No person shall be subjected to any kind of exploitation on the basis of religion, custom, tradition, culture, practices or any other bases.
… (Art. 29)

Religious Law

(3) There shall not be any physical, mental, sexual or psychological or any other kind of violence against women, or any kind of oppression based on religious, social and cultural tradition, and other practices. Such an act shall be punishable by law and the victim shall have the right to be compensation as provided for in law.
… (Art. 38)

Religious Law

(6) No child shall be subjected to recruitment or any kind of use in the army, police or armed groups, neglected, or used immorally, or abused physically, mentally, or sexually, or exploited through any other means, in the name of religious or cultural practices.
… (Art. 39)

Religious Law

(2) It shall be the socio-cultural objective of the State to build a civilized and egalitarian society by ending all forms of discrimination, oppression and injustice based on religion, culture, cultural practices, customs, traditional practices, or on any other grounds; … (Art. 50)

Religious Law

The State shall pursue the following policies:

(c) Policies regarding social and cultural transformation:

(5) Put an end to all forms of discrimination, and injustice in the name of religion, culture, tradition, practices and rites.
… (Art. 51)

Customary Law

(2) No person shall be subjected to any kind of exploitation on the basis of religion, custom, tradition, culture, practices or any other bases.
… (Art. 29)

Customary Law

(3) There shall not be any physical, mental, sexual or psychological or any other kind of violence against women, or any kind of oppression based on religious, social and cultural tradition, and other practices. Such an act shall be punishable by law and the victim shall have the right to be compensation as provided for in law.
… (Art. 38)

Customary Law

(6) No child shall be subjected to recruitment or any kind of use in the army, police or armed groups, neglected, or used immorally, or abused physically, mentally, or sexually, or exploited through any other means, in the name of religious or cultural practices.
… (Art. 39)

Customary Law

(2) It shall be the socio-cultural objective of the State to build a civilized and egalitarian society by ending all forms of discrimination, oppression and injustice based on religion, culture, cultural practices, customs, traditional practices, or on any other grounds; … (Art. 50)

Women’s Rights

(1) Every woman shall have equal right to lineage without any gender discriminations.
(2) Every woman shall have the right relating to safe motherhood and reproductive health.
(3) There shall not be any physical, mental, sexual or psychological or any other kind of violence against women, or any kind of oppression based on religious, social and cultural tradition, and other practices. Such an act shall be punishable by law and the victim shall have the right to be compensation as provided for in law.
(4) Women shall have the right to access participate in all state structures and bodies on the basis of the principle of proportional inclusion.
(5) Women shall have the right to special opportunity in the spheres of education, health, employment and social security on the basis of positive discrimination.
(6) Both the spouses shall have equal rights in property and family affairs. (Art. 38)

Women’s Rights

The Government of Nepal shall review and revise, along with census of every ten years, the provisions regarding special rights of the women and Dalit community and its implementation and effectiveness based on human development index. (Art. 281)

Affirmative Action (Broadly)

-!_ ;a} gful/s sfg"gsf] b[li6df ;dfg x'g]5g\ .
s;}nfO{ klg sfg"gsf] ;dfg ;+/If0faf6 jl~rt ul/g] 5}g .
-@_ ;fdfGo sfg"gsf] k|of]udf pTklQ, wd{, j0f{, hft, hflt, ln+u, zf/Ll/s cj:yf, ckf+utf, :jf:Yo l:ylt, j}jflxs l:ylt, uef{j:yf, cfly{s cj:yf, efiff jf If]q, j}rfl/s cf:yf jf o:t} cGo s'g} cfwf/df e]befj ul/g] 5}g .
-#_ /fHon] gful/sx¿sf aLr pTklQ, wd{, j0f{, hft, hflt, ln+u, cfly{s cj:yf, efiff, If]q, j}rfl/s cf:yf jf o:t} cGo s'g} cfwf/df e]befj ug]{ 5}g .
t/ ;fdflhs jf ;f+:s[lts b[li6n] lk5l8Psf dlxnf, blnt, cflbjf;L, cflbjf;L hghflt, dw]zL, yf¿, d'l:nd, pTkLl8t ju{, lk58f ju{, cNk;+Vos, ;LdfGtLs[t, ls;fg, >lds, o'jf, afnaflnsf, Ho]i7 gful/s, n}+lus tyf of}lgs cNk;+Vos, ckf+utf ePsf JolQm, uef{j:yfsf JolQm, czQm jf c;xfo, lk5l8Psf] If]q / cfly{s ¿kn] ljkGg v; cfo{ nufot gful/ssf] ;+/If0f, ;zQmLs/0f jf ljsf;sfnflu sfg"g adf]lhd ljz]if Joj:yf ug{ /f]s nufPsf] dflgg] 5}g .
=== -wf/f !*_

Affirmative Action (Broadly)

-$_ /fHosf ;a} lgsfodf dlxnfnfO{ ;dfg'kflts ;dfj]zL l;4fGtsf] cfwf/df ;xefuL x'g] xs x'g]5 .
-%_ dlxnfnfO{ lzIff, :jf:Yo, /f]huf/L / ;fdflhs ;'/Iffdf ;sf/fTds lje]bsf cfwf/df ljz]if cj;/ k|fKt ug]{ xs x'g]5 .
=== -wf/f #*_

Citizenship and Nationality

-!_ s'g} klg g]kfnL gful/snfO{ gful/stf k|fKt ug]{ xsaf6 jl~rt ul/g] 5}g .
-@_ g]kfndf k|fb]lzs klxrfg ;lxtsf] Psn ;+3Lo gful/stfsf] Joj:yf ul/Psf] 5 . -wf/f !)_

Citizenship and Nationality

-!_ of] ;+ljwfg k|f/De x'Fbfsf avt g]kfnsf] gful/stf k|fKt u/]sf / o; efu adf]lhd gful/stf k|fKt ug{ of]Uo JolQmx¿ g]kfnsf] gful/s x'g]5g\ .
-@_ of] ;+ljwfg k|f/De x'Fbfsf avt g]kfndf :yfoL a;f]jf; ePsf] b]xfosf] JolQm j+zhsf] cfwf/df g]kfnsf] gful/s 7xg]{5M–
-s_ of] ;+ljwfg k|f/De x'g'eGbf cl3 j+zhsf] cfwf/df g]kfnsf] gful/stf k|fKt u/]sf] JolQm . 
-v_ s'g} JolQmsf] hGd x'Fbfsf avt lghsf] afa' jf cfdf g]kfnsf] gful/s /x]5 eg] To:tf] JolQm .
-#_ of] ;+ljwfg k|f/De x'g'eGbf cl3 hGdsf] cfwf/df g]kfnsf] gful/stf k|fKt u/]sf] gful/ssf] ;Gtfgn] afa' / cfdf b'j} g]kfnsf] gful/s /x]5g\ eg] lgh aflnu ePkl5 j+zhsf] cfwf/df g]kfnsf] gful/stf k|fKt ug]{5 .
-$_ g]kfnleq k]mnf k/]sf] lkt[Tj / dft[Tjsf] 7]ufg gePsf] k|To]s gfafns lghsf] afa' jf cfdf k]mnf gk/];Dd j+zhsf] cfwf/df g]kfnsf] gful/s 7xg]{5 .
-%_ g]kfnsf] gful/s cfdfaf6 g]kfndf hGd eO{ g]kfndf g} a;f]af; u/]sf] / afa'sf] klxrfg x'g g;s]sf] JolQmnfO{ j+zhsf] cfwf/df g]kfnsf] gful/stf k|bfg ul/g]5 . t/ afa' ljb]zL gful/s ePsf] 7x/]df To:tf] JolQmsf] gful/stf ;+3Lo sfg"g adf]lhd c+uLs[t gful/stfdf kl/0ft x'g]5 .
-^_ g]kfnL gful/s;Fu j}jflxs ;DaGw sfod u/]sL ljb]zL dlxnfn] rfx]df ;+3Lo sfg"g adf]lhd g]kfnsf] c+uLs[t gful/stf lng;Sg]5 .
-&_ o; wf/fdf cGoq h'g;'s} s'/f n]lvPsf] eP tfklg ljb]zL gful/s;Fu ljjfx u/]sL g]kfnL dlxnf gful/saf6 hlGdPsf] JolQmsf] xsdf lgh g]kfndf g} :yfoL a;f]af; u/]sf] / lghn] ljb]zL d'n'ssf gful/stf k|fKt u/]sf] /x]g5 eg] lghn] ;+3Lo sfg"g adf]lhd g]kfnsf] c+uLs[t gful/stf k|fKt ug{ ;Sg]5 . t/ gful/stf k|fKt ubf{sf avt lghsf cfdf / afa' b'j} g]kfnL gful/s /x]5g\ eg] g]kfndf hGd]sf] To:tf] JolQmn] j+zhsf] cfwf/df g]kfnsf] gful/stf k|fKt ug{ ;Sg]5 .
-*_ o; wf/fdf n]lvPb]lv afx]s g]kfn ;/sf/n] ;+3Lo sfg"g adf]lhd g]kfnsf] c+uLs[t gful/stf k|bfg ug{ ;Sg]5 .
-(_ g]kfn ;/sf/n] ;+3Lo sfg"g adf]lhd g]kfnsf] ;Ddfgfy{ gful/stf k|bfg ug{ ;Sg]5 .
-!)_ g]kfnleq ufleg] u/L s'g} If]q k|fKt ePdf To:tf] If]qleq a;f]af; ePsf] JolQm ;+3Lo sfg"gsf] cwLgdf /xL g]kfnsf] gful/s x'g]5 . -wf/f !!_

Citizenship and Nationality

of] ;+ljwfg adf]lhd j+zhsf] cfwf/df g]kfnsf] gful/stf k|fKt ug]{ JolQmn] lghsf] cfdf jf afa'sf] gfdaf6 n}+lus klxrfg ;lxtsf] g]kfnsf] gful/stfsf] k|df0fkq kfpg ;Sg]5 . -wf/f !@_

Citizenship and Nationality

gful/stfsf] k|flKt, k'gMk|flKt / ;dflKt ;DaGwL cGo Joj:yf ;+3Lo sfg"g adf]lhd x'g]5 . -wf/f !#_

Citizenship and Nationality

ljb]zL d'n'ssf] gful/stf k|fKt u/]sf] blIf0f PlzofnL If]qLo ;xof]u ;+u7gsf] ;b:o/fi6« afx]ssf b]zdf a;f]af; u/]sf] ;flasdf j+zhsf] jf hGdsf] cfwf/df lgh jf lghsf] afa' jf cfdf, afh] jf aHo} g]kfnsf] gful/s /xL kl5 ljb]zL d'n'ssf] gful/stf k|fKt u/]sf] JolQmnfO{ ;+3Lo sfg"g adf]lhd cfly{s, ;fdflhs / ;f+:s[lts clwsf/ pkef]u ug{ kfpg] u/L g]kfnsf] u}/cfjf;Lo gful/stf k|bfg ug{ ;lsg]5 . -wf/f !$_

Citizenship and Nationality

/fli6«o oftfoft gLlt, === -cg';"rL–%, ;+3sf] clwsf/sf] ;"rL_

Jurisdiction and Access

-!_ g]kfndf Ps ;jf]{Rr cbfnt x'g]5 .
-@_ ;jf]{Rr cbfnt clen]v cbfnt x'g]5 . o; ;+ljwfgdf cGoyf Joj:yf ePsf]df afx]s ;a} cbfnt / Goflos lgsfox¿ ;jf]{Rr cbfnt dftxt /xg]5g\ . ;+ljwfg / sfg"gsf] JofVof ug{] clGtd clwsf/ ;jf{]Rr cbfntnfO{ x'g]5 .
=== -wf/f !@*_

Jurisdiction and Access

-!_ o; ;+ljwfgåf/f k|bQ df}lns xspk/ cg'lrt aGb]h nufOPsf] jf cGo s'g} sf/0fn] s'g} sfg"g of] ;+ljwfg;Fu aflemPsf] x'Fbf To:tf] sfg"g jf To;sf] s'g} efu jf k|b]z ;efn] agfPsf] s'g} sfg"g ;+3Lo ;+;bn] agfPsf] s'g} sfg"g;Fu aflemPsf] jf gu/ ;ef jf ufpF ;efn] agfPsf] s'g} sfg"g ;+3Lo ;+;b jf k|b]z ;efn] agfPsf] s'g} sfg"g;Fu aflemPsf] xF'bf To:tf] sfg"g jf To;sf] s'g} efu ab/ 3f]lift u/L kfpFm egL s'g} klg g]kfnL gful/sn] ;jf]{Rr cbfntdf lgj]bg lbg ;Sg]5 / ;f] cg';f/ s'g} sfg"g aflemPsf] b]lvPdf ;f] sfg"gnfO{ k|f/Deb]lv g} jf lg0f{o ePsf] ldltb]lv cdfGo / ab/ 3f]lift ug]{ c;fwf/0f clwsf/ ;jf]{Rr cbfntnfO{ x'g]5 .
-@_ o; ;+ljwfgåf/f k|bQ df}lns xssf] k|rngsfnflu jf csf]{ pkrf/sf] Joj:yf gePsf] jf csf]{ pkrf/sf] Joj:yf eP klg To:tf] pkrf/ ckof{Kt jf k|efjxLg b]lvPsf] cGo s'g} sfg"gL xssf] k|rngsfnflu jf ;fj{hlgs xs jf ;/f]sf/sf] s'g} ljjfbdf ;dfj]z ePsf] s'g} ;+j}wflgs jf sfg"gL k|Zgsf] lg¿k0fsfnflu cfjZos / pko'Qm cfb]z hf/L ug{], plrt pkrf/ k|bfg ug{], To:tf] xssf] k|rng u/fpg] jf ljjfb 6'+uf] nufpg] c;fwf/0f clwsf/ ;jf]{Rr cbfntnfO{ x'g]5 .
===
-%_ pRr cbfntn] z'¿ sf/afxL / lsgf/f u/]sf] d'2fsf] k'g/fj]bg ;'Gg] / ;+ljwfg / sfg"gsf] JofVof ;DaGwL k|Zg ;dfj]z ePsf] ;fj{hlgs dxTjsf] ljifo jf ;jf]{Rr cbfntaf6 lg0f{o x'g' pko'Qm 5 egL pRr cbfntn] cfˆgf] /fo ;lxt l;kmfl/; u/]sf] d'2fsf
] lg¿k0f ug]{ clwsf/ ;jf]{Rr cbfntnfO{ x'g]5 .
-^_ ;jf{]Rr cbfntsf] cGo clwsf/ / sfo{ljlw ;+3Lo sfg"g adf]lhd x'g]5 . -wf/f !##_

Jurisdiction and Access

-!_ ;jf{]Rr cbfntdf Ps ;+j}wflgs Ohnf; /xg]5 . To:tf] Ohnf;df k|wfg GofofwLz / Gofo kl/ifbsf] l;kmfl/;df k|wfg GofofwLzn] tf]s]sf cGo rf/hgf GofofwLz /xg] 5g\ .
-@_ pkwf/f -!_ adf]lhdsf] Ohnf;n] wf/f !## sf] pkwf/f -!_ adf]lhd k/]sf lgj]bgsf] cltl/Qm b]xfosf d'2fsf] z'¿ sf/afxL / lsgf/f ug{]5 M–
-s_ ;+3 / k|b]z, k|b]z / k|b]z, k|b]z / :yfgLo tx tyf :yfgLo txx¿ aLrsf] clwsf/ If]qsf] af/]df ePsf] ljjfb ;DaGwL,
-v_ ;+3Lo ;+;b jf k|b]z ;ef ;b:osf] lgjf{rg ;DaGwL ljjfb / ;+3Lo ;+;bsf ;b:o jf k|b]z ;efsf ;b:osf] cof]Uotf ;DaGwL .
-#_ wf/f !## df h'g;'s} s'/f n]lvPsf] eP tfklg ;jf{]Rr cbfntdf ljrf/fwLg s'g} d'2fdf uDeL/ ;+j}wflgs JofVofsf] k|Zg ;dfj]z ePsf] b]lvPdf To:tf] d'2f pkwf/f -!_ adf]lhdsf] Ohnf;af6 x]g{] u/L k|wfg GofofwLzn] tf]Sg ;Sg]5 .
-$_ ;+j}wflgs Ohnf;sf] ;~rfng ;DaGwL cGo Joj:yf ;jf{]Rr cbfntn] lgwf{/0f u/] adf]lhd x'g]5 . -wf/f !#&_

Education

-!_ k|To]s gful/snfO{ cfwf/e"t lzIffdf kx'Frsf] xs x'g]5 .
-@_ k|To]s gful/snfO{ /fHoaf6 cfwf/e"t tx;Ddsf] lzIff clgjfo{ / lgMz'Ns tyf dfWolds tx;Ddsf] lzIff lgMz'Ns kfpg] xs x'g]5 .
===
-%_ g]kfndf a;f]af; ug{] k|To]s g]kfnL ;d'bfonfO{ sfg"g adf]lhd cfˆgf] dft[efiffdf lzIff kfpg] / To;sfnflu ljBfno tyf z}lIfs ;+:yf vf]Ng] / ;~rfng ug{] xs x'g]5 . -wf/f #!_

Education

-*_ cfwf/e"t / dfWolds lzIff
=== -cg';"rL–*, :yfgLo txsf] clwsf/sf] ;"rL_

Education

-@_ lzIff, === -cg';"rL–(, ;+3, k|b]z / :yfgLo txsf] clwsf/sf] ;femf ;"rL_

Employment Rights and Protection

-@_ k|To]s gful/snfO{ b]xfosf] :jtGqtf x'g]5 M–
===
-r_ g]kfnsf] s'g} klg efudf k]zf, /f]huf/ ug]{ / pBf]u, Jofkf/ tyf Joj;fosf] :yfkgf / ;~rfng ug]{ :jtGqtf .
=== -wf/f !&_

Employment Rights and Protection

-$_ ;dfg sfdsfnflu n}+lus cfwf/df kfl/>lds tyf ;fdflhs ;'/Iffdf s'g} e]befj ul/g] 5}g .
=== -wf/f !*_

Employment Rights and Protection

-!_ k|To]s gful/snfO{ /f]huf/Lsf] xs x'g]5 . /f]huf/Lsf] zt{, cj:yf / a]/f]huf/ ;xfotf ;+3Lo sfg"g adf]lhd x'g]5 .
-@_ k|To]s gful/snfO{ /f]huf/Lsf] 5gf}6 ug{ kfpg] xs x'g]5 . -wf/f ##_

Employment Rights and Protection

-!_ k|To]s >ldsnfO{ plrt >d cEof;sf] xs x'g]5 .
:ki6Ls/0fM o; wf/fsf] k|of]hgsfnflu æ>ldsÆ eGgfn] kfl/>ldslnO{ /f]huf/bftfsfnflu zf/Ll/s jf af}l4s sfo{ ug{] sfdbf/ jf dhb"/ ;Demg' k5{ .
-@_ k|To]s >ldsnfO{ plrt kfl/>lds, ;'ljwf tyf of]ubfgdf cfwfl/t ;fdflhs ;'/Iffsf] xs x'g]5 .
=== -wf/f #$_

Employment Rights and Protection

/fHon] b]xfosf gLltx¿ cjnDag ug]{5 M–
===
-em_ >d / /f]huf/ ;DaGwL gLltM
-!_ ;a}n] sfd ug{ kfpg] cj:yf ;'lglZrt ub}{ b]zsf] d'Vo ;fdflhs cfly{s zlQmsf] ¿kdf /x]sf]
>dzlQmnfO{ bIf / Jofj;flos agfpg] / :jb]zdf g} /f]huf/L clej[l4 ug]{,
-@_ dof{lbt >dsf] cjwf/0ff cg'¿k ;a} >ldssf]
cfwf/e"t clwsf/ ;'lglZrt ub}{ ;fdflhs ;'/Iff
k|Tofe"t ug]{,
===
-`_ ;fdflhs Gofo / ;dfj]zLs/0f ;DaGwL gLltM
-!_ c;xfo cj:yfdf /x]sf Psn dlxnfnfO{ ;Lk, Ifdtf / of]Uotfsf] cfwf/df /f]huf/Ldf k|fyldstf lb+b} hLljsf]kfh{gsfnflu ;d'lrt Joj:yf ub}{ hfg],
=== -wf/f %!_

Employment Rights and Protection

-@%_ /f]huf/L / a]/f]huf/ ;xfotf -cg';"rL–&, ;+3 / k|b]zsf] ;femf clwsf/sf] ;"rL_

Equality and Non-Discrimination

xfdL ;fj{ef}d;Qf ;DkGg g]kfnL hgtfÙ ===
;fdGtL, lg/+s'z, s]Gb|Ls[t / PsfTds /fHo Joj:yfn] ;[hgf u/]sf ;a} k|sf/sf lje]b / pTkL8gsf] cGTo ub}{Ù ax'hftLo, ax'eflifs, ax'wfld{s, ax';f+:s[lts tyf ef}uf]lns ljljwtfo'Qm ljz]iftfnfO{ cfTd;ft\ u/L ljljwtf aLrsf] Pstf, ;fdflhs ;f+:s[lts P]Soa4tf, ;lxi0f'tf / ;b\efjnfO{ ;+/If0f Pj+ k|jw{g ub}{Ù juL{o, hftLo, If]qLo, eflifs, wfld{s, n}+lus lje]b / ;a} k|sf/sf hftLo 5'jf5"tsf] cGTo u/L cfly{s ;dfgtf, ;d[l4 / ;fdflhs Gofo ;'lglZrt ug{ ;dfg'kflts ;dfj]zL / ;xeflutfd"ns l;4fGtsf cfwf/df ;dtfd"ns ;dfhsf] lgdf{0f ug]{ ;+sNk ub}{Ù === -k|:tfjgf_

Equality and Non-Discrimination

-!_ ;a} gful/s sfg"gsf] b[li6df ;dfg x'g]5g\ .
s;}nfO{ klg sfg"gsf] ;dfg ;+/If0faf6 jl~rt ul/g] 5}g .
-@_ ;fdfGo sfg"gsf] k|of]udf pTklQ, wd{, j0f{, hft, hflt, ln+u, zf/Ll/s cj:yf, ckf+utf, :jf:Yo l:ylt, j}jflxs l:ylt, uef{j:yf, cfly{s cj:yf, efiff jf If]q, j}rfl/s cf:yf jf o:t} cGo s'g} cfwf/df e]befj ul/g] 5}g .
-#_ /fHon] gful/sx¿sf aLr pTklQ, wd{, j0f{, hft, hflt, ln+u, cfly{s cj:yf, efiff, If]q, j}rfl/s cf:yf jf o:t} cGo s'g} cfwf/df e]befj ug]{ 5}g .
t/ ;fdflhs jf ;f+:s[lts b[li6n] lk5l8Psf dlxnf, blnt, cflbjf;L, cflbjf;L hghflt, dw]zL, yf¿, d'l:nd, pTkLl8t ju{, lk58f ju{, cNk;+Vos, ;LdfGtLs[t, ls;fg, >lds, o'jf, afnaflnsf, Ho]i7 gful/s, n}+lus tyf of}lgs cNk;+Vos, ckf+utf ePsf JolQm, uef{j:yfsf JolQm, czQm jf c;xfo, lk5l8Psf] If]q / cfly{s ¿kn] ljkGg v; cfo{ nufot gful/ssf] ;+/If0f, ;zQmLs/0f jf ljsf;sfnflu sfg"g adf]lhd ljz]if Joj:yf ug{ /f]s nufPsf] dflgg] 5}g .
=== -wf/f !*_

Equality and Non-Discrimination

-!_ s'g} klg JolQmnfO{ lghsf] pTklQ, hft, hflt, ;d'bfo, k]zf, Joj;fo jf zf/Ll/s cj:yfsf] cfwf/df s'g} klg lghL tyf ;fj{hlgs :yfgdf s'g} k|sf/sf] 5'jf5"t jf e]befj ul/g] 5}g .
-@_ s'g} j:t', ;]jf jf ;'ljwf pTkfbg jf ljt/0f ubf{ To:tf] j:t', ;]jf jf ;'ljwf s'g} vf; hft jf hfltsf] JolQmnfO{ v/Lb jf k|fKt ug{af6 /f]s nufOg] jf To:tf] j:t', ;]jf jf ;'ljwf s'g} vf; hft jf hfltsf] JolQmnfO{ dfq laqmL ljt/0f jf k|bfg ul/g] 5}g .
-#_ pTklQ, hft, hflt jf zf/Ll/s cj:yfsf] cfwf/df s'g} JolQm jf ;d'bfonfO{ pRr jf gLr bzf{pg], hft, hflt jf 5'jf5"tsf] cfwf/df ;fdflhs e]befjnfO{ Gofof]lrt 7fGg] jf 5'jf5"t tyf hftLo pRrtf jf 3[0ffdf cfwfl/t ljrf/sf] k|rf/ k|;f/ ug{ jf hftLo lje]bnfO{ s'g} klg lsl;dn] k|f]T;fxg ug{ kfOg] 5}g .
-$_ hftLo cfwf/df 5'jf5"t u/L jf gu/L sfo{:yndf s'g}k|sf/sf] e]befj ug{ kfOg] 5}g .
-%_ o; wf/fsf] k|lts"n x'g] u/L ePsf ;a} k|sf/sf 5'jf5"t tyf e]befjhGo sfo{ uDeL/ ;fdflhs ck/fwsf ¿kdf sfg"g adf]lhd b08gLo x'g]5g\ / To:tf] sfo{af6 kLl8t JolQmnfO{ sfg"g adf]lhd Ifltk"lt{ kfpg] xs x'g]5 . -wf/f @$_

Equality and Non-Discrimination

-!_ g]kfnsf] :jtGqtf, ;fj{ef}d;Qf, ef}uf]lns cv08tf / :jfwLgtfnfO{ ;jf]{kl/ /fVb} gful/ssf] hLp, wg, ;dfgtf / :jtGqtfsf] ;+/If0f u/L sfg"gsf] zf;g, df}lns xs tyf dfgj clwsf/sf d"No / dfGotf, n}+lus ;dfgtf, ;dfg'kflts ;dfj]zLs/0f, ;xeflutf / ;fdflhs Gofosf] dfWodaf6 /fli6«o hLjgsf ;a} If]qdf Gofok"0f{ Joj:yf sfod ub}{ nf]s sNof0fsf/L /fHoJoj:yfsf] :yfkgf ug]{tyf k/:k/ ;xof]udf cfwfl/t ;+3Lotfsf cfwf/df ;+3Lo OsfOx¿ aLrsf] ;DaGw ;~rfng ub}{ :yfgLo :jfoQtf / ljs]Gb|Ls/0fsf] cfwf/df zf;g Joj:yfdf ;dfg'kflts l;4fGtnfO{ cfTd;ft\ ub}{ nf]stflGqs clwsf/sf] pkef]u ug{ kfpg] cj:yf ;'lglZrt ug{ ;+3Lo nf]stflGqs u0ftGqfTds Joj:yf ;'b[9 ug]{ /fHosf] /fhgLlts p2]Zo x'g]5 .
-@_ wd{, ;+:s[lt, ;+:sf/, k|yf, k/Dk/f, k|rng jf cGo s'g} klg cfwf/df x'g] ;a} k|sf/sf lje]b, zf]if0f / cGofosf] cGTo u/L ;Eo / ;dtfd"ns ;dfhsf] lgdf{0f ug]{ Pj+ /fli6«o uf}/j, nf]stGq, hgkIfLotf, >dsf] ;Ddfg, pBdzLntf, cg'zf;g, dof{bf / ;lxi0f'tfdf cfwfl/t ;fdflhs ;f+:s[lts d"Nox¿sf] ljsf; ug]{ tyf ;f+:s[lts ljljwtfsf] ;Ddfg ub}{ ;fdflhs ;b\efj, P]Soa4tf / ;fd~h:o sfod u/L /fli6«o Pstf ;'b[9 ug]{ /fHosf] ;fdflhs / ;f+:s[lts p2]Zo x'g]5 .
=== -wf/f %)_

Equality and Non-Discrimination

-^_ ;+3, k|b]z / :yfgLo txn] g]kfnsf] :jtGqtf, ;fj{ef}d;Qf, ef}uf]lns cv08tf, :jfwLgtf, /fli6«o lxt, ;jf{+uL0f ljsf;, ax'bnLo k|lt:kwf{Tds nf]stflGqs u0ftGqfTds ;+3Lo zf;g k|0ffnL, dfgj clwsf/ tyf df}lns xs, sfg"gL /fHo, zlQm k[ysLs/0f / lgoGq0f tyf ;Gt'ng, ax'ntf / ;dfgtfdf cfwfl/t ;dtfd"ns ;dfh, ;dfj]zL k|ltlglwTj / klxrfgsf] ;+/If0f ug]{ 5g\ . -wf/f %^_

Gender Equality Machineries

-!_ g]kfndf Ps /fli6«o dlxnf cfof]u /xg]5 h;df cWoIf / cGo rf/hgf ;b:o /xg]5g\ .
===
-^_ b]xfosf] of]Uotf ePsf] JolQm /fli6«o dlxnf cfof]usf] cWoIf / ;b:osf] kbdf lgo'lQmsfnflu of]Uo x'g]5M–
-s_ sDtLdf bz jif{ dlxnfsf] xs, lxt jf n}+lus Gofo jf dlxnf ljsf; jf dfgj clwsf/ / sfg"gsf] If]qdf dxTjk"0f{ of]ubfg k'¥ofPsf] dlxnf,
-v_ cWoIfsf] xsdf dfGotfk|fKt ljZjljBfnoaf6 :gfts pkflw xfl;n u/]sf],
-u_ k}+tfln; jif{ pd]/ k"/f u/]sf],
-3_ lgo'lQm x'Fbfsf] avt s'g} /fhgLlts bnsf] ;b:o g/x]sf], /
-ª_ pRr g}lts rl/q ePsf] .
=== -wf/f @%@_

Gender Equality Machineries

-!_ /fli6«o dlxnf cfof]usf] sfd, st{Jo / clwsf/ b]xfo adf]lhd x'g]5M–
-s_ dlxnfsf] xs lxt;Fu ;/f]sf/ /fVg] gLlt tyf sfo{qmdsf] th'{df u/L sfof{Gjogsfnflu g]kfn ;/sf/ ;dIf k]z ug]{,
-v_ dlxnfsf] xs lxt;Fu ;DalGwt sfg"g jf g]kfn kIf ePsf] cGt/f{li6«o ;lGw jf ;Demf}tf cGtu{tsf] bfloTj sfof{Gjog eP jf gePsf] ljifodf cg'udg u/L To;sf] k|efjsf/L kfng jf sfof{Gjogsf] pkfo ;lxt g]kfn ;/sf/nfO{ ;'emfj lbg],
-u_ dlxnfnfO{ /fli6«o ljsf;sf] d"n k|jfxdf ;dflxt ug{ tyf /fHosf ;a} lgsfodf ;dfg'kflts ;xeflutf ;'lglZrt ug{ df}h"bf gLlt tyf sfo{qmdsf] ;dLIff, cg'udg tyf d"Nof+sg ug]{ / To;sf] k|efjsf/L sfof{Gjogsfnflu g]kfn ;/sf/nfO{ l;kmfl/; ug]{,
-3_ n}+lus ;dfgtf, dlxnf ;zQmLs/0f tyf dlxnf;Fu ;DalGwt sfg"gL Joj:yfsf] cWoog, cg';Gwfg u/L To:tf sfg"gdf ug'{kg]{ ;'wf/sf ;DaGwdf ;DalGwt lgsfonfO{ l;kmfl/; ug]{ / ;f]sf] cg'udg ug]{,
-ª_ dlxnf clwsf/;Fu ;DalGwt g]kfn kIf ePsf] cGt/f{li6«o ;lGw jf ;Demf}tfdf ePsf] Joj:yf adf]lhd g]kfnn] k7fpg' kg]{ k|ltj]bg tof/Lsf ;DaGwdf g]kfn ;/sf/nfO{ ;'emfj lbg],
-r_ dlxnf lx+;f jf ;fdflhs s'/Lltaf6 kLl8t ePsf] jf dlxnf clwsf/ k|of]u ug{ glbPsf] jf jl~rt u/]sf] ljifodf s'g} JolQm jf ;+:yf lj?4 d'2f bfo/ ug'{kg]{ cfjZostf b]lvPdf sfg"g adf]lhd cbfntdf d'2f bfo/ ug{ ;DalGwt lgsfo ;dIf l;kmfl/; ug]{ .
-@_ /fli6«o dlxnf cfof]un] cfˆgf] sfd, st{Jo / clwsf/ dWo] s'g} sfd, st{Jo / clwsf/ cfof]usf] cWoIf, s'g} ;b:o jf g]kfn ;/sf/sf] s'g} sd{rf/LnfO{ tf]lsPsf] zt{sf] cwLgdf /xL k|of]u tyf kfng ug{] u/L k|Tofof]hg ug{ ;Sg]5 .
-#_ /fli6«o dlxnf cfof]usf] cGo sfd, st{Jo, clwsf/ tyf tt\;DaGwL cGo Joj:yf ;+3Lo sfg"g adf]lhd x'g]5 . -wf/f @%#_

Obligations of the State

xfdL ;fj{ef}d;Qf ;DkGg g]kfnL hgtfÙ ===
hgtfsf] k|lt:kwf{Tds ax'bnLo nf]stflGqs zf;g k|0ffnL, gful/s :jtGqtf, df}lns clwsf/, dfgj clwsf/, aflnu dtflwsf/, cfjlws lgjf{rg, k"0f{ k|]; :jtGqtf tyf :jtGq, lgikIf / ;Ifd Gofokflnsf / sfg"gL /fHosf] cjwf/0ff nufotsf nf]stflGqs d"No / dfGotfdf cfwfl/t ;dfhjfb k|lt k|lta4 /xL ;d[4 /fi6« lgdf{0f ug{Ù === -k|:tfjgf_

Obligations of the State

-!_ g]kfnsf] :jtGqtf, ;fj{ef}d;Qf, ef}uf]lns cv08tf, /fli6«otf, :jfwLgtf, :jfledfg, g]kfnLsf] xs lxtsf] /Iff, ;Ldfgfsf] ;'/Iff, cfly{s ;d'Gglt / ;d[l4 g]kfnsf] /fli6«o lxtsf cfwf/e"t ljifo x'g]5g\ .
=== -wf/f %_

Obligations of the State

o; efuåf/f k|bQ xsx¿sf] sfof{Gjogsfnflu cfjZostf cg';f/ /fHon] of] ;+ljwfg k|f/De ePsf] tLg jif{leq sfg"gL Joj:yf ug]{5 . -wf/f $&_

Obligations of the State

-!_ g]kfnsf] :jtGqtf, ;fj{ef}d;Qf, ef}uf]lns cv08tf / :jfwLgtfnfO{ ;jf]{kl/ /fVb} gful/ssf] hLp, wg, ;dfgtf / :jtGqtfsf] ;+/If0f u/L sfg"gsf] zf;g, df}lns xs tyf dfgj clwsf/sf d"No / dfGotf, n}+lus ;dfgtf, ;dfg'kflts ;dfj]zLs/0f, ;xeflutf / ;fdflhs Gofosf] dfWodaf6 /fli6«o hLjgsf ;a} If]qdf Gofok"0f{ Joj:yf sfod ub}{ nf]ssNof0fsf/L /fHoJoj:yfsf] :yfkgf ug]{ tyf k/:k/ ;xof]udf cfwfl/t ;+3Lotfsf cfwf/df ;+3Lo OsfOx¿aLrsf] ;DaGw ;~rfng ub}{ :yfgLo :jfoQtf / ljs]Gb|Ls/0fsf] cfwf/df zf;g Joj:yfdf ;dfg'kflts l;4fGtnfO{ cfTd;ft\ ub}{ nf]stflGqs clwsf/sf] pkef]u ug{ kfpg] cj:yf ;'lglZrt ug{ ;+3Lo nf]stflGqs u0ftGqfTds Joj:yf ;'b[9 ug]{ /fHosf] /fhgLlts p2]Zo x'g]5 .
=== -wf/f %)_

Obligations of the State

/fHon] b]xfosf gLltx¿ cjnDag ug]{5 M–
===
-v_ /fhgLlts tyf zf;g Joj:yf ;DaGwL gLltM
===
-@_ dfgj clwsf/sf] ;+/If0f / ;+jw{g ub}{ ljlwsf] zf;g sfod /fVg],
=== -wf/f %!_

Obligations of the State

g]kfnsf] :jtGqtf, ;fj{ef}d;Qf, ef}uf]lns cv08tf / :jfwLgtfnfO{ cIf'00f /fVb} df}lns xs tyf dfgj clwsf/sf] ;+/If0f / ;+jw{g, /fHosf lgb]{zs l;4fGtx¿sf] cg';/0f tyf /fHosf gLltx¿sf] qmdzM sfof{Gjog ub}{ g]kfnnfO{ ;d[4 tyf ;d'Ggt agfpg] /fHosf] bfloTj x'g]5 . -wf/f %@_

Obligations of the State

-^_ ;+3, k|b]z / :yfgLo txn] g]kfnsf] :jtGqtf, ;fj{ef}d;Qf, ef}uf]lns cv08tf, :jfwLgtf, /fli6«o lxt, ;jf{+uL0f ljsf;, ax'bnLo k|lt:kwf{Tds nf]stflGqs u0ftGqfTds ;+3Lo zf;g k|0ffnL, dfgj clwsf/ tyf df}lns xs, sfg"gL /fHo, zlQm k[ysLs/0f / lgoGq0f tyf ;Gt'ng, ax'ntf / ;dfgtfdf cfwfl/t ;dtfd"ns ;dfh, ;dfj]zL k|ltlglwTj / klxrfgsf] ;+/If0f ug]{ 5g\ . -wf/f %^_

Judicial Protection

o; efuåf/f k|bQ xssf] k|rngsfnflu wf/f !## jf !$$ df n]lvP adf]lhd ;+j}wflgs pkrf/ kfpg] xs x'g]5 . -wf/f $^_

Judicial Protection

-!_ o; ;+ljwfgåf/f k|bQ df}lns xspk/ cg'lrt aGb]h nufOPsf] jf cGo s'g} sf/0fn] s'g} sfg"g of] ;+ljwfg;Fu aflemPsf] x'Fbf To:tf] sfg"g jf To;sf] s'g} efu jf k|b]z ;efn] agfPsf] s'g} sfg"g ;+3Lo ;+;bn] agfPsf] s'g} sfg"g;Fu aflemPsf] jf gu/ ;ef jf ufpF ;efn] agfPsf] s'g} sfg"g ;+3Lo ;+;b jf k|b]z ;efn] agfPsf] s'g} sfg"g;Fu aflemPsf] xF'bf To:tf] sfg"g jf To;sf] s'g} efu ab/ 3f]lift u/L kfpFm egL s'g} klg g]kfnL gful/sn] ;jf]{Rr cbfntdf lgj]bg lbg ;Sg]5 / ;f] cg';f/ s'g} sfg"g aflemPsf] b]lvPdf ;f] sfg"gnfO{ k|f/Deb]lv g} jf lg0f{o ePsf] ldltb]lv cdfGo / ab/ 3f]lift ug]{ c;fwf/0f clwsf/ ;jf]{Rr cbfntnfO{ x'g]5 .
-@_ o; ;+ljwfgåf/f k|bQ df}lns xssf] k|rngsfnflu jf csf]{ pkrf/sf] Joj:yf gePsf] jf csf]{ pkrf/sf] Joj:yf eP klg To:tf] pkrf/ ckof{Kt jf k|efjxLg b]lvPsf] cGo s'g} sfg"gL xssf] k|rngsfnflu jf ;fj{hlgs xs jf ;/f]sf/sf] s'g} ljjfbdf ;dfj]z ePsf] s'g} ;+j}wflgs jf sfg"gL k|Zgsf] lg¿k0fsfnflu cfjZos / pko'Qm cfb]z hf/L ug{], plrt pkrf/ k|bfg ug{], To:tf] xssf] k|rng u/fpg] jf ljjfb 6'+uf] nufpg] c;fwf/0f clwsf/ ;jf]{Rr cbfntnfO{ x'g]5 .
=== -wf/f !##_

Judicial Protection

-!_ o; ;+ljwfgåf/f k|bQ df}lns xssf] k|rngsfnflu jf csf]{ pkrf/sf] Joj:yf gePsf] jf csf]{ pkrf/sf] Joj:yf eP klg ;f] pkrf/ ckof{Kt jf k|efjxLg b]lvPsf] cGo s'g} sfg"gL xssf] k|rngsfnflu jf ;fj{hlgs xs jf ;/f]sf/sf] s'g} ljjfbdf ;dfj]z ePsf] s'g} sfg"gL k|Zgsf] lg¿k0fsfnflu cfjZos / pko'Qm cfb]z hf/L ug]{ clwsf/ pRr cbfntnfO{ x'g]5 .
=== -wf/f !$$_

National Human Rights Bodies

-!_ dfgj clwsf/sf] ;Ddfg, ;+/If0f / ;+jw{g tyf To;sf] k|efjsf/L sfof{GjognfO{ ;'lglZrt ug'{ /fli6«o dfgj clwsf/ cfof]usf] st{Jo x'g]5 .
-@_ pkwf/f -!_ df plNnlvt st{Jo k"/f ug{sf nflu /fli6«o dfgj clwsf/ cfof]un] b]xfo adf]lhdsf sfd ug{]5 M–
-s_ s'g} JolQm jf ;d"xsf] dfgj clwsf/ pNn+3g jf To;sf] b'?T;fxg ePsf]df kLl8t cfkm}+ jf lghsf] tk{maf6 s;}n] cfof]u ;dIf k|:t't jf k|]lift u/]sf] lgj]bg jf ph"/L jf s'g} ;|f]taf6 cfof]unfO{ k|fKt ePsf] jf cfof]usf] hfgsf/Ldf cfPsf] ljifodf 5fglag tyf cg';Gwfg u/L bf]ifL pk/ sf/afxL ug{ l;kmfl/; ug{],
-v_ dfgj clwsf/sf] pNn+3g x'gaf6 /f]Sg] lhDd]jf/L jf st{Jo ePsf] kbflwsf/Ln] cfˆgf] lhDd]jf/L k"/f gu/]df jf st{Jo kfng gu/]df jf lhDd]jf/L k"/f ug{ jf st{Jokfng ug{ pbf;Lgtf b]vfPdf To:tf] kbflwsf/L pk/ ljefuLo sf/afxL ug{ ;DalGwt clwsf/L ;dIf l;kmfl/; ug{],
-u_ dfgj clwsf/ pNn+3g ug{] JolQm jf ;+:yfsf lj?4 d'2f rnfpg' kg{] cfjZostf ePdf sfg"g adf]lhd cbfntdf d'2f bfo/ ug{ l;kmfl/; ug{],
-3_ dfgj clwsf/sf] r]tgf clej[l4 ug{ gful/s ;dfh;Fu ;dGjo / ;xsfo{ ug{],
-ª_ dfgj clwsf/sf] pNn+3gstf{nfO{ ljefuLo sf/afxL tyf ;hfo ug{ sf/0f / cfwf/ v'nfO{ ;DalGwt lgsfo ;dIf l;kmfl/; ug]{,
-r_ dfgj clwsf/;Fu ;DalGwt sfg"gsf] cfjlws ¿kdf k'g/fjnf]sg ug{] tyf To;df ug'{ kg{] ;'wf/ tyf ;+zf]wgsf ;DaGwdf g]kfn ;/sf/ ;dIf l;kmfl/; ug{],
-5_ dfgj clwsf/;Fu ;DalGwt cGt/f{li6«o ;lGw jf ;Demf}tfsf] g]kfn kIf aGg' kg{] ePdf To;sf] sf/0f ;lxt g]kfn ;/sf/nfO{ l;kmfl/; ug{] / g]kfn kIf alg;s]sf ;lGw jf ;Demf}tfsf] sfof{Gjog eP jf gePsf] cg'udgu/L sfof{Gjog gePsf] kfOPdf To;sf] sfof{Gjog ug{ g]kfn ;/sf/ ;dIf l;kmfl/; ug{],
-h_ dfgj clwsf/sf] pNn+3gsf ;DaGwdf /fli6«o dfgj clwsf/ cfof]un] u/]sf] l;kmfl/; jf lgb{]zg kfng jf sfof{Gjog gug{] kbflwsf/L, JolQm jf lgsfosf] gfd sfg"g adf]lhd ;fj{hlgs u/L dfgj clwsf/ pNn+3gstf{sf] ¿kdf clen]v /fVg] .
=== -wf/f @$(_

Indigenous Peoples

/fHon] b]xfosf gLltx¿ cjnDag ug]{5 M–
===
-`_ ;fdflhs Gofo / ;dfj]zLs/0f ;DaGwL gLltM
===
-*_ cflbjf;L hghfltsf] klxrfg ;lxt ;Ddfgk"j{s afFRg kfpg] clwsf/ ;'lglZrt ug{ cj;/ tyf nfesfnflu ljz]if Joj:yf ub}{ o; ;d'bfo;Fu ;/f]sf/ /fVg] lg0f{ox¿df ;xefuL u/fpg] tyf cflbjf;L hghflt / :yfgLo ;d'bfosf] k/Dk/fut 1fg, ;Lk, ;+:s[lt, ;fdflhs k/Dk/f / cg'ejnfO{ ;+/If0f / ;+jw{g ug]{]{,
=== -wf/f %!_

Indigenous Peoples

-^_ ;dfg'kflts lgjf{rg k|0ffnL adf]lhd x'g] k|b]z ;efsf] lgjf{rgsfnflu /fhgLlts bnn] pDd]bjf/L lb+bf hg;+Vofsf] cfwf/df dlxnf, blnt, cflbjf;L hghflt, v; cfo{, dw];L, yf¿, d'l:nd, lk5l8Psf] If]q, cNk;+Vos ;d'bfo ;d]taf6 aGb ;"rLsf cfwf/df k|ltlglwTj x'g] Joj:yf ;+3Lo sfg"g adf]lhd x'g]5 . To;/L pDd]bjf/L lb+bf ;DalGwt k|b]zsf] ef}uf]lns ;Gt'ngnfO{ ;d]t Wofg lbg' kg{]5 .
=== -wf/f !&^_

Indigenous Peoples

-#_ g]kfnL ;]gfdf dlxnf, blnt, cflbjf;L, cflbjf;L hghflt, v; cfo{, dw]zL, yf¿, d'l:nd, lk58f ju{ tyf lk5l8Psf] If]qsf gful/ssf] k|j]z ;dfgtf / ;dfj]zL l;4fGtsf] cfwf/df ;+3Lo sfg"g adf]lhd ;'lglZrt ul/g]5 .
=== -wf/f @^&_

Limitations and/or Derogations

-!_ g]kfnsf] ;fj{ef}d;Qf, ef}uf]lns cv08tf jf s'g} efusf] ;'/Iffdf o'4, afXo cfqmd0f, ;z:q ljb|f]x, r/d cfly{s lj>[+vntf, k|fs[lts ljkb jf dxfdf/Lsf] sf/0fn] uDeL/ ;+s6 pTkGg ePdf /fi6«kltn] g]kfne/ jf g]kfnsf] s'g} vf; If]qdf nfu" x'g] u/L ;+s6sfnLg cj:yfsf] 3f]if0ff ug{ jf cfb]z hf/L ug{ ;Sg]5 .
===
-!)_ pkwf/f -!_ adf]lhd ;+s6sfnLg cj:yfsf] 3f]if0ff jf cfb]z hf/L ubf{ To:tf] 3f]if0ff jf cfb]z axfn /x];Ddsfnflu efu–# df Joj:yf ePsf df}lns xs lgnDag ug{ ;lsg]5 . t/ wf/f !^, wf/f !& sf] pkwf/f -@_ sf] v08 -u_ / -3_, wf/f !*, wf/f !( sf] pkwf/f -@_, wf/f @), @!, @@, @$, wf/f @^ sf pkwf/f -!_, @(, #), #!, #@, #%, #^ sf] pkwf/f -!_ / -@_, #*, #(, $) sf] pkwf/f -@_ / -#_, $!, $@, $#, $% / wf/f $^ adf]lhdsf] ;+j}wflgs pkrf/sf] xs / aGbL k|ToIfLs/0fsf] pkrf/ k|fKt ug{] xs lgnDag ul/g] 5}g . -!!_ pkwf/f -!)_ adf]lhd o; ;+ljwfgsf] s'g} wf/f lgnDag ul/Psf]df ;f] wf/fåf/f k|bQ df}lns xssf] k|rngsfnflu s'g} cbfntdf lgj]bg lbg jf To; ;DaGwdf s'g} cbfntdf k|Zg p7fpg ;lsg] 5}g .
=== -wf/f @&#_

Marriage and Family Life

-%_ k}t[s ;DklQdf n}+lus e]befj ljgf ;a} ;Gtfgsf] ;dfg xs x'g]5 . -wf/f !*_

Marriage and Family Life

-!_ k|To]s dlxnfnfO{ n}+lus e]befj ljgf ;dfg j+zLo xs x'g]5 .
-@_ k|To]s dlxnfnfO{ ;'/lIft dft[Tj / k|hgg :jf:Yo ;DaGwL xs x'g]5 .
===
-^_ ;DklQ tyf kfl/jfl/s dfldnfdf bDktLsf] ;dfg xs x'g]5 . -wf/f #*_

Marriage and Family Life

/fHon] b]xfosf gLltx¿ cjnDag ug]{5 M–
===
-h_ gful/ssf cfwf/e"t cfjZostf ;DaGwL gLltM
===
-!)_ g]kfnsf] Ifdtf / cfjZostfsf cfwf/df hg;+Vof Joj:yfkgsfnflu kl/jf/ lgof]hgnfO{ k|f]T;flxt ub}{ dft[–lzz' d[To'b/ 36fO{ cf};t cfo' a9fpg],
===
-`_ ;fdflhs Gofo / ;dfj]zLs/0f ;DaGwL gLltM
===
-#_ k|hgg cj:yfdf cfjZos ;]jf ;'ljwf pkef]usf] ;'lglZrttf ug]{,
-$_ afnaRrfsf] kfng kf]if0f, kl/jf/sf] x]/rfx h:tf sfd / of]ubfgnfO{ cfly{s ¿kdf d"Nof+sg ug]{]{, === -wf/f %!_

Marriage and Family Life

5. kfl/jfl/s dfldnf -ljjfx, ;DklQ x:tfGt/0f, ;DaGw ljR5]b, nf]kf]Gd'v, 6'x'/f, wd{k'q, wd{k'qL pQ/flwsf/ / ;+o'Qm kl/jf/_ ;DaGwL sfg"g
===
10. of]hgf, kl/jf/ lgof]hg / hg;+Vof Joj:yfkg
=== -cg';"rL–&, ;+3 / k|b]zsf] ;femf clwsf/sf] ;"rL_

Marriage and Family Life

-!!_ JolQmut 36gf, hGd, d[To', ljjfx / tYof+s
=== -cg';"rL–(, ;+3, k|b]z / :yfgLo txsf] clwsf/sf] ;femf ;"rL_

Minorities

-#_ /fHon] gful/sx¿sf aLr pTklQ, wd{, j0f{, hft, hflt, ln+u, cfly{s cj:yf, efiff, If]q, j}rfl/s cf:yf jf o:t} cGo s'g} cfwf/df e]befj ug]{ 5}g .
t/ ;fdflhs jf ;f+:s[lts b[li6n] lk5l8Psf dlxnf, blnt, cflbjf;L, cflbjf;L hghflt, dw]zL, yf¿, d'l:nd, pTkLl8t ju{, lk58f ju{, cNk;+Vos, ;LdfGtLs[t, ls;fg, >lds, o'jf, afnaflnsf, Ho]i7 gful/s, n}+lus tyf of}lgs cNk;+Vos, ckf+utf ePsf JolQm, uef{j:yfsf JolQm, czQm jf c;xfo, lk5l8Psf] If]q / cfly{s ¿kn] ljkGg v; cfo{ nufot gful/ssf] ;+/If0f, ;zQmLs/0f jf ljsf;sfnflu sfg"g adf]lhd ljz]if Joj:yf ug{ /f]s nufPsf] dflgg] 5}g .
===-wf/f !*_

Minorities

-!_ /fHosf ;a} lgsfodf blntnfO{ ;dfg'kflts ;dfj]zL l;4fGtsf] cfwf/df ;xefuL x'g] xs x'g]5 . ;fj{hlgs ;]jf nufotsf /f]huf/Lsf cGo If]qdf blnt ;d'bfosf] ;zQmLs/0f, k|ltlglwTj / ;xeflutfsfnflu sfg"g adf]lhd ljz]if Joj:yf ul/g]5 .
-@_ blnt ljBfyL{nfO{ k|fyldsb]lv pRr lzIff;Dd sfg"g adf]lhd 5fqj[lQ ;lxt lgMz'Ns lzIffsf] Joj:yf ul/g]5 . k|fljlws / Jofj;flos pRr lzIffdf blntsfnflu sfg"g adf]lhd ljz]if Joj:yf ul/g]5 .
-#_ blnt ;d'bfonfO{ :jf:Yo / ;fdflhs ;'/Iff k|bfg ug{ sfg"g adf]lhd ljz]if Joj:yf ul/g]5 .
-$_ blnt ;d'bfonfO{ cfˆgf] k/Dk/fut k]zf, 1fg, ;Lk / k|ljlwsf] k|of]u, ;+/If0f / ljsf; ug]{ xs x'g]5 .
/fHon] blnt ;d'bfosf k/Dk/fut k]zf;Fu ;DalGwt cfw'lgs Joj;fodf pgLx¿nfO{ k|fyldstf lbO{ To;sfnflu cfjZos kg]{ ;Lk / ;|f]t pknAw u/fpg]5 .
-%_ /fHon] e"ldxLg blntnfO{ sfg"g adf]lhd Ps k6s hdLg pknAw u/fpg' kg]{5 .
-^_ /fHon] cfjf;ljxLg blntnfO{ sfg"g adf]lhd a;f]af;sf] Joj:yf ug]{5 .
-&_ blnt ;d'bfonfO{ o; wf/fåf/f k|bQ ;'ljwf blnt dlxnf, k'?if / ;a} ;d'bfodf /x]sf blntn] ;dfg'kflts ¿kdf k|fKt ug]{ u/L Gofof]lrt ljt/0f ug'{ kg]{5 . -wf/f $)_

Minorities

-!_ ;fdflhs ¿kn] k5fl8 k/]sf dlxnf, blnt, cflbjf;L, cflbjf;L hghflt, dw]zL, yf¿, cNk;+Vos, ckf+utf ePsf JolQm, ;LdfGtLs[t, d'l:nd, lk58f ju{, n}+lus tyf of}lgs cNk;+Vos, o'jf, ls;fg, >lds, pTkLl8t jf lk5l8Psf] If]qsf gful/s tyf cfly{s¿kn] ljkGg v; cfo{nfO{ ;dfj]zL l;4fGtsf cfwf/df /fHosf] lgsfodf ;xeflutfsf] xs x'g]5 .
-@_ cfly{s ¿kn] ljkGg tyf nf]kf]Gd'v ;d'bfosf gful/ssf] ;+/If0f, pTyfg, ;zQmLs/0f / ljsf;sfnflu lzIff, :jf:Yo, cfjf; /f]huf/L, vfBfGg / ;fdflhs ;'/Iffdf ljz]if cj;/ tyf nfe kfpg]xs x'g]5 .
=== -wf/f $@_

Minorities

/fHon] b]xfosf gLltx¿ cjnDag ug]{5 M–
===
-`_ ;fdflhs Gofo / ;dfj]zLs/0f ;DaGwL gLltM
===
-*_ cflbjf;L hghfltsf] klxrfg ;lxt ;Ddfgk"j{s afFRg kfpg] clwsf/ ;'lglZrt ug{ cj;/ tyf nfesfnflu ljz]if Joj:yf ub}{ o; ;d'bfo;Fu ;/f]sf/ /fVg] lg0f{ox¿df ;xefuL u/fpg] tyf cflbjf;L hghflt / :yfgLo ;d'bfosf] k/Dk/fut 1fg, ;Lk, ;+:s[lt, ;fdflhs k/Dk/f / cg'ejnfO{ ;+/If0f / ;+jw{g ug]{]{,
-(_ cNk;+Vos ;d'bfonfO{ cfˆgf] klxrfg sfod /fvL ;fdflhs / ;+f:s[lts clwsf/ k|of]usf] cj;/ tyf nfesfnflu ljz]if Joj:yf ug]{,
-!)_ dw]zL ;d'bfo, d'l:nd / lk58f ju{nfO{ cfly{s, ;fdflhs tyf ;f+:s[lts cj;/ / nfesf] ;dfg ljt/0f tyf To:tf ;d'bfoleqsf ljkGg gful/ssf] ;+/If0f, pTyfg, ;zQmLs/0f / ljsf;sf cj;/ tyf nfesfnflu ljz]if Joj:yf ug]{,
=== -wf/f %!_

Minorities

-^_ ;dfg'kflts lgjf{rg k|0ffnL adf]lhd x'g] k|b]z ;efsf] lgjf{rgsfnflu /fhgLlts bnn] pDd]bjf/L lb+bf hg;+Vofsf] cfwf/df dlxnf, blnt, cflbjf;L hghflt, v; cfo{, dw];L, yf¿, d'l:nd, lk5l8Psf] If]q, cNk;+Vos ;d'bfo ;d]taf6 aGb ;"rLsf cfwf/df k|ltlglwTj x'g] Joj:yf ;+3Lo sfg"g adf]lhd x'g]5 . To;/L pDd]bjf/L lb+bf ;DalGwt k|b]zsf] ef}uf]lns ;Gt'ngnfO{ ;d]t Wofg lbg' kg{]5 .
=== -wf/f !&^_

Minorities

-!_ /fli6«o blnt cfof]usf] sfd, st{Jo / clwsf/ b]xfo adf]lhd x'g]5 M–
-s_ blnt ;d'bfosf] ;du| l:yltsf] cWoog tyf cGj]if0f u/L tt\;DaGwdf ug{' kg{] gLltut, sfg"gL / ;+:Yffut ;'wf/sf ljifo klxrfg u/L g]kfn ;/sf/nfO{ l;kmfl/; ug{],
-v_ hftLo 5'jf5"t, pTkL8g / lje]bsf] cGTo u/L blnt pTyfg / ljsf;sfnflu blnt lxt;Fu ;/f]sf/ /fVg] /fli6«o gLlt tyf sfo{qmdsf] th'{df u/L sfof{Gjogsfnflu g]kfn ;/sf/ ;dIf k]z ug{],
-u_ blnt ;d'bfosf] pTyfg tyf lxtdf ePsf ljz]if Joj:yf nufot blnt lxt;Fu ;DjlGwt sfg"gsf] k|efjsf/L ¿kdf kfngf eP jf gePsf] ljifodf cg'udg u/L kfngf jf sfof{Gjog gePsf] eP ;f]sf] kfngf jf sfof{Gjogsfnflu g]kfn ;/sf/ ;dIf ;'emfa lbg],
-3_ blnt ;d'bfosf] clwsf/;+u ;DalGwt g]kfn kIf ePsf] cGt/f{li6«o ;lGw jf ;Demf}tfdf ePsf] Joj:yf adf]lhd g]kfnn] k7fpg' kg]{ k|ltj]bg tof/Lsf ;DaGwdf g]kfn ;/sf/nfO{ ;'emfj lbg],
-ª_ blnt ;d'bfonfO{ /fli6«o ljsf;sf] d"n k|jfxdf ;dflxt ug{ tyf /fHosf ;a} c+ux¿df ;dfg'kflts ;xeflutf ;'lglZrt ug{ df}h"bf gLlt tyf sfo{qmdsf] ;dLIff, cg'udg tyf d"Nof+sg ug]{ / ;f] sf] k|efjsf/L sfof{Gjogsfnflu g]kfn ;/sf/nfO{ l;kmfl/; ug]{,
-r_ hftLo e]befj tyf 5"jf5"t jf ;fdflhs s'/Lltaf6 kLl8t ePsf] jf blntsf] xs k|of]u ug{ glbPsf] jf jl~rt u/]sf] ljifodf s'g} JolQm jf ;+:yf lj?4 d'2f bfo/ ug{' kg{] cfjZostf b]lvPdf sfg"g adf]lhd cbfntdf d'2f bfo/ ug{ ;DalGwt lgsfo ;dIf l;kmfl/; ug{] .
-@_ /fli6«o blnt cfof]un] cfˆgf] sfd, st{Jo / clwsf/ dWo] s'g} sfd, st{Jo / clwsf/ cfof]usf] cWoIf, s'g} ;b:o jf g]kfn ;/sf/sf] s'g} sd{rf/LnfO{ tf]lsPsf] zt{sf] cwLgdf /xL k|of]u tyf kfng ug{] u/L k|Tofof]hg ug{ ;Sg]5 .
-#_ /fli6«o blnt cfof]usf] cGo sfd, st{Jo, clwsf/ tyf tt\;DaGwL cGo Joj:yf ;+3Lo sfg"g adf]lhd x'g]5 . -wf/f @%^_

Minorities

-!_ /fli6«o ;dfj]zL cfof]usf] sfd, st{Jo / clwsf/ b]xfo adf]lhd x'g]5 M–
-s_ v; cfo{, lk58f ju{, ckf+utf ePsf JolQm, Ho]i7
gful/s, >lds, ls;fg, cNk;+Vos Pj+ ;LdfGtLs[t
;d'bfo tyf lk5l8Psf] ju{ / s0ff{nL tyf cfly{s ¿kn] ljkGg ju{ nufotsf ;d'bfosf] xs clwsf/sf] ;+/If0fsfnflu cWoog tyf cg';Gwfg ug{],
-v_ v08 -s_ df plNnlvt ;d'bfo, ju{ / If]qsf] ;dfj]zLs/0fsfnflu g]kfn ;/sf/n] cjnDag u/]sf] gLlt tyf sfg"gsf] sfof{Gjog cj:yfsf] cWoog u/L ;'wf/sfnflu g]kfn ;/sf/nfO{ ;'emfj lbg],
-u_ v08 -s_ df plNnlvt ;d'bfo, ju{ / If]qsf] /fHo ;+oGqdf plrt k|ltlglwTj eP gePsf] cWoog u/L To:tf] ;d'bfo, ju{ / If]qsf] k|ltlglwTjsfnflu ul/Psf] ljz]if Joj:yfsf] k'g/fjnf]sg ug{ g]kfn ;/sf/nfO{ ;'emfj lbg],
-3_ v08 -s_ df plNnlvt ;d'bfo, ju{ / If]qsf] ;+/If0f, ;zQmLs/0f / ljsf; ;Gtf]ifhgs eP gePsf] cWoogu/L eljiodf cjnDag ug{' kg{] gLltsf] ;DaGwdf g]kfn ;/sf/ ;dIf l;kmfl/; ug{],
-ª_ s0ff{nL / lk5l8Psf] If]qsf] ljsf; / ;d[l4sfnflu canDag ug'{ kg]{ gLlt / sfo{qmdsf] ;DaGwdf g]kfn ;/sf/nfO{ ;'emfj lbg],
-r_ cNk;+Vos tyf ;LdfGtLs[t ;d'bfo ;DaGwL sfg"gdf ;dofg's'n kl/dfh{gsfnflu l;kmfl/; ug{],
-5_ cNk;+Vos tyf ;LdfGtLs[t ;d'bfosfnflu k|Tofe"t xs clwsf/sf] sfof{Gjog l:ylt cg'udg u/L cfjlws ¿kdf x'g] /fli6«o hgu0fgf tyf dfgj ljsf; ;"rsf+s ;DaGwL k|ltj]bgsf] cfwf/df cfjZos k'g/fjnf]sg u/L kl/dfh{gsfnflu l;kmfl/; ug{] .
-@_ /fli6«o ;dfj]zL cfof]un] cfˆgf] sfd, st{Jo / clwsf/ dWo] s'g} sfd, st{Jo / clwsf/ ;f] cfof]usf] cWoIf, s'g} ;b:o jf g]kfn ;/sf/sf] s'g} sd{rf/LnfO{ tf]lsPsf] zt{sf] cwLgdf /xL k|of]u tyf kfng ug]{ u/L k|Tofof]hg ug{ ;Sg]5 .
-#_ /fli6«o ;dfj]zL cfof]usf] cGo sfd, st{Jo, clwsf/ tyf tt\;DaGwL cGo Joj:yf ;+3Lo sfg"g adf]lhd
x'g]5 . -wf/f @%(_

Minorities

-#_ g]kfnL ;]gfdf dlxnf, blnt, cflbjf;L, cflbjf;L hghflt, v; cfo{, dw]zL, yf¿, d'l:nd, lk58f ju{ tyf lk5l8Psf] If]qsf gful/ssf] k|j]z ;dfgtf / ;dfj]zL l;4fGtsf] cfwf/df ;+3Lo sfg"g adf]lhd ;'lglZrt ul/g]5 .
=== -wf/f @^&_

Minorities

g]kfn ;/sf/n] k|To]s bz jif{df x'g] /fli6«o hgu0fgf;Fu} dlxnf tyf blnt ;d'bfosf] ljz]if clwsf/sf] Joj:yfsf] sfo{fGjog / To;sf] k|efj ;DaGwdf dfgj ljsf; ;"rsf+ssf] cfwf/df ;dLIff tyf k'g/fjnf]sg ug]{5 . -wf/f @*!_

Minorities

-!_ ljifo jf k|;Ën] csf]{ cy{ gnfu]df o;;+ljwfgdf,–
-s_ æcNk;+VosÆ eGgfn] ;+3Lo sfg"g adf]lhd lgwf{l/t k|ltzt eGbf sd hg;+Vof /x]sf hftLo, eflifs / wfld{s ;d"x ;Demg' k5{ / ;f] zAbn] cfˆg} hftLo, wfld{s / eflifs ljlzi6tf ePsf], To;nfO{ arfO{ /fVg] cfsf+Iff /x]sf, lje]b / pTkL8g ef]u]sf ;d"x ;d]tnfO{ hgfpF5 .
===
-8_ æ;LdfGtLs[tÆ eGgfn] /fhgLlts, cfly{s / ;fdflhs ¿kn] k5fl8 kfl/Psf, lje]b / pTkL8g tyf ef}uf]lns ljs6tfsf] sf/0fn] ;]jf ;'ljwfsf] pkef]u ug{ g;s]sf jf To;af6 jl~rt /x]sf ;+3Lo sfg"g adf]lhdsf] dfgj ljsf;sf] :t/ eGbf Go"g l:yltdf /x]sf ;d'bfo ;Demg'k5{ / ;f] zAbn] clt ;LdfGtLs[t / nf]kf]Gd'v ;d'bfo;d]tnfO{ hgfpF5 .
=== -wf/f #)^_

Participation in Public Life and Institutions

-$_ /fHosf ;a} lgsfodf dlxnfnfO{ ;dfg'kflts ;dfj]zL l;4fGtsf] cfwf/df ;xefuL x'g] xs x'g]5 .
=== -wf/f #*_

Participation in Public Life and Institutions

-!_ ;fdflhs ¿kn] k5fl8 k/]sf dlxnf, blnt, cflbjf;L, cflbjf;L hghflt, dw]zL, yf¿, cNk;+Vos, ckf+utf ePsf JolQm, ;LdfGtLs[t, d'l:nd, lk58f ju{, n}+lus tyf of}lgs cNk;+Vos, o'jf, ls;fg, >lds, pTkLl8t jf lk5l8Psf] If]qsf gful/s tyf cfly{s¿kn] ljkGg v; cfo{nfO{ ;dfj]zL l;4fGtsf cfwf/df /fHosf] lgsfodf ;xeflutfsf] xs x'g]5 .
=== -wf/f $@_

Participation in Public Life and Institutions

-!_ g]kfnsf] :jtGqtf, ;fj{ef}d;Qf, ef}uf]lns cv08tf, :jfwLgtf / /fli6«o Pstfsf] /Iffsfnflu o; ;+ljwfgk|lt k|lta4 ;dfj]zL g]kfnL ;]gfsf] Ps ;+u7g /xg]5 .
===
-#_ g]kfnL ;]gfdf dlxnf, blnt, cflbjf;L, cflbjf;L hghflt, v; cfo{, dw]zL, yf¿, d'l:nd, lk58f ju{ tyf lk5l8Psf] If]qsf gful/ssf] k|j]z ;dfgtf / ;dfj]zL l;4fGtsf] cfwf/df ;+3Lo sfg"g adf]lhd ;'lglZrt ul/g]5 .
=== -wf/f @^&_

Political Rights and Association

-@_ k|To]s gful/snfO{ b]xfosf] :jtGqtf x'g]5 M–
===
-u_ /fhgLlts bn vf]Ng] :jtGqtf,
-3_ ;+3 / ;+:yf vf]Ng] :jtGqtf,
=== -wf/f !&_

Political Rights and Association

-$_ /fHosf ;a} lgsfodf dlxnfnfO{ ;dfg'kflts ;dfj]zL l;4fGtsf] cfwf/df ;xefuL x'g] xs x'g]5 .
=== -wf/f #*_

Political Rights and Association

-%_ c7f/ jif{ pd]/ k"/f ePsf] k|To]s g]kfnL gful/snfO{ ;+3Lo sfg"g adf]lhd s'g} Ps lgjf{rg If]qdf dtbfg ug]{ clwsf/ x'g]5 .
=== -wf/f *$_

Political Rights and Association

-!_ ;dfg /fhgLlts ljrf/wf/f, bz{g / sfo{qmddf k|lta4 JolQmx¿n] wf/f !& sf] pkwf/f -@_ sf] v08 -u_ cGtu{t ag]sf] sfg"gsf] cwLgdf /xL /fhgLlts bn u7g u/L ;~rfng ug{ / bnsf] ljrf/wf/f, bz{g / sfo{qmd k|lt hg;fwf/0fsf] ;dy{g / ;xof]u k|fKt ug{sfnflu To;sf] k|rf/ / k|;f/ ug{, u/fpg jf ;f] k|of]hgsfnflu cGo cfjZos sfd ug{ ;Sg]5g\ .
=== -wf/f @^(_

National level

-!_ k|ltlglw ;efdf b]xfo adf]lhdsf b'O{ ;o krxQ/ ;b:o /xg]5g\ M–
-s_ g]kfnnfO{ e"uf]n / hg;+Vofsf] cfwf/df Ps ;o k}+;¶L lgjf{rg If]q sfod u/L k|To]s lgjf{rg If]qaf6 Pshgf /xg] u/L klxnf] x'g] lgjf{lrt x'g] lgjf{rg k|0ffnL adf]lhd lgjf{lrt x'g] Ps ;o k}+;¶L ;b:o, -v_ ;Dk"0f{ b]znfO{ Ps lgjf{rg If]q dfgL /fhgLlts bnnfO{ dt lbg] ;dfg'kflts lgjf{rg k|0ffnL adf]lhd lgjf{lrt x'g] Ps ;o bz ;b:o .
-@_ ;dfg'kflts lgjf{rg k|0ffnL adf]lhd x'g] k|ltlglw ;efsf] lgjf{rgsfnflu /fhgLlts bnn] pDd]bjf/L lb+bf hg;+Vofsf] cfwf/df dlxnf, blnt, cflbjf;L hghflt, v; cfo{, dw];L, yf¿, d'l:nd, lk5l8Psf] If]q ;d]taf6 aGb ;"rLsf cfwf/df k|ltlglwTj u/fpg]
Joj:yf ;+3Lo sfg"g adf]lhd x'g]5 . To;/L pDd]bjf/L lb+bf e"uf]n / k|fb]lzs ;Gt'ngnfO{ ;d]t Wofg lbg' kg{]5 .
:ki6Ls/0f M o; pkwf/fsf] k|of]hgsfnflu æv; cfo{Æ eGgfn] If]qL, a|fDx0f, 7s'/L, ;+Gof;L -bzgfdL_ ;d'bfo ;Demg' k5{ .
===
-*_ o; efudf cGoq h'g;'s} s'/f n]lvPsf] eP tfklg ;+3Lo ;+;bdf k|ltlglwTj ug]{ k|To]s /fhgLlts bnaf6 lgjf{lrt s'n ;b:o ;+Vofsf] sDtLdf Ps ltxfO ;b:o dlxnf x'g' kg]{5 . To;/L lgjf{lrt ubf{ pkwf/f -!_ sf] v08 -s_ / wf/f *^ sf] pkwf/f -@_ sf] v08 -s_ adf]lhd lgjf{lrt ;b:ox¿ dWo] s'g} /fhgLlts bnsf] Ps ltxfO ;b:o dlxnf lgjf{lrt x'g g;s]df To:tf] /fhgLlts bnn] pkwf/f -!_ sf] v08 -v_ adf]lhd ;b:o lgjf{lrt ubf{ cfˆgf] bnaf6 ;+3Lo ;+;bdf lgjf{lrt x'g] s'n ;b:osf] sDtLdf Ps ltxfO dlxnf ;b:o x'g] u/L lgjf{lrt ug'{ kg]{5 .
=== -wf/f *$_

National level

-!_ /fli6«o ;ef Ps :yfoL ;bg x'g]5 .
-@_ /fli6«o ;efdf b]xfo adf]lhdsf pgfG;f7L ;b:o /xg]5g\ M–
-s_ k|b]z ;efsf ;b:o, ufpFkflnsfsf cWoIf / pkfWoIf tyf gu/kflnsfsf k|d'v / pkk|d'v /x]sf] lgjf{rs d08nåf/f ;+3Lo sfg"g adf]lhd k|b]z ;efsf ;b:o, ufpFkflnsfsf cWoIf / pkfWoIf tyf gu/kflnsfsf k|d'v / pkk|d'vsf] dtsf] ef/ km/s x'g] u/L k|To]s k|b]zaf6 sDtLdf tLghgf dlxnf, Pshgf blnt / Pshgf ckf+utf ePsf JolQm jf cNk;+Vos ;lxt cf7hgf u/L] lgjf{lrt 5kGg hgf,
-v_ g]kfn ;/sf/sf] l;kmfl/;df /fi6«kltaf6 dgf]gLt sDtLdf Pshgf dlxnf ;lxt tLghgf .
=== -wf/f *^_

National level

-!_ k|ltlglw ;efsf] klxnf] a}7s k|f/De ePsf] ldltn] kGw| lbgleq k|ltlglw ;efsf ;b:ox¿n] cfkm"dWo]af6 k|ltlglw ;efsf] ;efd'v / pk;efd'vsf] lgjf{rg ug]{5g\ .
-@_ pkwf/f -!_ adf]lhd lgjf{rg ubf{ k|ltlglw ;efsf] ;efd'v / pk;efd'v dWo] Pshgf dlxnf x'g] u/L ug{' kg]{5 / k|ltlglw ;efsf] ;efd'v / pk;efd'v km/s km/s bnsf] k|ltlglw x'g' kg]{5 .
=== -wf/f (!_

National level

-!_ /fli6«o ;efsf] klxnf] a}7s k|f/De ePsf] ldltn] kGw| lbgleq /fli6«o ;efsf ;b:ox¿n] cfkm"dWo]af6 /fli6«o ;efsf] cWoIf / pkfWoIfsf] lgjf{rg ug]{5g\ .
-@_ pkwf/f -!_ adf]lhd lgjf{rg ubf{ /fli6«o ;efsf] cWoIf / pkfWoIf dWo] Pshgf dlxnf x'g] u/L ug{' kg]{5 .
=== -wf/f (@_

Subnational levels

-!_ k|To]s k|b]z ;efdf b]xfo adf]lhdsf] ;+Vofdf ;b:o /xg]5g\ M–
-s_ ;DalGwt k|b]zaf6 k|ltlglw ;efdf klxnf] x'g] lgjf{lrt x'g] lgjf{rg k|0ffnL adf]lhd lgjf{lrt x'g] ;b:o ;+Vofsf] bf]Aa/ ;+Vofdf x'g cfpg] ;b:o,
-v_ v08 -s_ adf]lhd sfod x'g] ;b:o ;+VofnfO{ ;f7L k|ltzt dfgL afFsL rfnL; k|ltztdf ;dfg'kflts lgjf{rg k|0ffnLaf6 lgjf{lrt x'g] ;b:o .
===
-^_ ;dfg'kflts lgjf{rg k|0ffnL adf]lhd x'g] k|b]z ;efsf] lgjf{rgsfnflu /fhgLlts bnn] pDd]bjf/L lb+bf hg;+Vofsf] cfwf/df dlxnf, blnt, cflbjf;L hghflt, v; cfo{, dw];L, yf¿, d'l:nd, lk5l8Psf] If]q, cNk;+Vos ;d'bfo ;d]taf6 aGb ;"rLsf cfwf/df k|ltlglwTj x'g] Joj:yf ;+3Lo sfg"g adf]lhd x'g]5 . To;/L pDd]bjf/L lb+bf ;DalGwt k|b]zsf] ef}uf]lns ;Gt'ngnfO{ ;d]t Wofg lbg' kg{]5 .
:ki6Ls/0fM o; efusf] k|of]hgsfnflu æv; cfo{Æ eGgfn] If]qL, a|fDx0f, 7s'/L, ;+Gof;L -bzgfdL_ ;d'bfo ;Demg' k5{ .
===
-(_ o; wf/fdf cGoq h'g;'s} s'/f n]lvPsf] eP tfklg k|b]z ;efdf k|ltlglwTj ug]{ k|To]s /fhgLlts bnaf6 lgjf{lrt s'n ;b:o ;+Vofsf] sDtLdf Ps ltxfO ;b:o dlxnf x'g' kg]{5 . To;/L lgjf{lrt ubf{ pkwf/f -!_ sf] v08 -s_ adf]lhd lgjf{lrt ;b:ox¿ dWo] s'g} /fhgLlts bnsf] Ps ltxfO ;b:o dlxnf lgjf{lrt gePdf To:tf] /fhgLlts bnn] ;f]xL pkwf/fsf] v08 -v_ adf]lhd ;b:o lgjf{lrt ubf{ cfˆgf] bnaf6 k|b]z ;efdf lgjf{lrt x'g] s'n ;b:osf] sDtLdf Ps ltxfO dlxnf ;b:o x'g] u/L lgjf{lrt ug'{ kg]{5 . === -wf/f !&^_

Subnational levels

-!_ k|b]z ;efsf] klxnf] a}7s k|f/De ePsf] ldltn] kGw| lbgleq k|b]z ;efsf ;b:ox¿n] cfkm"dWo]af6 k|b]z ;efd'v / k|b]z pk;efd'vsf] lgjf{rg ug]{5g\ .
-@_ pkwf/f -!_ adf]lhd lgjf{rg ubf{ k|b]z ;efd'v jf k|b]z pk;efd'v dWo] Pshgf dlxnf x'g] u/L ug{' kg]{5 / k|b]z ;efd'v jf k|b]z pk;efd'v km/s km/s bnsf] k|ltlglw x'g' kg]{5 . === -wf/f !*@_

Subnational levels

-!_ k|To]s ufpFkflnsfdf Pshgf ufpF sfo{kflnsf cWoIf /xg]5 . lghsf] cWoIftfdf ufpF sfo{kflnsf u7g x'g]5 .
-@_ pkwf/f -!_ adf]lhdsf] ufpF sfo{kflnsfdf Pshgf pkfWoIf, k|To]s j8faf6 lgjf{lrt j8f cWoIf / pkwf/f -$_ adf]lhd lgjf{lrt ;b:o /xg]5g\ .
-#_ cWoIf / pkfWoIfsf] lgjf{rg ;DalGwt ufpFkflnsf If]qleqsf dtbftfn] Ps JolQm Ps dtsf] cfwf/df uf]Ko dtbfgåf/f klxnf] x'g] lgjf{lrt x'g] lgjf{rg k|0ffnL adf]lhd ug]{5g\ .
:ki6Ls/0f M o; wf/fsf] k|of]hgsfnflu æcWoIf / pkfWoIfÆ eGgfn] ufpF sfo{kflnsfsf] cWoIf / pkfWoIf ;Demg' k5{ .
-$_ wf/f @@@ adf]lhdsf] ufpF ;efsf] lgjf{rgsf] clGtd kl/0ffd k|fKt ePsf] ldltn] kGw| lbgleq ufpF ;efsf ;b:ox¿n] cfk"mdWo]af6 lgjf{lrt u/]sf rf/hgf dlxnf ;b:o / pkwf/f -%_ adf]lhdsf] of]Uotf ePsf blnt jf cNk;+Vos ;d'bfoaf6 ufpF ;efn] lgjf{lrt u/]sf b'O{hgf ;b:o ;d]t ufpF sfo{kflnsfsf] ;b:o x'g]5g\ .
=== -wf/f @!%_

Subnational levels

-!_ k|To]s gu/kflnsfdf Pshgf gu/ sfo{kflnsf k|d'v /xg]5 . lghsf] cWoIftfdf gu/ sfo{kflnsf u7g x'g]5 .
-@_ pkwf/f -!_ adf]lhdsf] gu/ sfo{kflnsfdf Pshgf pkk|d'v, k|To]s j8faf6 lgjf{lrt j8f cWoIf / pkwf/f -$_ adf]lhd lgjf{lrt ;b:o /xg]5g\ .
-#_ k|d'v / pkk|d'vsf] lgjf{rg ;DalGwt gu/kflnsf If]qleqsf dtbftfn] Ps JolQm Ps dtsf] cfwf/df uf]Ko dtbfgåf/f klxnf] x'g] lgjf{lrt x'g] lgjf{rg k|0ffnL adf]lhd ug]{ 5g\ .
:ki6Ls/0f M o; wf/fsf] k|of]hgsfnflu æk|d'v / pkk|d'vÆ eGgfn] gu/ sfo{kflnsfsf] k|d'v / pkk|d'v ;Demg' k5{ .
-$_ wf/f @@# adf]lhdsf] gu/ ;efsf] lgjf{rgsf] clGtd kl/0ffd k|fKt ePsf] ldltn] kGw| lbgleq gu/ ;efsf ;b:ox¿n] cfk"mdWo]af6 lgjf{lrt u/]sf kfFrhgf dlxnf ;b:o / pkwf/f -%_ adf]lhdsf] of]Uotf ePsf blnt jf cNk;+Vos ;d'bfoaf6 gu/ ;efn] lgjf{lrt u/]sf tLghgf ;b:o ;d]t gu/ sfo{kflnsfsf] ;b:o x'g]5g\ .
=== -wf/f @!^_

Subnational levels

-#_ lhNnf ;efn] Pshgf k|d'v, Pshgf pkk|d'v, sDtLdf tLghgf dlxnf / sDtLdf Pshgf blnt jf cNk;+Vos ;lxt a9Ldf gf}hgf ;b:o /x]sf] lhNnf ;dGjo ;ldltsf] lgjf{rg ug]{5 . lhNnf ;dGjo ;ldltn] lhNnf ;efsf] tkm{af6 ug'{ kg]{ ;Dk"0f{ sfo{ ;Dkfbg ug]{5 .
=== -wf/f @@)_

Subnational levels

-!_ k|To]s ufpFkflnsfdf Ps ufpF ;ef /xg]5 .
-@_ pkwf/f -!_ adf]lhdsf] ufpF ;efdf ufpF sfo{kflnsf cWoIf / pkfWoIf, j8f cWoIf / k|To]s j8faf6 lgjf{lrt rf/hgf ;b:o / wf/f @!% sf] pkwf/f -$_ adf]lhd blnt jf cNk;+Vos ;d'bfoaf6 lgjf{lrt ufpF sfo{kflnsfsf ;b:o /xg]5g\ .
-#_ pkwf/f -!_ adf]lhd u7g x'g] ufpF ;efdf k|To]s j8faf6 sDtLdf b'O{hgf dlxnfsf] k|ltlglwTj x'g]5 . === -wf/f @@@_

Subnational levels

-!_ k|To]s gu/kflnsfdf Ps gu/ ;ef /xg]5 .
-@_ pkwf/f -!_ adf]lhdsf] gu/ ;efdf gu/ sfo{kflnsfsf k|d'v / pkk|d'v, j8f cWoIf / k|To]s j8faf6 lgjf{lrt rf/hgf ;b:o / wf/f @!^ sf] pkwf/f -$_ adf]lhd blnt jf cNk;+Vos ;d'bfoaf6 lgjf{lrt gu/ sfo{kflnsfsf ;b:o /xg]5g\ .
-#_ pkwf/f -!_ adf]lhd u7g x'g] gu/ ;efdf k|To]s j8faf6 sDtLdf b'O{hgf dlxnfsf] k|ltlglwTj x'g]5 .
=== -wf/f @@#_

Political Parties

-@_ k|To]s gful/snfO{ b]xfosf] :jtGqtf x'g]5 M–
===
-u_ /fhgLlts bn vf]Ng] :jtGqtf,
===
t/,
===
-#_ v08 -u_ sf] s'g} s'/fn] g]kfnsf] ;fj{ef}d;Qf, ef}uf]lns cv08tf, /fli6«otf / :jfwLgtfdf vnn kg]{, /fi6«sf] lj?4 hf;";L ug]{, /fli6«o uf]kgLotf e+u ug]{ jf g]kfnsf] ;'/Iffdf cfFr k'¥ofpg] u/L s'g} ljb]zL /fHo, ;+u7g jf k|ltlglwnfO{ ;xof]u ug]{ jf /fHob|f]x ug]{ jf ;+3Lo OsfOaLrsf] ;'–;DaGwdf vnn kg]{ jf hftLo jf ;fDk|bflos ljå]if km}nfpg] jf ljleGg hft, hflt, wd{ / ;Dk|bfoaLrsf] ;'–;DaGwdf vnn kg]{ jf s]jn hflt, efiff, wd{, ;Dk|bfo jf ln+usf] cfwf/df s'g} /fhgLlts bnsf] ;b:otf k|fKt ug{] jf aGb]h nufpg] jf gful/sx¿aLr lje]b ug]{ u/L /fhgLlts bn u7g ug{], lx+;fTds sfo{ ug{ b'?T;fxg ug]{ jf ;fj{hlgs g}ltstfsf] k|lts"n x'g] sfo{df dgfl;a k|ltaGw nufpg] u/L P]g agfpg /f]s nufPsf] dflgg]5}g .
=== -wf/f !&_

Political Parties

-!_ k|ltlglw ;efdf b]xfo adf]lhdsf b'O{ ;o krxQ/ ;b:o /xg]5g\ M–
-s_ g]kfnnfO{ e"uf]n / hg;+Vofsf] cfwf/df Ps ;o k}+;¶L lgjf{rg If]q sfod u/L k|To]s lgjf{rg If]qaf6 Pshgf /xg] u/L klxnf] x'g] lgjf{lrt x'g] lgjf{rg k|0ffnL adf]lhd lgjf{lrt x'g] Ps ;o k}+;¶L ;b:o,
-v_ ;Dk"0f{ b]znfO{ Ps lgjf{rg If]q dfgL /fhgLlts bnnfO{ dt lbg] ;dfg'kflts lgjf{rg k|0ffnL adf]lhd lgjf{lrt x'g] Ps ;o bz ;b:o .
-@_ ;dfg'kflts lgjf{rg k|0ffnL adf]lhd x'g] k|ltlglw ;efsf] lgjf{rgsfnflu /fhgLlts bnn] pDd]bjf/L lb+bf hg;+Vofsf] cfwf/df dlxnf, blnt, cflbjf;L hghflt, v; cfo{, dw];L, yf¿, d'l:nd, lk5l8Psf] If]q ;d]taf6 aGb ;"rLsf cfwf/df k|ltlglwTj u/fpg]
Joj:yf ;+3Lo sfg"g adf]lhd x'g]5 . To;/L pDd]bjf/L lb+bf e"uf]n / k|fb]lzs ;Gt'ngnfO{ ;d]t Wofg lbg' kg{]5 .
:ki6Ls/0f M o; pkwf/fsf] k|of]hgsfnflu æv; cfo{Æ eGgfn] If]qL, a|fDx0f, 7s'/L, ;+Gof;L -bzgfdL_ ;d'bfo ;Demg' k5{ .
===
-*_ o; efudf cGoq h'g;'s} s'/f n]lvPsf] eP tfklg ;+3Lo ;+;bdf k|ltlglwTj ug]{ k|To]s /fhgLlts bnaf6 lgjf{lrt s'n ;b:o ;+Vofsf] sDtLdf Ps ltxfO ;b:o dlxnf x'g' kg]{5 . To;/L lgjf{lrt ubf{ pkwf/f -!_ sf] v08 -s_ / wf/f *^ sf] pkwf/f -@_ sf] v08 -s_ adf]lhd lgjf{lrt ;b:ox¿ dWo] s'g} /fhgLlts bnsf] Ps ltxfO ;b:o dlxnf lgjf{lrt x'g g;s]df To:tf] /fhgLlts bnn] pkwf/f -!_ sf] v08 -v_ adf]lhd ;b:o lgjf{lrt ubf{ cfˆgf] bnaf6 ;+3Lo ;+;bdf lgjf{lrt x'g] s'n ;b:osf] sDtLdf Ps ltxfO dlxnf ;b:o x'g]u/L lgjf{lrt ug'{ kg]{5 .
=== -wf/f *$_

Political Parties

-!_ k|To]s k|b]z ;efdf b]xfo adf]lhdsf] ;+Vofdf ;b:o /xg]5g\ M–
-s_ ;DalGwt k|b]zaf6 k|ltlglw ;efdf klxnf] x'g] lgjf{lrt x'g] lgjf{rg k|0ffnL adf]lhd lgjf{lrt x'g] ;b:o ;+Vofsf] bf]Aa/ ;+Vofdf x'g cfpg] ;b:o,
-v_ v08 -s_ adf]lhd sfod x'g] ;b:o ;+VofnfO{ ;f7L k|ltzt dfgL afFsL rfnL; k|ltztdf ;dfg'kflts lgjf{rg k|0ffnLaf6 lgjf{lrt x'g] ;b:o .
===
-^_ ;dfg'kflts lgjf{rg k|0ffnL adf]lhd x'g] k|b]z ;efsf] lgjf{rgsfnflu /fhgLlts bnn] pDd]bjf/L lb+bf hg;+Vofsf] cfwf/df dlxnf, blnt, cflbjf;L hghflt, v; cfo{, dw];L, yf¿, d'l:nd, lk5l8Psf] If]q, cNk;+Vos ;d'bfo ;d]taf6 aGb ;"rLsf cfwf/df k|ltlglwTj x'g] Joj:yf ;+3Lo sfg"g adf]lhd x'g]5 . To;/L pDd]bjf/L lb+bf ;DalGwt k|b]zsf] ef}uf]lns ;Gt'ngnfO{ ;d]t Wofg lbg' kg{]5 .
:ki6Ls/0fM o; efusf] k|of]hgsfnflu æv; cfo{Æ eGgfn] If]qL, a|fDx0f, 7s'/L, ;+Gof;L -bzgfdL_ ;d'bfo ;Demg' k5{ .
===
-(_ o; wf/fdf cGoq h'g;'s} s'/f n]lvPsf] eP tfklg k|b]z ;efdf k|ltlglwTj ug]{ k|To]s /fhgLlts bnaf6 lgjf{lrt s'n ;b:o ;+Vofsf] sDtLdf Ps ltxfO ;b:o dlxnf x'g' kg]{5 . To;/L lgjf{lrt ubf{ pkwf/f -!_ sf] v08 -s_ adf]lhd lgjf{lrt ;b:ox¿ dWo] s'g} /fhgLlts bnsf] Ps ltxfO ;b:o dlxnf lgjf{lrt gePdf To:tf] /fhgLlts bnn] ;f]xL pkwf/fsf] v08 -v_ adf]lhd ;b:o lgjf{lrt ubf{ cfˆgf] bnaf6 k|b]z ;efdf lgjf{lrt x'g] s'n ;b:osf] sDtLdf Ps ltxfO dlxnf ;b:o x'g] u/L lgjf{lrt ug'{ kg]{5 .
=== -wf/f !&^_

Political Parties

-!_ ;dfg /fhgLlts ljrf/wf/f, bz{g / sfo{qmddf k|lta4 JolQmx¿n] wf/f !& sf] pkwf/f -@_ sf] v08 -u_ cGtu{t ag]sf] sfg"gsf] cwLgdf /xL /fhgLlts bnu7g u/L ;~rfng ug{ / bnsf] ljrf/wf/f, bz{g / sfo{qmdk|lt hg;fwf/0fsf] ;dy{g / ;xof]u k|fKt ug{sfnflu To;sf] k|rf/ / k|;f/ug{, u/fpg jf ;f] k|of]hgsfnflu cGo cfjZos sfd ug{ ;Sg]5g\ .
-@_ pkwf/f -!_ adf]lhd u7g ePsf /fhgLlts bnn] sfg"g adf]lhdsf] sfo{ljlw k"/f u/L lgjf{rg cfof]udf bn btf{ u/fpg' kg{]5 .
-#_ pkwf/f -@_ adf]lhd bn btf{ u/fpg] k|of]hgsfnflu lgj]bg k]z ubf{ ;DalGwt /fhgLlts bnsf] ljwfg / 3f]if0ffkqsf cltl/Qm ;+3Lo sfg"g adf]lhdsf cGo sfuhft k]z ug'{ kg{]5 .
-$_ pkwf/f -@_ adf]lhd bn btf{sfnflu lgj]bg lb+bf /fhgLlts bnn] b]xfosf zt{ k"/f ug'{ kg{]5 M–
-s_ /fhgLlts bnsf] ljwfg / lgodfjnL nf]stflGqs x'g' k5{,
-v_ /fhgLlts bnsf] ljwfgdf sDtLdf kfFr jif{df Ps k6s ;f] bnsf ;+3Lo / k|b]z txsf k|To]s kbflwsf/Lsf lgjf{rg x'g] Joj:yf x'g' k5{, t/ ljz]if kl/l:ylt pTkGg eO{ kfFr jif{leqdf kbflwsf/Lsf] lgjf{rg ;DkGg x'g g;s]df, 5 dxLgfleq To:tf] lgjf{rg ug{ ;lsg] u/L /fhgLlts bnsf] ljwfgdf Joj:yf ug{ afwf kg{] 5}g .
-u_ bnsf] ljleGg txsf sfo{sfl/0fL ;ldltdf g]kfnsf] ljljwtfnfO{ k|ltlalDat ug]{ u/L ;dfj]zL k|ltlglwTjsf] Joj:yf ul/Psf] x'g' k5{ .
-%_ s'g} /fhgLlts bnsf] gfd, p2]Zo, lrGx jf em08f b]zsf] wfld{s jf ;fDk|bflos Pstfdf vnn kfg{] jf b]znfO{ ljvl08t ug{] k|s[ltsf] /x]5 eg] To:tf] /fhgLlts bn btf{ x'g] 5}g . -wf/f @^(_

Political Parties

-!_ wf/f @^( adf]lhd /fhgLlts bnsf] u7g u/L ;~rfng ug{ / bnsf] ljrf/wf/f, bz{g / sfo{qmdk|lt hg;fwf/0fsf] ;dy{g / ;xof]u k|fKt ug{sfnflu To;sf] k|rf/ / k|;f/ ug]{ sfo{df s'g} k|ltaGw nufpg] u/L agfOPsf] sfg"g jf ul/Psf] s'g} Joj:yf jf lg0f{o of] ;+ljwfgsf] k|lts"n dflgg]5 / :jtM cdfGo x'g]5 .
-@_ s'g} Pp6} /fhgLlts bn jf Ps} lsl;dsf] /fhgLlts ljrf/wf/f, bz{g jf sfo{qmd ePsf JolQmx¿n] dfq lgjf{rg, b]zsf] /fhgLlts k|0ffnL jf /fHo Joj:yf ;~rfngdf efu lng kfpg] jf ;lDdlnt x'g kfpg] u/L agfOPsf] sfg"g jf ul/Psf] s'g} Joj:yf jf lg0f{o of] ;+ljwfgsf] k|lts"n dflgg]5 / :jtM cdfGo x'g]5 . -wf/f @&)_

Electoral Bodies

-!_ lgjf{rg cfof]un] o; ;+ljwfg / ;+3Lo sfg"gsf] cwLgdf /xL /fi6«klt, pk/fi6«klt, ;+3Lo ;+;bsf ;b:o, k|b]z ;efsf ;b:o, :yfgLo txsf ;b:osf] lgjf{rgsf]] ;+rfng, /]vb]v, lgb]{zg / lgoGq0f ug{]5 . lgjf{rgsf] k|of]hgsfnflu dtbftfsf] gfdfjnL tof/ ug{] sfo{ lgjf{rg cfof]un] ug{]5 .
-@_ lgjf{rg cfof]un] o; ;+ljwfg / ;+3Lo sfg"g adf]lhd /fli6«o dxTjsf] ljifodf hgdt ;+u|x u/fpg]5 .
-#_ /fi6«klt, pk/fi6«klt, ;+3Lo ;+;bsf ;b:o, k|b]z ;ef ;b:o jf :yfgLo txsf ;b:osfnflu pDd]bjf/Lsf] dgf]gog btf{ eO;s]sf] t/ lgjf{rg kl/0ffd 3f]if0ff eO{ g;s]sf] cj:yfdf s'g} pDd]bjf/sf] of]Uotf ;DaGwdf s'g} k|Zg p7]df To;sf] lg0f{o lgjf{rg cfof]un] ug]{5 .
-$_ lgjf{rg cfof]un] cfˆgf] sfd, st{Jo / clwsf/ dWo] s'g} sfd, st{Jo / clwsf/ k|d'v lgjf{rg cfo'Qm, s'g} lgjf{rg cfo'Qm jf ;/sf/L sd{rf/LnfO{ tf]lsPsf] zt{sf] cwLgdf /xL k|of]u tyf kfng ug]{u/L k|Tofof]hg ug{ ;Sg]5 .
-%_ lgjf{rg cfof]usf] cGo sfd, st{Jo / clwsf/ tyf sfo{ljlw ;+3Lo sfg"g adf]lhd x'g]5 . -wf/f @$^_

Head of State

-!_ g]kfndf Ps /fi6«klt /xg]5 .
-@_ /fi6«klt g]kfnsf] /fi6«fWoIf x'g]5 . lghn] o; ;+ljwfg / ;+3Lo sfg"g adf]lhd cfˆgf] sfo{ ;Dkfbg ug]{5 .
=== -wf/f ^!_

Head of State

-!_ /fi6«kltsf] lgjf{rg ;+3Lo ;+;bsf ;b:o / k|b]z ;efsf ;b:o dtbftf /x]sf] lgjf{rs d08naf6 x'g]5 . ;+3Lo ;+;bsf ;b:o / k|b]z ;efsf ;b:osf] dtef/ ;+3Lo sfg"g adf]lhd km/s x'g]5 .
-@_ pkwf/f -!_ df h'g;'s} s'/f n]lvPsf] eP tfklg s'g} k|b]zdf k|b]z ;efsf] lgjf{rg gePsf sf/0fn] dfq /fi6«kltsf] lgjf{rg k|of]hgsfnflu lgjf{rs d08n u7g ug{ afwf k/]sf] dflgg] 5}g .
=== -wf/f ^@_

Head of State

-!_ b]xfosf] of]Uotf ePsf] JolQm /fi6«klt x'gsfnflu of]Uo x'g]5 M–
-s_ ;+3Lo ;+;bsf] ;b:o x'g of]Uo ePsf],
-v_ sDtLdf k}+tfln; jif{ pd]/ k"/f ePsf], /
-u_ s'g} sfg"gn] cof]Uo gePsf] .
=== -wf/f ^$_

Head of State

o; ;+ljwfg adf]lhd /fi6«klt / pk/fi6«kltsf] lgjf{rg km/s km/s ln+u jf ;d'bfosf] k|ltlglwTj x'g] u/L ug{' kg{]5 . -wf/f &)_

Vice-President

-!_ b]xfosf] of]Uotf ePsf] JolQm /fi6«klt x'gsfnflu of]Uo x'g]5 M–
-s_ ;+3Lo ;+;bsf] ;b:o x'g of]Uo ePsf],
-v_ sDtLdf k}+tfln; jif{ pd]/ k"/f ePsf], /
-u_ s'g} sfg"gn] cof]Uo gePsf] .
=== -wf/f ^$_

Vice-President

-!_ g]kfndf Ps pk/fi6«klt /xg]5 .
-@_ /fi6«kltsf] cg'kl:yltdf /fi6«kltaf6 ul/g] sfo{x¿ pk/fi6«kltaf6 ;Dkfbg ul/g]5 .
=== -wf/f ^&_

Vice-President

pk/fi6«kltsf] of]Uotf, lgjf{rg k|lqmof, kbfjlw ;DaGwL Joj:yf /fi6«kltsf] ;/x x'g]5 . -wf/f ^(_

Vice-President

o; ;+ljwfg adf]lhd /fi6«klt / pk/fi6«kltsf] lgjf{rg km/s km/s ln+u jf ;d'bfosf] k|ltlglwTj x'g] u/L ug{' kg{]5 . -wf/f &)_

Government

-!_ g]kfnsf] sfo{sfl/0fL clwsf/ of] ;+ljwfg / sfg"g adf]lhd dlGq kl/ifbdf lglxt x'g]5 .
=== -wf/f &%_

Government

-!_ /fi6«kltn] k|ltlglw ;efdf ax'dt k|fKt ;+;bLo bnsf] g]tfnfO{ k|wfgdGqL lgo'Qm ug]{5 / lghsf] cWoIftfdf dlGq kl/ifbsf] u7g x'g]5 .
-@_ pkwf/f -!_ adf]lhd k|ltlglw ;efdf s'g} klg bnsf] :ki6 ax'dt g/x]sf] cj:yfdf k|ltlglw ;efdf k|ltlglwTj ug]{ b'O{ jf b'O{eGbf a9L bnx¿sf] ;dy{gdf ax'dt k|fKt ug{ ;Sg] k|ltlglw ;efsf] ;b:onfO{ /fi6«kltn] k|wfgdGqL lgo'Qm ug]{5 .
-#_ k|ltlglw ;efsf] lgjf{rgsf] clGtd kl/0ffd 3f]if0ff ePsf] ldltn] tL; lbgleq pkwf/f -@_ adf]lhd k|wfgdGqL lgo'lQm x'g ;Sg] cj:yf gePdf jf To;/L lgo'Qm k|wfgdGqLn] pkwf/f -$_ adf]lhd ljZjf;sf] dt k|fKt ug{ g;s]df /fi6«kltn] k|ltlglw ;efdf ;a}eGbf a9L ;b:ox¿ ePsf] bnsf] ;+;bLo bnsf] g]tfnfO{ k|wfgdGqL lgo'Qm ug]{5 .
===
-(_ /fi6«kltn] k|wfgdGqLsf] l;kmfl/;df ;+3Lo ;+;bsf ;b:odWo]af6 ;dfj]zL l;4fGt adf]lhd k|wfgdGqL ;lxt a9Ldf kRrL;hgf dGqL /x]sf] dlGqkl/ifb u7g ug]{5 . === -wf/f &^_

Legislature

k|ltlglw ;ef / /fli6«o ;ef gfdsf b'O{ ;bg ;lxtsf] Ps ;+3Lo Joj:yflksf x'g]5 h;nfO{ ;+3Lo ;+;b elgg]5 . -wf/f *#_

Legislature

-!_ k|ltlglw ;efdf b]xfo adf]lhdsf b'O{ ;o krxQ/ ;b:o /xg]5g\ M–
-s_ g]kfnnfO{ e"uf]n / hg;+Vofsf] cfwf/df Ps ;o k}+;¶L lgjf{rg If]q sfod u/L k|To]s lgjf{rg If]qaf6 Pshgf /xg] u/L klxnf] x'g] lgjf{lrt x'g] lgjf{rg k|0ffnL adf]lhd lgjf{lrt x'g] Ps ;o k}+;¶L ;b:o, -v_ ;Dk"0f{ b]znfO{ Ps lgjf{rg If]q dfgL /fhgLlts bnnfO{ dt lbg] ;dfg'kflts lgjf{rg k|0ffnL adf]lhd lgjf{lrt x'g] Ps ;o bz ;b:o .
-@_ ;dfg'kflts lgjf{rg k|0ffnL adf]lhd x'g] k|ltlglw ;efsf] lgjf{rgsfnflu /fhgLlts bnn] pDd]bjf/L lb+bf hg;+Vofsf] cfwf/df dlxnf, blnt, cflbjf;L hghflt, v; cfo{, dw];L, yf¿, d'l:nd, lk5l8Psf] If]q ;d]taf6 aGb ;"rLsf cfwf/df k|ltlglwTj u/fpg]
Joj:yf ;+3Lo sfg"g adf]lhd x'g]5 . To;/L pDd]bjf/L lb+bf e"uf]n / k|fb]lzs ;Gt'ngnfO{ ;d]t Wofg lbg' kg{]5 .
:ki6Ls/0f M o; pkwf/fsf] k|of]hgsfnflu æv; cfo{Æ eGgfn] If]qL, a|fDx0f, 7s'/L, ;+Gof;L -bzgfdL_ ;d'bfo ;Demg' k5{ .
-#_ pkwf/f -@_ adf]lhd /fhgLlts bnn] pDd]bjf/L lb+bf ckf+utf ePsf] JolQmsf] ;d]t k|ltlglwTj x'g] Joj:yf ug{' kg{]5 .
-$_ pkwf/f -!_ adf]lhd x'g] k|ltlglw ;ef ;b:osf] lgjf{rg sfg"g adf]lhd uf]Ko dtbfgåf/f x'g]5 .
===
-^_ k|ltlglw ;efsf ;b:osfnflu x'g] lgjf{rgdf dtbfg ug{ clwsf/ kfPsf] wf/f *& adf]lhd of]Uotf k'u]sf] JolQm ;+3Lo sfg"gsf] cwLgdf /xL s'g} klg lgjf{rg If]qaf6 pDd]bjf/ x'g kfpg]5 . t/ Pp6} JolQm PseGbf a9L lgjf{rg If]qdf Ps} k6s pDd]bjf/ x'g kfpg] 5}g .
-&_ k|ltlglw ;efsf] sfo{sfn 5 dxLgfeGbf a9L cjlw afFsL 5Fb} s'g} ;b:osf] :yfg l/Qm ePdf To:tf] :yfg h'g lgjf{rg k|0ffnLaf6 k"lt{ ePsf] lyof] ;f]xL k|lqmofåf/f k"lt{ ul/g]5 .
-*_ o; efudf cGoq h'g;'s} s'/f n]lvPsf] eP tfklg ;+3Lo ;+;bdf k|ltlglwTj ug]{ k|To]s /fhgLlts bnaf6 lgjf{lrt s'n ;b:o ;+Vofsf] sDtLdf Ps ltxfO ;b:o dlxnf x'g' kg]{5 . To;/L lgjf{lrt ubf{ pkwf/f -!_ sf] v08 -s_ / wf/f *^ sf] pkwf/f -@_ sf] v08 -s_ adf]lhd lgjf{lrt ;b:ox¿ dWo] s'g} /fhgLlts bnsf] Ps ltxfO ;b:o dlxnf lgjf{lrt x'g g;s]df To:tf] /fhgLlts bnn] pkwf/f -!_sf] v08 -v_ adf]lhd ;b:o lgjf{lrt ubf{ cfˆgf] bnaf6 ;+3Lo ;+;bdf lgjf{lrt x'g] s'n ;b:osf] sDtLdf Ps ltxfO dlxnf ;b:o x'g]u/L lgjf{lrt ug'{ kg]{5 .
-(_ k|ltlglw ;efsf] lgjf{rg / tT;DaGwL cGo ljifo ;+3Lo sfg"g adf]lhd x'g]5 . -wf/f *$_

Legislature

-!_ /fli6«o ;ef Ps :yfoL ;bg x'g]5 .
-@_ /fli6«o ;efdf b]xfo adf]lhdsf pgfG;f7L ;b:o /xg]5g\ M–
-s_ k|b]z ;efsf ;b:o, ufpFkflnsfsf cWoIf / pkfWoIf tyf gu/kflnsfsf k|d'v / pkk|d'v /x]sf] lgjf{rs d08nåf/f ;+3Lo sfg"g adf]lhd k|b]z ;efsf ;b:o, ufpFkflnsfsf cWoIf / pkfWoIf tyf gu/kflnsfsf k|d'v / pkk|d'vsf] dtsf] ef/ km/s x'g] u/L k|To]s k|b]zaf6 sDtLdf tLghgf dlxnf, Pshgf blnt / Pshgf ckf+utf ePsf JolQm jf cNk;+Vos ;lxt cf7 hgf u/L] lgjf{lrt 5kGg hgf,
-v_ g]kfn ;/sf/sf] l;kmfl/;df /fi6«kltaf6 dgf]gLt sDtLdf Ps hgf dlxnf ;lxt tLg hgf .
=== -wf/f *^_

Legislature

-!_ b]xfosf] of]Uotf ePsf] JolQm ;+3Lo ;+;bsf] ;b:o x'g of]Uo x'g]5 M–
-s_ g]kfnsf] gful/s,
-v_ k|ltlglw ;efsfnflu kRrL; jif{ / /fli6«o ;efsfnflu k}+tL; jif{ pd]/ k"/f ePsf],
-u_ g}lts ktg b]lvg] kmf}hbf/L s;"/df ;hfo gkfPsf],
-3_ s'g} ;+3Lo sfg"gn] cof]Uo gePsf], /
-ª_ s'g} nfesf] kbdf axfn g/x]sf] .
=== -wf/f *&_

Legislature

-!_ k|ltlglw ;efsf] klxnf] a}7s k|f/De ePsf] ldltn] kGw| lbgleq k|ltlglw ;efsf ;b:ox¿n] cfkm"dWo]af6 k|ltlglw ;efsf] ;efd'v / pk;efd'vsf] lgjf{rg ug]{5g\ .
-@_ pkwf/f -!_ adf]lhd lgjf{rg ubf{ k|ltlglw ;efsf] ;efd'v / pk;efd'v dWo] Pshgf dlxnf x'g] u/L ug{' kg]{5 / k|ltlglw ;efsf] ;efd'v / pk;efd'v km/s km/s bnsf] k|ltlglw x'g' kg]{5 . === -wf/f (!_

Legislature

-!_ /fli6«o ;efsf] klxnf] a}7s k|f/De ePsf] ldltn] kGw| lbgleq /fli6«o ;efsf ;b:ox¿n] cfkm"dWo]af6 /fli6«o ;efsf] cWoIf / pkfWoIfsf] lgjf{rg ug]{5g\ .
-@_ pkwf/f -!_ adf]lhd lgjf{rg ubf{ /fli6«o ;efsf] cWoIf / pkfWoIf dWo] Pshgf dlxnf x'g] u/L ug{' kg]{5 .
=== -wf/f (@_

Property, Inheritance and Land Tenure

-%_ k}t[s ;DklQdf n}+lus e]befj ljgf ;a} ;Gtfgsf] ;dfg xs x'g]5 . -wf/f !*_

Property, Inheritance and Land Tenure

-!_ k|To]s gful/snfO{ sfg"gsf] cwLgdf /xL ;DklQ cfh{g ug]{, ef]u ug]{, a]rlavg ug]{, Jofj;flos nfe k|fKt ug]{ / ;DklQsf] cGo sf/f]af/ ug]{ xs x'g]5 .
t/ /fHon] JolQmsf] ;DklQdf s/ nufpg / k|ultzLn s/sf] dfGotf cg'¿k JolQmsf] cfodf s/ nufpg ;Sg]5 .
:ki6Ls/0f M o; wf/fsf] k|of]hgsfnflu æ;DklQÆ eGgfn] rn crn nufot ;a} k|sf/sf] ;DklQ ;Demg' k5{ / ;f] zAbn] af}l4s ;DklQ ;d]tnfO{ hgfpF5 .
=== -wf/f @%_

Property, Inheritance and Land Tenure

-^_ ;DklQ tyf kfl/jfl/s dfldnfdf bDktLsf] ;dfg xs x'g]5 . -wf/f #*_

Property, Inheritance and Land Tenure

-%_ /fHon] e"ldxLg blntnfO{ sfg"g adf]lhd Ps k6s hdLg pknAw u/fpg' kg]{5 .
===
-&_ blnt ;d'bfonfO{ o; wf/fåf/f k|bQ ;'ljwf blnt dlxnf, k'?if / ;a} ;d'bfodf /x]sf blntn] ;dfg'kflts ¿kdf k|fKt ug]{ u/L Gofof]lrt ljt/0f ug'{ kg]{5 . -wf/f $)_

Property, Inheritance and Land Tenure

-$_ k|To]s ls;fgnfO{ sfg"g adf]lhd s[lif sfo{sfnflu e"lddf kx'Fr, k/Dk/fut ¿kdf k|of]u / cjnDag ul/Psf] :yfgLo aLp lahg / s[lif k|hfltsf] 5gf}6 / ;+/If0fsf] xs x'g]5 .
=== -wf/f $@_

Property, Inheritance and Land Tenure

/fHon] b]xfosf gLltx¿ cjnDag ug]{5M–
===
-ª_ s[lif / e"ld;'wf/ ;DaGwL gLltM
-!_ e"lddf /x]sf] bf]xf]/f] :jfldTj cGTo ub}{ ls;fgsf] lxtnfO{ Wofgdf /fvL j}1flgs e"ld;'wf/ ug]{,
=== -wf/f %!_

Property, Inheritance and Land Tenure

-!_ u'7Lsf] d"ne"t dfGotfdf k|lts"n c;/ gkg]{u/L u'7L hUufdf ef]uflwsf/ e}/x]sf ls;fg Pj+ u'7Lsf] clwsf/sf ;DaGwdf ;+3Lo ;+;bn] cfjZos sfg"g agfpg]5 .
=== -wf/f @()_

Property, Inheritance and Land Tenure

 -!^_ e"ld Joj:yfkg, hUufsf] clen]v
=== -cg';"rL–^, k|b]zsf] clwsf/sf] ;"rL_

Property, Inheritance and Land Tenure

-%_ kfl/jfl/s dfldnf -ljjfx, ;DklQ x:tfGt/0f, ;DaGw ljR5]b, nf]kf]Gd'v, 6'x'/f, wd{k'q, wd{k'qL pQ/flwsf/ / ;+o'Qm kl/jf/_ ;DaGwL sfg"g
-^_ ;DklQ k|flKt, clwu|x0f / clwsf/sf] ;[hgf
===
-@$_ e"ld gLlt / ;f] ;DaGwL sfg"g
=== -cg';"rL–&, ;+3 / k|b]zsf] ;femf clwsf/sf] ;"rL_

Property, Inheritance and Land Tenure

-!$_ 3/ hUuf wgL k'hf{ ljt/0f
=== -cg';"rL–*, :yfgLo txsf] clwsf/sf] ;"rL_

Protection from Violence

-@_ k|To]s gful/snfO{ b]xfosf] :jtGqtf x'g]5 M–
===
-u_ /fhgLlts bn vf]Ng] :jtGqtf,
-3_ ;+3 / ;+:yf vf]Ng] :jtGqtf,
===
t/,
===
-#_ v08 -u_ sf] s'g} s'/fn] g]kfnsf] ;fj{ef}d;Qf, ef}uf]lns cv08tf, /fli6«otf / :jfwLgtfdf vnn kg]{, /fi6« lj?4 hf;";L ug]{, /fli6«o uf]kgLotf e+u ug]{ jf g]kfnsf] ;'/Iffdf cfFr k'¥ofpg] u/L s'g} ljb]zL /fHo, ;+u7g jf k|ltlglwnfO{ ;xof]u ug]{ jf /fHob|f]x ug]{ jf ;+3Lo OsfOaLrsf] ;'–;DaGwdf vnn kg]{ jf hftLo jf ;fDk|bflos ljå]if km}nfpg] jf ljleGg hft, hflt, wd{ / ;Dk|bfoaLrsf] ;'–;DaGwdf vnn kg]{ jf s]jn hflt, efiff, wd{, ;Dk|bfo jf ln+usf] cfwf/df s'g} /fhgLlts bnsf] ;b:otf k|fKt ug{] jf aGb]h nufpg] jf gful/sx¿aLr lje]b ug]{ u/L /fhgLlts bn u7g ug{], lx+;fTds sfo{ ug{ b'?T;fxg ug]{ jf ;fj{hlgs g}ltstfsf] k|lts"n x'g] sfo{df dgfl;a k|ltaGw nufpg] u/L P]g agfpg /f]s nufPsf] dflgg] 5}g .
-$_ v08 -3_ sf] s'g} s'/fn] g]kfnsf] ;fj{ef}d;Qf, ef}uf]lns cv08tf, /fli6«otf / :jfwLgtfdf vnn kg]{, /fi6«sf] lj?4 hf;";L ug]{, /fli6«o uf]kgLotf e+u ug]{ jf g]kfnsf] ;'/Iffdf cfFr k'¥ofpg] u/L s'g} ljb]zL /fHo, ;+u7g jf k|ltlglwnfO{ ;xof]u ug]{, /fHob|f]x ug]{ jf ;+3Lo OsfOaLrsf] ;'–;DaGwdf vnn kg]{ jf hftLo jf ;fDk|bflos ljå]if km}nfpg] jf ljleGg hft, hflt, wd{ / ;Dk|bfoaLrsf] ;'–;DaGwdf vnn kg]{ jf lx+;fTds sfo{ ug{ b'?T;fxg ug]{ jf ;fj{hlgs g}ltstfsf] k|lts"n x'g] sfo{df dgfl;a k|ltaGw nufpg] u/L P]g agfpg /f]s nufPsf] dflgg] 5}g .
=== -wf/f !&_

Protection from Violence

-!_ ljB'tLo k|sfzg, k|;f/0f tyf 5fkf nufotsf h'g;'s} dfWodaf6 s'g} ;dfrf/, ;DkfbsLo, n]v, /rgf jf cGo s'g} kf7\o, >Jo, >Job[Zo ;fdu|Lsf] k|sfzg tyf k|;f/0f ug{ jf ;"rgf k|jfx ug{ jf 5fKg k"j{ k|ltaGw nufOg] 5}g . t/ g]kfnsf] ;fj{ef}d;Qf, ef}uf]lns cv08tf, /fli6«otf jf ;+3Lo OsfOaLrsf] ;'–;DaGw jf ljleGg hft, hflt, wd{ jf ;Dk|bfo aLrsf] ;'–;DaGwdf vnn kg]{, /fHob|f]x, ufnL a]OHhtL jf cbfntsf] cjx]ngf x'g] jf ck/fw ug{ b'?T;fxg ug]{ jf ;fj{hlgs lzi6frf/, g}ltstfsf] k|lts"n sfo{ ug{], >dk|lt cjx]ngf ug{] / hftLo 5'jf5"t Pj+ n}+lus e]befjnfO{ b'?T;fxg ug]{ sfo{df dgfl;a k|ltaGw nufpg] u/L P]g agfpg /f]s nufPsf] dflgg] 5}g .
=== -wf/f !(_

Protection from Violence

-!_ kqmfp k/]sf] jf y'gfdf /x]sf] JolQmnfO{ zf/Ll/s jf dfgl;s oftgf lbOg] jf lgh;Fu lgd{d, cdfgjLo jf ckdfghgs Jojxf/ ul/g] 5}g .
=== -wf/f @@_

Protection from Violence

-#_ pTklQ, hft, hflt jf zf/Ll/s cj:yfsf] cfwf/df s'g} JolQm jf ;d'bfonfO{ pRr jf gLr bzf{pg], hft, hflt jf 5'jf5"tsf] cfwf/df ;fdflhs e]befjnfO{ Gofof]lrt 7fGg] jf 5'jf5"t tyf hftLo pRrtf jf 3[0ffdf cfwfl/t ljrf/sf] k|rf/ k|;f/ ug{ jf hftLo lje]bnfO{ s'g} klg lsl;dn] k|f]T;fxg ug{ kfOg] 5}g .
=== -wf/f @$_

Protection from Violence

-!_ k|To]s JolQmnfO{ zf]if0f lj?4sf] xs x'g]5 .
-@_ wd{, k|yf, k/Dk/f, ;+:sf/, k|rng jf cGo s'g} cfwf/df s'g}klg JolQmnfO{ s'g} lsl;dn] zf]if0f ug{ kfOg] 5}g .
-#_ s;}nfO{ klg a]rlavg ug{, bf; jf afFwf agfpg kfOg] 5}g .
-$_ s;}nfO{ klg lghsf] OR5f lj?4 sfddf nufpg kfOg] 5}g . t/ ;fj{hlgs k|of]hgsfnflu gful/snfO{ /fHon] clgjfo{ ;]jfdf nufpg ;Sg] u/L sfg"g agfpg /f]s nufPsf] dflgg] 5}g .
-%_ pkwf/f -#_ / -$_ ljk/Ltsf] sfo{ sfg"g adf]lhd b08gLo x'g]5 / kLl8tnfO{ kL8saf6 sfg"g adf]lhd Ifltk"lt{ kfpg] xs x'g]5 . -wf/f @(_

Protection from Violence

-#_ dlxnf lj?å wfld{s, ;fdflhs, ;f+:s[lts k/Dk/f, k|rng jf cGo s'g} cfwf/df zf/Ll/s, dfgl;s, of}ghGo, dgf]j}1flgs jf cGos'g} lsl;dsf] lx+;fhGo sfo{ jf zf]if0f ul/g] 5}g . To:tf] sfo{ sfg"g adf]lhd b08gLo x'g]5 / kLl8tnfO{ sfg"g adf]lhd Ifltk"lt{ kfpg] xsx'g]5 .
=== -wf/f #*_

Protection from Violence

-$_ s'g} klg afnaflnsfnfO{ snsf/vfgf, vfgL jf o:t} cGo hf]lvdk"0f{ sfddf nufpg kfOg] 5}g .
-%_ s'g} klg afnaflnsfnfO{ afn ljjfx, u}/sfg"gL cf];f/k;f/ / ckx/0f ug{ jf aGws /fVg kfOg] 5}g .
-^_ s'g} klg afnaflnsfnfO{ ;]gf, k|x/L jf ;z:q ;d"xdf egf{ jf k|of]u ug{ jf ;f+:s[lts jf wfld{s k|rngsf gfddf s'g} klg dfWod jf k|sf/n] b'Jo{jxf/, pk]Iff jf zf/Ll/s, dfgl;s, of}ghGo jf cGo s'g} k|sf/sf] zf]if0f ug{ jf cg'lrt k|of]u ug{ kfOg] 5}g .
-&_ s'g} klg afnaflnsfnfO{ 3/, ljBfno jf cGo h'g;'s} :yfg / cj:yfdf zf/Ll/s, dfgl;s jf cGo s'g} lsl;dsf] oftgf lbg kfOg]5}g . === -wf/f #(_

Protection from Violence

-#_ ;fj{hlgs, lghL / ;xsf/L If]qsf] ;xeflutf tyf ljsf; dfkm{t pknAw ;fwg / ;|f]tsf] clwstd kl/rfngåf/f tLj| cfly{s j[l4 xfl;n ub{} lbuf] cfly{s ljsf; ug]{ tyf k|fKt pknlAwx¿sf] Gofof]lrt ljt/0f u/L cfly{s c;dfgtfsf] cGTo ub}{ zf]if0f /lxt ;dfhsf] lgdf{0f ug{ /fli6«o cy{tGqnfO{ cfTdlge{/, :jtGq tyf pGgltzLn agfpFb} ;dfhjfb pGd'v :jtGq / ;d[4 cy{tGqsf] ljsf; ug]{ /fHosf] cfly{s p2]Zo x'g]5 .
=== -wf/f %)_

Protection from Violence

/fHon] b]xfosf gLltx¿ cjnDag ug]{5M–
===
-em_ >d / /f]huf/ ;DaGwL gLltM
===
-#_ afn>d nufot >d zf]if0fsf ;a} ¿ksf] cGTo ug]{,
=== -wf/f %!_

Public Institutions and Services

-%_ g]kfndf cu|ufdL nf]stflGqs kl/jt{gsf]nflu ePsf ;a} hg cfGbf]ng, ;z:q ;+3if{ / qmflGtsf qmddf hLjg pT;u{ ug]{ zxLbsf kl/jf/, a]kQf kfl/Psf JolQmsf kl/jf/, nf]stGqsf of]4f, åGåkLl8t / lj:yflkt, ckf+utf ePsf JolQm, 3fOt] tyf kLl8tnfO{ Gofo Pj+ plrt ;Ddfg ;lxt lzIff, :jf:Yo, /f]huf/L, cfjf; / ;fdflhs ;'/Iffdf sfg"g adf]lhd k|fyldstfsf ;fy cj;/ kfpg] xs x'g]5 .
-wf/f $@_

Public Institutions and Services

cfly{s ¿kn] ljkGg, czQm / c;xfo cj:yfdf /x]sf, c;xfo Psn dlxnf, ckf+utf ePsf, afnaflnsf, cfk\mgf] x]/rfx cfkm}+ ug{ g;Sg] tyf nf]kf]Gd'v hfltsf gful/snfO{ sfg"g adf]lhd ;fdflhs ;'/Iffsf] xs x'g]5 . -wf/f $#_

Public Institutions and Services

-#_ ;fj{hlgs, lghL / ;xsf/L If]qsf] ;xeflutf tyf ljsf; dfkm{t pknAw ;fwg / ;|f]tsf] clwstd kl/rfngåf/f tLj| cfly{s j[l4 xfl;n ub{} lbuf] cfly{s ljsf; ug]{ tyf k|fKt pknlAwx¿sf] Gofof]lrt ljt/0f u/L cfly{s c;dfgtfsf] cGTo ub}{ zf]if0f /lxt ;dfhsf] lgdf{0f ug{ /fli6«o cy{tGqnfO{ cfTdlge{/, :jtGq tyf pGgltzLn agfpFb} ;dfhjfb pGd'v :jtGq / ;d[4 cy{tGqsf] ljsf; ug]{ /fHosf] cfly{s p2]Zo x'g]5 .
=== -wf/f %)_

Public Institutions and Services

/fHon] b]xfosf gLltx¿ cjnDag ug]{5 M–
===
-v_ /fhgLlts tyf zf;g Joj:yf ;DaGwL gLltM
===
-$_ ;fj{hlgs k|zf;gnfO{ :jR5, ;Ifd, lgikIf, kf/bzL{, e|i6frf/d'Qm, hgpQ/bfoL / ;xeflutfd"ns agfpFb} /fHoaf6 k|fKt x'g] ;]jf ;'ljwfdf hgtfsf] ;dfg / ;xh kx'Fr ;'lglZrt u/L ;'zf;gsf] k|Tofe"lt ug]{,
===
-r_ ljsf; ;DaGwL gLltM
===
-^_ ljsf;sf] k|ltkmn ljt/0fdf ljkGg gful/snfO{ k|fyldstf lb+b} cfd hgtfn] Gofof]lrt ¿kdf kfpg] Joj:yf ug]{],
===
-h_ gful/ssf cfwf/e"t cfjZostf ;DaGwL gLltM
===
-^_ u'0f:t/Lo :jf:Yo ;]jfdf ;a}sf] ;xh, ;'ne / ;dfg kxF'r ;'lglZrt ug{]{,
===
-!#_ cfwf/e"t j:t' tyf ;]jfdf ;a} gful/sx¿sf] ;dfg kxF'r ;'lglZrt ub}{ b'u{d / k5fl8 kfl/Psf] If]qnfO{ ljz]if k|fyldstf lbO{ of]hgfa4 cfk"lt{sf] Joj:yf ug]{,
-!$_ oftfoft ;'ljwfdf gful/sx¿sf] ;/n, ;xh / ;dfg kxF'r ;'lglZrt ub}{ oftfoft If]qdf nufgL clej[l4 ug]{ / jftfj/0f cg's"n k|ljlwnfO{ k|fyldstf lb+b} ;fj{hlgs oftfoftnfO{ k|f]T;fxg / lghL oftfoftnfO{ lgodg u/L oftfoft If]qnfO{ ;'/lIft, Jojl:yt / ckf+utf ePsf JolQm cg's"n agfpg],
===
-`_ ;fdflhs Gofo / ;dfj]zLs/0f ;DaGwL gLltM
===
-@_ hf]lvddf k/]sf, ;fdflhs / kfl/jfl/s alxis/0fdf k/]sf tyf lx+;f kLl8t dlxnfnfO{ k'gM:yfkgf, ;+/If0f, ;zQmLs/0f u/L :jfjnDaL agfpg],
===
-^_ d'Qm sd}of, sDxn/L, x/jf, r/jf, xlnof, e"ldxLg, ;'s'Daf;Lx¿sf] klxrfg u/L a;f]af;sfnflu 3/ 38]/L tyf hLljsf]kfh{gsfnflu s[lifof]Uo hdLg jf /f]huf/Lsf] Joj:yf ub}{ k'gM:yfkgf ug]{,
===
-!@_ ;fdflhs ;'/Iff / ;fdflhs Gofo k|bfg ubf{ ;a} ln+u, If]q / ;d'bfo leqsf cfly{s ¿kn] ljkGgnfO{ k|fyldstf k|bfg ug]{,
-!#_ :j:y, ;Ifd / cg'zfl;t gful/s tof/ ug{ v]ns"b tyf v]nf8Ldf of]hgfa4 nufgL ug]{ / v]ns"bnfO{ /fli6«o Pstf ;'b[9 ug]{ Pj+ cGt/f{li6«o If]qdf /fli6«o ;Ddfg clej[l4 ug{]{ dfWodsf] ¿kdf ljsf; ug]{, === -wf/f %!_

Sexual and Reproductive Rights

/fHon] b]xfosf gLltx¿ cjnDag ug]{5M–
===
-h_ gful/ssf cfwf/e"t cfjZostf ;DaGwL gLltM
===
-!)_ g]kfnsf] Ifdtf / cfjZostfsf cfwf/df hg;+Vof Joj:yfkgsfnflu kl/jf/ lgof]hgnfO{ k|f]T;flxt ub}{ dft[–lzz' d[To'b/ 36fO{ cf};t cfo' a9fpg],
===
-`_ ;fdflhs Gofo / ;dfj]zLs/0f ;DaGwL gLltM
===
-#_ k|hgg cj:yfdf cfjZos ;]jf ;'ljwf pkef]usf]
;'lglZrttf ug]{,
=== -wf/f %!_

Sexual and Reproductive Rights

-!)_ of]hgf, kl/jf/ lgof]hg / hg;+Vof Joj:yfkg
=== -cg';"rL–&, ;+3 / k|b]zsf] ;femf clwsf/sf] ;"rL_

Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity

-#_ /fHon] gful/sx¿sf aLr pTklQ, wd{, j0f{, hft, hflt, ln+u, cfly{s cj:yf, efiff, If]q, j}rfl/s cf:yf jf o:t} cGo s'g} cfwf/df e]befj ug]{ 5}g .
t/ ;fdflhs jf ;f+:s[lts b[li6n] lk5l8Psf dlxnf, blnt, cflbjf;L, cflbjf;L hghflt, dw]zL, yf¿, d'l:nd, pTkLl8t ju{, lk58f ju{, cNk;+Vos, ;LdfGtLs[t, ls;fg, >lds, o'jf, afnaflnsf, Ho]i7 gful/s, n}+lus tyf of}lgs cNk;+Vos, ckf+utf ePsf JolQm, uef{j:yfsf JolQm, czQm jf c;xfo, lk5l8Psf] If]q / cfly{s ¿kn] ljkGg v; cfo{ nufot gful/ssf] ;+/If0f, ;zQmLs/0f jf ljsf;sfnflu sfg"g adf]lhd ljz]if Joj:yf ug{ /f]s nufPsf] dflgg] 5}g .
=== -wf/f !*_

Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity

-!_ ;fdflhs ¿kn] k5fl8 k/]sf dlxnf, blnt, cflbjf;L, cflbjf;L hghflt, dw]zL, yf¿, cNk;+Vos, ckf+utf ePsf JolQm, ;LdfGtLs[t, d'l:nd, lk58f ju{, n}+lus tyf of}lgs cNk;+Vos, o'jf, ls;fg, >lds, pTkLl8t jf lk5l8Psf] If]qsf gful/s tyf cfly{s¿kn] ljkGg v; cfo{nfO{ ;dfj]zL l;4fGtsf cfwf/df /fHosf] lgsfodf ;xeflutfsf] xs x'g]5 .
=== -wf/f $@_

Status of the Constitution

-!_ of] ;+ljwfg g]kfnsf] d"n sfg"g xf] . o; ;+ljwfg;Fu aflemg] sfg"g aflemPsf] xb;Dd cdfGo x'g]5 .
-@_ o; ;+ljwfgsf] kfngf ug'{ k|To]s JolQmsf] st{Jo x'g]5 . -wf/f !_

Status of the Constitution

k|To]s gful/ssf st{Jo b]xfo adf]lhd x'g]5g\ M–
===
-v_ ;+ljwfg / sfg"gsf] kfngf ug{',
=== -wf/f $*_

Status of the Constitution

-!_ of] ;+ljwfg k|f/De x'Fbfsf avt sfod /x]sf g]kfnL sfg"g vf/]h jf ;+zf]wg geP;Dd nfu" /xg]5g\ . t/ of] ;+ljwfg;Fu aflemPsf] sfg"g of] ;+ljwfg adf]lhdsf] ;+3Lo ;+;bsf] klxnf] clwj]zg a;]sf] ldltn] Ps jif{kl5 aflemPsf] xb;Dd :jtM cdfGo x'g]5 .
-@_ g]kfnsf] cGtl/d ;+ljwfg, @)^# adf]lhdsf zflGt k|lqmof ;DaGwL sfo{x¿ o;} ;+ljwfg adf]lhd eP u/]sf] dflgg]5 . -wf/f #)$_

Status of International Law

-@_ pkwf/f -!_ df plNnlvt st{Jo k"/f ug{sfnflu /fli6«o dfgj clwsf/ cfof]un] b]xfo adf]lhdsf sfd ug{]5 M–
===
-5_ dfgj clwsf/;Fu ;DalGwt cGt/f{li6«o ;lGw jf ;Demf}tfsf] g]kfn kIf aGg' kg{] ePdf To;sf] sf/0f ;lxt g]kfn ;/sf/nfO{ l;kmfl/; ug{] / g]kfn kIf alg;s]sf ;lGw jf ;Demf}tfsf] sfof{Gjog eP jf gePsf] cg'udg u/L sfof{Gjog gePsf] kfOPdf To;sf] sfof{Gjog ug{ g]kfn ;/sf/ ;dIf l;kmfl/; ug{],
=== -wf/f @$(_

Status of International Law

-!_ /fli6«o dlxnf cfof]usf] sfd, st{Jo / clwsf/ b]xfo adf]lhd x'g]5 M–
===
-v_ dlxnfsf] xs lxt;Fu ;DalGwt sfg"g jf g]kfn kIf ePsf] cGt/f{li6«o ;lGw jf ;Demf}tf cGtu{tsf] bfloTj sfof{Gjog eP jf gePsf] ljifodf cg'udg u/L To;sf] k|efjsf/L kfng jf sfof{Gjogsf] pkfo ;lxt g]kfn ;/sf/nfO{ ;'emfj lbg],
===
-ª_ dlxnf clwsf/;Fu ;DalGwt g]kfn kIf ePsf] cGt/f{li6«o ;lGw jf ;Demf}tfdf ePsf] Joj:yf adf]lhd g]kfnn] k7fpg' kg]{ k|ltj]bg tof/Lsf ;DaGwdf g]kfn ;/sf/nfO{ ;'emfj lbg],
=== -wf/f @%#_

Status of International Law

-!_ /fli6«o blnt cfof]usf] sfd, st{Jo / clwsf/ b]xfo adf]lhd x'g]5 M–
===
-3_ blnt ;d'bfosf] clwsf/;+u ;DalGwt g]kfn kIf ePsf] cGt/f{li6«o ;lGw jf ;Demf}tfdf ePsf] Joj:yf adf]lhd g]kfnn] k7fpg' kg]{ k|ltj]bg tof/Lsf ;DaGwdf g]kfn ;/sf/nfO{ ;'emfj lbg],
=== -wf/f @%^_

Religious Law

-!_ g]kfn :jtGq, cljefHo, ;fj{ef}d;Qf ;DkGg, wd{lg/k]If, ;dfj]zL, nf]stGqfTds, ;dfhjfb pGd'v, ;+3Lo nf]stflGqs u0ftGqfTds /fHo xf] .
:ki6Ls/0f M o; wf/fsf] k|of]hgsf]nflu æwd{lg/k]IfÆ eGgfn] ;gftgb]lv rlncfPsf] wd{ ;+:s[ltsf] ;+/If0f nufot wfld{s, ;f+:s[lts :jtGqtf ;Demg' k5{ .
=== -wf/f $_

Religious Law

-@_ wd{, k|yf, k/Dk/f, ;+:sf/, k|rng jf cGo s'g} cfwf/df s'g} klg JolQmnfO{ s'g} lsl;dn] zf]if0f ug{ kfOg] 5}g .
=== -wf/f @(_

Religious Law

-#_ dlxnf lj?å wfld{s, ;fdflhs, ;f+:s[lts k/Dk/f, k|rng jfcGo s'g} cfwf/df zf/Ll/s, dfgl;s, of}ghGo, dgf]j}1flgs jf cGos'g} lsl;dsf] lx+;fhGo sfo{ jf zf]if0f ul/g] 5}g . To:tf] sfo{ sfg"g adf]lhd b08gLo x'g]5 / kLl8tnfO{ sfg"g adf]lhd Ifltk"lt{ kfpg] xs x'g]5 .
=== -wf/f #*_

Religious Law

-^_ s'g} klg afnaflnsfnfO{ ;]gf, k|x/L jf ;z:q ;d"xdf egf{ jf k|of]u ug{ jf ;f+:s[lts jf wfld{s k|rngsf gfddf s'g} klg dfWod jf k|sf/n] b'Jo{jxf/, pk]Iff jf zf/Ll/s, dfgl;s, of}ghGo jf cGo s'g} k|sf/sf] zf]if0f ug{ jf cg'lrt k|of]u ug{ kfOg] 5}g .
=== -wf/f #(_

Religious Law

-@_ wd{, ;+:s[lt, ;+:sf/, k|yf, k/Dk/f, k|rng jf cGo s'g} klg cfwf/df x'g] ;a} k|sf/sf lje]b, zf]if0f / cGofosf] cGTo u/L ;Eo / ;dtfd"ns ;dfhsf] lgdf{0f ug]{ === /fHosf] ;fdflhs / ;f+:s[lts p2]Zo x'g]5 . === -wf/f %)_

Religious Law

/fHon] b]xfosf gLltx¿ cjnDag ug]{5 M–
===
-u_ ;fdflhs / ;f+:s[lts ¿kfGt/0f ;DaGwL gLltM ===
-%_ ;dfhdf ljBdfg wd{, k|yf, k/Dk/f, /Llt tyf ;+:sf/sf gfddf x'g] ;a} k|sf/sf lje]b, c;dfgtf, zf]if0f / cGofosf] cGt ug]{,
=== -wf/f %!_

Customary Law

-@_ wd{, k|yf, k/Dk/f, ;+:sf/, k|rng jf cGo s'g} cfwf/df s'g}klg JolQmnfO{ s'g} lsl;dn] zf]if0f ug{ kfOg] 5}g .
=== -wf/f @(_

Customary Law

-#_ dlxnf lj?å wfld{s, ;fdflhs, ;f+:s[lts k/Dk/f, k|rng jf cGo s'g} cfwf/df zf/Ll/s, dfgl;s, of}ghGo, dgf]j}1flgs jf cGo s'g} lsl;dsf] lx+;fhGo sfo{ jf zf]if0f ul/g] 5}g . To:tf] sfo{ sfg"g adf]lhd b08gLo x'g]5 / kLl8tnfO{ sfg"g adf]lhd Ifltk"lt{ kfpg] xsx'g]5 .
=== -wf/f #*_

Customary Law

-^_ s'g} klg afnaflnsfnfO{ ;]gf, k|x/L jf ;z:q ;d"xdf egf{ jf k|of]u ug{ jf ;f+:s[lts jf wfld{s k|rngsf gfddf s'g} klg dfWod jf k|sf/n] b'Jo{jxf/, pk]Iff jf zf/Ll/s, dfgl;s, of}ghGo jf cGo s'g} k|sf/sf] zf]if0f ug{ jf cg'lrt k|of]u ug{ kfOg] 5}g .
=== -wf/f #(_

Customary Law

-@_ wd{, ;+:s[lt, ;+:sf/, k|yf, k/Dk/f, k|rng jf cGo s'g} klg cfwf/df x'g] ;a} k|sf/sf lje]b, zf]if0f / cGofosf] cGTo u/L ;Eo / ;dtfd"ns ;dfhsf] lgdf{0f ug]{ /fHosf] ;fdflhs / ;f+:s[lts p2]Zo x'g]5 .
=== -wf/f %)_

Women’s Rights

-!_ k|To]s dlxnfnfO{ n}+lus e]befj ljgf ;dfg j+zLo xs x'g]5 .
-@_ k|To]s dlxnfnfO{ ;'/lIft dft[Tj / k|hgg :jf:Yo ;DaGwL xs x'g]5 .
-#_ dlxnf lj?å wfld{s, ;fdflhs, ;f+:s[lts k/Dk/f, k|rng jf cGo s'g} cfwf/df zf/Ll/s, dfgl;s, of}ghGo, dgf]j}1flgs jf cGos'g} lsl;dsf] lx+;fhGo sfo{ jf zf]if0f ul/g] 5}g . To:tf] sfo{ sfg"gadf]lhd b08gLo x'g]5 / kLl8tnfO{ sfg"g adf]lhd Ifltk"lt{ kfpg] xsx'g]5 .
-$_ /fHosf ;a} lgsfodf dlxnfnfO{ ;dfg'kflts ;dfj]zL l;4fGtsf] cfwf/df ;xefuL x'g] xs x'g]5 .
-%_ dlxnfnfO{ lzIff, :jf:Yo, /f]huf/L / ;fdflhs ;'/Iffdf ;sf/fTds lje]bsf cfwf/df ljz]if cj;/ k|fKt ug]{ xs x'g]5 .
-^_ ;DklQ tyf kfl/jfl/s dfldnfdf bDktLsf] ;dfg xs x'g]5 . -wf/f #*_

Women’s Rights

g]kfn ;/sf/n] k|To]s bz jif{df x'g] /fli6«o hgu0fgf;Fu} dlxnf tyf blnt ;d'bfosf] ljz]if clwsf/sf] Joj:yfsf] sfo{fGjog / To;sf] k|efj ;DaGwdf dfgj ljsf; ;"rsf+ssf] cfwf/df ;dLIff tyf k'g/fjnf]sg ug]{5 . -wf/f @*!_

Affirmative Action (Broadly)

English

(1) All citizens shall be equal before law. No person shall be denied the equal protection of law.
(2) There shall be no discrimination in the application of general laws on the grounds of origin, religion, race, caste, tribe, sex, physical conditions, disability, health condition, matrimonial status, pregnancy, economic condition, language or geographical region, or ideology or any other such grounds.
(3) The state shall not discriminate among citizens on grounds of origin, religion, race, caste, tribe, sex, economic condition, language or geographical region, ideology and such other matters.
Provided that nothing shall be deemed to bar the making of special provisions by law for the protection, empowerment or advancement of the women lagging behind socially and culturally, Dalits, Adibasi, Madhesi, Tharus, Muslims, oppressed class, backward communities, minorities, marginalized groups, peasants, laborers, youths, children, senior citizens, sexual minorities, persons with disability, pregnant, incapacitated and the helpless persons, and of the citizens who belong to backward regions and financially deprived citizens including the Khas Arya.
… (Art. 18)

Nepali

-!_ ;a} gful/s sfg"gsf] b[li6df ;dfg x'g]5g\ .
s;}nfO{ klg sfg"gsf] ;dfg ;+/If0faf6 jl~rt ul/g] 5}g .
-@_ ;fdfGo sfg"gsf] k|of]udf pTklQ, wd{, j0f{, hft, hflt, ln+u, zf/Ll/s cj:yf, ckf+utf, :jf:Yo l:ylt, j}jflxs l:ylt, uef{j:yf, cfly{s cj:yf, efiff jf If]q, j}rfl/s cf:yf jf o:t} cGo s'g} cfwf/df e]befj ul/g] 5}g .
-#_ /fHon] gful/sx¿sf aLr pTklQ, wd{, j0f{, hft, hflt, ln+u, cfly{s cj:yf, efiff, If]q, j}rfl/s cf:yf jf o:t} cGo s'g} cfwf/df e]befj ug]{ 5}g .
t/ ;fdflhs jf ;f+:s[lts b[li6n] lk5l8Psf dlxnf, blnt, cflbjf;L, cflbjf;L hghflt, dw]zL, yf¿, d'l:nd, pTkLl8t ju{, lk58f ju{, cNk;+Vos, ;LdfGtLs[t, ls;fg, >lds, o'jf, afnaflnsf, Ho]i7 gful/s, n}+lus tyf of}lgs cNk;+Vos, ckf+utf ePsf JolQm, uef{j:yfsf JolQm, czQm jf c;xfo, lk5l8Psf] If]q / cfly{s ¿kn] ljkGg v; cfo{ nufot gful/ssf] ;+/If0f, ;zQmLs/0f jf ljsf;sfnflu sfg"g adf]lhd ljz]if Joj:yf ug{ /f]s nufPsf] dflgg] 5}g .
=== -wf/f !*_

Affirmative Action (Broadly)

English

(4) Women shall have the right to access participate in all state structures and bodies on the basis of the principle of proportional inclusion.
(5) Women shall have the right to special opportunity in the spheres of education, health, employment and social security on the basis of positive discrimination.
… (Art. 38)

Nepali

-$_ /fHosf ;a} lgsfodf dlxnfnfO{ ;dfg'kflts ;dfj]zL l;4fGtsf] cfwf/df ;xefuL x'g] xs x'g]5 .
-%_ dlxnfnfO{ lzIff, :jf:Yo, /f]huf/L / ;fdflhs ;'/Iffdf ;sf/fTds lje]bsf cfwf/df ljz]if cj;/ k|fKt ug]{ xs x'g]5 .
=== -wf/f #*_

Citizenship and Nationality

English

(1) No Nepali citizen shall be denied the right to acquire citizenship.
(2) There shall be a provision of single federal citizenship with provincial identity in Nepal. (Art. 10)

Nepali

-!_ s'g} klg g]kfnL gful/snfO{ gful/stf k|fKt ug]{ xsaf6 jl~rt ul/g] 5}g .
-@_ g]kfndf k|fb]lzs klxrfg ;lxtsf] Psn ;+3Lo gful/stfsf] Joj:yf ul/Psf] 5 . -wf/f !)_

Citizenship and Nationality

English

(1) The persons who have acquired citizenship of Nepal at the commencement of this Constitution and the persons who are eligible to acquire citizenship of Nepal under this Part shall be deemed to be the citizens of Nepal.
(2) The following persons who have their permanent domicile in Nepal shall be deemed to be citizens of Nepal by descent: -
(a) A person who has acquired the citizenship of Nepal by descent before the commencement of this constitution.
(b) Any person whose father or mother was a citizen of Nepal at the birth of such a person.
(3) A child of a citizen who has acquired citizenship of Nepal by birth before the commencement of this Constitution shall, if his/her father and mother both are the citizens of Nepal, shall be entitled to Nepali citizenship by descent upon his/her attaining the age of majority.
(4) Every child found in Nepal whereabouts of whose paternity and maternity is not known shall, until the mother or father is traced, be deemed a citizen of Nepal by descent.
(5) A person born to a Nepali citizen mother and having his/her domicile in Nepal but whose father is not traced, shall be conferred the Nepali citizenship by descent. Provided that in case his/her father is found to be a foreigner, the citizenship of such a person shall be converted to naturalized citizenship according to the Federal law.
(6) If a foreign woman married to a Nepali citizen so wishes, she may acquire naturalized citizenship of Nepal as provided for in a Federal law.
(7) Notwithstanding anything contained elsewhere in this Article, in case of a person born to Nepali woman citizen married to a foreign citizen, he/she may acquire naturalized citizenship of Nepal as provided for by a Federal law if he/she is having the permanent domicile in Nepal and he/she has not acquired citizenship of the foreign country.
Provided that if his/her father and mother both are the citizen of Nepal at the time of acquisition of the citizenship, he/she, if born in Nepal, may acquire citizenship by descent.
(8) Except provided for in this Article, Government of Nepal may confer naturalized citizenship of Nepal according to Federal law.
(9) Government of Nepal may confer honorary citizenship according to Federal law.
(10) In case any area is annexed into Nepal by merger, the persons having domicile in such area shall be citizens of Nepal subject to a Federal law. (Art. 11)

Nepali

-!_ of] ;+ljwfg k|f/De x'Fbfsf avt g]kfnsf] gful/stf k|fKt u/]sf / o; efu adf]lhd gful/stf k|fKt ug{ of]Uo JolQmx¿ g]kfnsf] gful/s x'g]5g\ .
-@_ of] ;+ljwfg k|f/De x'Fbfsf avt g]kfndf :yfoL a;f]jf; ePsf] b]xfosf] JolQm j+zhsf] cfwf/df g]kfnsf] gful/s 7xg]{5M–
-s_ of] ;+ljwfg k|f/De x'g'eGbf cl3 j+zhsf] cfwf/df g]kfnsf] gful/stf k|fKt u/]sf] JolQm . 
-v_ s'g} JolQmsf] hGd x'Fbfsf avt lghsf] afa' jf cfdf g]kfnsf] gful/s /x]5 eg] To:tf] JolQm .
-#_ of] ;+ljwfg k|f/De x'g'eGbf cl3 hGdsf] cfwf/df g]kfnsf] gful/stf k|fKt u/]sf] gful/ssf] ;Gtfgn] afa' / cfdf b'j} g]kfnsf] gful/s /x]5g\ eg] lgh aflnu ePkl5 j+zhsf] cfwf/df g]kfnsf] gful/stf k|fKt ug]{5 .
-$_ g]kfnleq k]mnf k/]sf] lkt[Tj / dft[Tjsf] 7]ufg gePsf] k|To]s gfafns lghsf] afa' jf cfdf k]mnf gk/];Dd j+zhsf] cfwf/df g]kfnsf] gful/s 7xg]{5 .
-%_ g]kfnsf] gful/s cfdfaf6 g]kfndf hGd eO{ g]kfndf g} a;f]af; u/]sf] / afa'sf] klxrfg x'g g;s]sf] JolQmnfO{ j+zhsf] cfwf/df g]kfnsf] gful/stf k|bfg ul/g]5 . t/ afa' ljb]zL gful/s ePsf] 7x/]df To:tf] JolQmsf] gful/stf ;+3Lo sfg"g adf]lhd c+uLs[t gful/stfdf kl/0ft x'g]5 .
-^_ g]kfnL gful/s;Fu j}jflxs ;DaGw sfod u/]sL ljb]zL dlxnfn] rfx]df ;+3Lo sfg"g adf]lhd g]kfnsf] c+uLs[t gful/stf lng;Sg]5 .
-&_ o; wf/fdf cGoq h'g;'s} s'/f n]lvPsf] eP tfklg ljb]zL gful/s;Fu ljjfx u/]sL g]kfnL dlxnf gful/saf6 hlGdPsf] JolQmsf] xsdf lgh g]kfndf g} :yfoL a;f]af; u/]sf] / lghn] ljb]zL d'n'ssf gful/stf k|fKt u/]sf] /x]g5 eg] lghn] ;+3Lo sfg"g adf]lhd g]kfnsf] c+uLs[t gful/stf k|fKt ug{ ;Sg]5 . t/ gful/stf k|fKt ubf{sf avt lghsf cfdf / afa' b'j} g]kfnL gful/s /x]5g\ eg] g]kfndf hGd]sf] To:tf] JolQmn] j+zhsf] cfwf/df g]kfnsf] gful/stf k|fKt ug{ ;Sg]5 .
-*_ o; wf/fdf n]lvPb]lv afx]s g]kfn ;/sf/n] ;+3Lo sfg"g adf]lhd g]kfnsf] c+uLs[t gful/stf k|bfg ug{ ;Sg]5 .
-(_ g]kfn ;/sf/n] ;+3Lo sfg"g adf]lhd g]kfnsf] ;Ddfgfy{ gful/stf k|bfg ug{ ;Sg]5 .
-!)_ g]kfnleq ufleg] u/L s'g} If]q k|fKt ePdf To:tf] If]qleq a;f]af; ePsf] JolQm ;+3Lo sfg"gsf] cwLgdf /xL g]kfnsf] gful/s x'g]5 . -wf/f !!_

Citizenship and Nationality

English

The person who is entitled to the citizenship of Nepal by descent may obtain the citizenship certificate of Nepal from name of his/her mother or father along with gender identity. (Art. 12)

Nepali

of] ;+ljwfg adf]lhd j+zhsf] cfwf/df g]kfnsf] gful/stf k|fKt ug]{ JolQmn] lghsf] cfdf jf afa'sf] gfdaf6 n}+lus klxrfg ;lxtsf] g]kfnsf] gful/stfsf] k|df0fkq kfpg ;Sg]5 . -wf/f !@_

Citizenship and Nationality

English

Other provisions as to acquisition, requisition and termination of citizenship shall be as provided for in a Federal law. (Art. 13)

Nepali

gful/stfsf] k|flKt, k'gMk|flKt / ;dflKt ;DaGwL cGo Joj:yf ;+3Lo sfg"g adf]lhd x'g]5 . -wf/f !#_

Citizenship and Nationality

English

The person who has acquired citizenship of a foreign country and residing in a country other than the country which is a member of the South Asian Association of Regional Cooperation (SAARC) and who or whose father or mother, grandfather or grandmother was a citizen of Nepal by descent or birth and later on has acquired citizenship of the foreign country, may be conferred with the nonresidential citizenship of Nepal entitling him/her to the economic, social and cultural rights as provided for in a Federal law. (Art. 14)

Nepali

ljb]zL d'n'ssf] gful/stf k|fKt u/]sf] blIf0f PlzofnL If]qLo ;xof]u ;+u7gsf] ;b:o/fi6« afx]ssf b]zdf a;f]af; u/]sf] ;flasdf j+zhsf] jf hGdsf] cfwf/df lgh jf lghsf] afa' jf cfdf, afh] jf aHo} g]kfnsf] gful/s /xL kl5 ljb]zL d'n'ssf] gful/stf k|fKt u/]sf] JolQmnfO{ ;+3Lo sfg"g adf]lhd cfly{s, ;fdflhs / ;f+:s[lts clwsf/ pkef]u ug{ kfpg] u/L g]kfnsf] u}/cfjf;Lo gful/stf k|bfg ug{ ;lsg]5 . -wf/f !$_

Citizenship and Nationality

English

20. Citizenship … (Schedule 5, List of Federal Powers/Jurisdiction)

Nepali

/fli6«o oftfoft gLlt, === -cg';"rL–%, ;+3sf] clwsf/sf] ;"rL_

Jurisdiction and Access

English

(1) There shall be a Supreme Court in Nepal.
(2) The Supreme Court shall be the Court of Record. Unless otherwise provided in this Constitution, all other courts and judicial institutions shall be under the Supreme Court. The Supreme Court shall have the final power to interpret the Constitution and law.
… (Art. 128)

Nepali

-!_ g]kfndf Ps ;jf]{Rr cbfnt x'g]5 .
-@_ ;jf]{Rr cbfnt clen]v cbfnt x'g]5 . o; ;+ljwfgdf cGoyf Joj:yf ePsf]df afx]s ;a} cbfnt / Goflos lgsfox¿ ;jf]{Rr cbfnt dftxt /xg]5g\ . ;+ljwfg / sfg"gsf] JofVof ug{] clGtd clwsf/ ;jf{]Rr cbfntnfO{ x'g]5 .
=== -wf/f !@*_

Jurisdiction and Access

English

(1) Any Nepali citizen may file a petition in the Supreme Court to have any law or any part thereof declared void on the ground of inconsistency with this Constitution because it imposes an unreasonable restriction on the enjoyment of the fundamental rights conferred by this Constitution or on any other ground, or any law formulated by the Provincial Assembly is inconsistent with the law formulated by Federal Parliament or any law formulated by Municipal Assembly or Village Assembly is inconsistent with the law formulated by Federal Parliament or Provincial Assembly, and extra-ordinary power shall rest with the Supreme Court to declare that law void either ab initio or from the date of its decision if it appears that the law in question is inconsistent. (2) The Supreme Court shall, for the enforcement of the fundamental rights conferred by this Constitution, for the enforcement of any other legal right for which no other remedy has been provided or for which the remedy even though provided appears to be inadequate or ineffective, or for the settlement of any constitutional or legal question involved in any dispute of public interest or concern, have the extraordinary power to issue necessary and appropriate orders to enforce such rights or settle the dispute.

(5) The Supreme Court shall hear appeal of cases that have been initiated and executed by the High Court, a subject of public interest litigation including a question related to the interpretation of the constitution and law or a case referred by the High Court along with its opinion that it would be appropriate for the Supreme Court to decide on it.
(6) Other rights and procedural of the Supreme Court shall be as per the Federal law. (Art. 133)

Nepali

-!_ o; ;+ljwfgåf/f k|bQ df}lns xspk/ cg'lrt aGb]h nufOPsf] jf cGo s'g} sf/0fn] s'g} sfg"g of] ;+ljwfg;Fu aflemPsf] x'Fbf To:tf] sfg"g jf To;sf] s'g} efu jf k|b]z ;efn] agfPsf] s'g} sfg"g ;+3Lo ;+;bn] agfPsf] s'g} sfg"g;Fu aflemPsf] jf gu/ ;ef jf ufpF ;efn] agfPsf] s'g} sfg"g ;+3Lo ;+;b jf k|b]z ;efn] agfPsf] s'g} sfg"g;Fu aflemPsf] xF'bf To:tf] sfg"g jf To;sf] s'g} efu ab/ 3f]lift u/L kfpFm egL s'g} klg g]kfnL gful/sn] ;jf]{Rr cbfntdf lgj]bg lbg ;Sg]5 / ;f] cg';f/ s'g} sfg"g aflemPsf] b]lvPdf ;f] sfg"gnfO{ k|f/Deb]lv g} jf lg0f{o ePsf] ldltb]lv cdfGo / ab/ 3f]lift ug]{ c;fwf/0f clwsf/ ;jf]{Rr cbfntnfO{ x'g]5 .
-@_ o; ;+ljwfgåf/f k|bQ df}lns xssf] k|rngsfnflu jf csf]{ pkrf/sf] Joj:yf gePsf] jf csf]{ pkrf/sf] Joj:yf eP klg To:tf] pkrf/ ckof{Kt jf k|efjxLg b]lvPsf] cGo s'g} sfg"gL xssf] k|rngsfnflu jf ;fj{hlgs xs jf ;/f]sf/sf] s'g} ljjfbdf ;dfj]z ePsf] s'g} ;+j}wflgs jf sfg"gL k|Zgsf] lg¿k0fsfnflu cfjZos / pko'Qm cfb]z hf/L ug{], plrt pkrf/ k|bfg ug{], To:tf] xssf] k|rng u/fpg] jf ljjfb 6'+uf] nufpg] c;fwf/0f clwsf/ ;jf]{Rr cbfntnfO{ x'g]5 .
===
-%_ pRr cbfntn] z'¿ sf/afxL / lsgf/f u/]sf] d'2fsf] k'g/fj]bg ;'Gg] / ;+ljwfg / sfg"gsf] JofVof ;DaGwL k|Zg ;dfj]z ePsf] ;fj{hlgs dxTjsf] ljifo jf ;jf]{Rr cbfntaf6 lg0f{o x'g' pko'Qm 5 egL pRr cbfntn] cfˆgf] /fo ;lxt l;kmfl/; u/]sf] d'2fsf
] lg¿k0f ug]{ clwsf/ ;jf]{Rr cbfntnfO{ x'g]5 .
-^_ ;jf{]Rr cbfntsf] cGo clwsf/ / sfo{ljlw ;+3Lo sfg"g adf]lhd x'g]5 . -wf/f !##_

Jurisdiction and Access

English

(1) There shall be a Constitutional Bench in the Supreme Court. The Bench shall comprise of the Chief Justice and other four Justices appointed by the Chief Justice on the recommendation of Judicial Council.
(2) The Bench under clause (1) shall hear and decide on the following cases in addition to the petitions filed according to clause (1) of Article (133):
(a) Related to disputes over the jurisdiction between the Federation and Province, among Provinces, between a Province and local level and among the local levels (of government),
(b) Related to disputes concerning the election of members of the Federal Parliament or Provincial Assembly, and ineligibility of the member of the Federal Parliament or Provincial Assembly.
(3) Notwithstanding anything written in Article (133), the Chief Justice may allocate any cases under consideration at Supreme Court containing question of serious constitutional explanation to the Bench under clause (1).
(4) Other arrangements related to the procedures of the Constitutional Bench shall be as determined by the Supreme Court. (Art. 137)

Nepali

-!_ ;jf{]Rr cbfntdf Ps ;+j}wflgs Ohnf; /xg]5 . To:tf] Ohnf;df k|wfg GofofwLz / Gofo kl/ifbsf] l;kmfl/;df k|wfg GofofwLzn] tf]s]sf cGo rf/hgf GofofwLz /xg] 5g\ .
-@_ pkwf/f -!_ adf]lhdsf] Ohnf;n] wf/f !## sf] pkwf/f -!_ adf]lhd k/]sf lgj]bgsf] cltl/Qm b]xfosf d'2fsf] z'¿ sf/afxL / lsgf/f ug{]5 M–
-s_ ;+3 / k|b]z, k|b]z / k|b]z, k|b]z / :yfgLo tx tyf :yfgLo txx¿ aLrsf] clwsf/ If]qsf] af/]df ePsf] ljjfb ;DaGwL,
-v_ ;+3Lo ;+;b jf k|b]z ;ef ;b:osf] lgjf{rg ;DaGwL ljjfb / ;+3Lo ;+;bsf ;b:o jf k|b]z ;efsf ;b:osf] cof]Uotf ;DaGwL .
-#_ wf/f !## df h'g;'s} s'/f n]lvPsf] eP tfklg ;jf{]Rr cbfntdf ljrf/fwLg s'g} d'2fdf uDeL/ ;+j}wflgs JofVofsf] k|Zg ;dfj]z ePsf] b]lvPdf To:tf] d'2f pkwf/f -!_ adf]lhdsf] Ohnf;af6 x]g{] u/L k|wfg GofofwLzn] tf]Sg ;Sg]5 .
-$_ ;+j}wflgs Ohnf;sf] ;~rfng ;DaGwL cGo Joj:yf ;jf{]Rr cbfntn] lgwf{/0f u/] adf]lhd x'g]5 . -wf/f !#&_

Education

English

(1) Every citizen shall have the right to access to basic education.
(2) Every citizen shall have the right to compulsory and free basic education, and free education up to the secondary level.

(5) Every Nepali community living in Nepal shall have the right to acquire education in its mother tongue up to the secondary level, and the right to open and run schools and educational institutions as provided for by law. (Art. 31)

Nepali

-!_ k|To]s gful/snfO{ cfwf/e"t lzIffdf kx'Frsf] xs x'g]5 .
-@_ k|To]s gful/snfO{ /fHoaf6 cfwf/e"t tx;Ddsf] lzIff clgjfo{ / lgMz'Ns tyf dfWolds tx;Ddsf] lzIff lgMz'Ns kfpg] xs x'g]5 .
===
-%_ g]kfndf a;f]af; ug{] k|To]s g]kfnL ;d'bfonfO{ sfg"g adf]lhd cfˆgf] dft[efiffdf lzIff kfpg] / To;sfnflu ljBfno tyf z}lIfs ;+:yf vf]Ng] / ;~rfng ug{] xs x'g]5 . -wf/f #!_

Education

English

8. Basic and secondary education
… (Schedule 8, List of Powers/Jurisdiction for Local Level)

Nepali

-*_ cfwf/e"t / dfWolds lzIff
=== -cg';"rL–*, :yfgLo txsf] clwsf/sf] ;"rL_

Education

English

2. Education, … (Schedule 9, List of concurrent Powers/Jurisdiction for Federation, Province and Local Level)

Nepali

-@_ lzIff, === -cg';"rL–(, ;+3, k|b]z / :yfgLo txsf] clwsf/sf] ;femf ;"rL_

Employment Rights and Protection

English

(2) Every citizen shall have the following freedoms:

(f) freedom to engage in any occupation or be engaged in employment, establish and operate industry, trade and business in any part of Nepal.
… (Art. 17)

Nepali

-@_ k|To]s gful/snfO{ b]xfosf] :jtGqtf x'g]5 M–
===
-r_ g]kfnsf] s'g} klg efudf k]zf, /f]huf/ ug]{ / pBf]u, Jofkf/ tyf Joj;fosf] :yfkgf / ;~rfng ug]{ :jtGqtf .
=== -wf/f !&_

Employment Rights and Protection

English

(4) There shall not be any gender discriminations regarding remuneration for the same work and social security.
… (Art. 18)

Nepali

-$_ ;dfg sfdsfnflu n}+lus cfwf/df kfl/>lds tyf ;fdflhs ;'/Iffdf s'g} e]befj ul/g] 5}g .
=== -wf/f !*_

Employment Rights and Protection

English

(1) Every citizen shall have the right to employment. Terms and conditions of employment and unemployment benefits shall be as determined by Federal law.
(2) Every citizen shall have the right to select employment. (Art. 33)

Nepali

-!_ k|To]s gful/snfO{ /f]huf/Lsf] xs x'g]5 . /f]huf/Lsf] zt{, cj:yf / a]/f]huf/ ;xfotf ;+3Lo sfg"g adf]lhd x'g]5 .
-@_ k|To]s gful/snfO{ /f]huf/Lsf] 5gf}6 ug{ kfpg] xs x'g]5 . -wf/f ##_

Employment Rights and Protection

English

(1) Every laborer shall have the right to proper work practices.
Explanation: For the purpose of this Article, "laborer" means a worker or laborer who offers physical or mental work for an employer for remuneration.
(2) Every laborer shall have the right to appropriate remuneration, facilities and contribution-based social security.
… (Art. 34)

Nepali

-!_ k|To]s >ldsnfO{ plrt >d cEof;sf] xs x'g]5 .
:ki6Ls/0fM o; wf/fsf] k|of]hgsfnflu æ>ldsÆ eGgfn] kfl/>ldslnO{ /f]huf/bftfsfnflu zf/Ll/s jf af}l4s sfo{ ug{] sfdbf/ jf dhb"/ ;Demg' k5{ .
-@_ k|To]s >ldsnfO{ plrt kfl/>lds, ;'ljwf tyf of]ubfgdf cfwfl/t ;fdflhs ;'/Iffsf] xs x'g]5 .
=== -wf/f #$_

Employment Rights and Protection

English

The State shall pursue the following policies:

(i) Policies regarding labor and employment:
(1) Creating a condition to ensure employment for all and employment opportunities in the country itself by making the labor power, which is the main social and economic force, competent and professional.
(2) Guaranteeing social security by ensuring the basic rights of all laborers in accordance with the concept of dignity of labor.

(j) Policies regarding social justice and inclusion:
(1) Making appropriate arrangements of livelihoods by prioritizing employment for single women who are in helpless conditions on the basis of skill, capability and merit.
… (Art. 51)

Nepali

/fHon] b]xfosf gLltx¿ cjnDag ug]{5 M–
===
-em_ >d / /f]huf/ ;DaGwL gLltM
-!_ ;a}n] sfd ug{ kfpg] cj:yf ;'lglZrt ub}{ b]zsf] d'Vo ;fdflhs cfly{s zlQmsf] ¿kdf /x]sf]
>dzlQmnfO{ bIf / Jofj;flos agfpg] / :jb]zdf g} /f]huf/L clej[l4 ug]{,
-@_ dof{lbt >dsf] cjwf/0ff cg'¿k ;a} >ldssf]
cfwf/e"t clwsf/ ;'lglZrt ub}{ ;fdflhs ;'/Iff
k|Tofe"t ug]{,
===
-`_ ;fdflhs Gofo / ;dfj]zLs/0f ;DaGwL gLltM
-!_ c;xfo cj:yfdf /x]sf Psn dlxnfnfO{ ;Lk, Ifdtf / of]Uotfsf] cfwf/df /f]huf/Ldf k|fyldstf lb+b} hLljsf]kfh{gsfnflu ;d'lrt Joj:yf ub}{ hfg],
=== -wf/f %!_

Employment Rights and Protection

English

25. Employment and aid to unemployed (Schedule 7, List of Concurrent (federal and provincial) Powers/Jurisdiction)

Nepali

-@%_ /f]huf/L / a]/f]huf/ ;xfotf -cg';"rL–&, ;+3 / k|b]zsf] ;femf clwsf/sf] ;"rL_

Equality and Non-Discrimination

English

We, the people of Nepal, in exercise of the sovereign powers inherent in us, …
Ending all forms of discriminations and oppression created by the feudal, autocratic, centralized and unitary system,
Embracing multi-caste, multi-lingual, multi-cultural and diverse geographical specificities, by ending discriminations relating to class, caste, region, language, religion and gender discrimination including all forms of racial untouchability, in order to protect and promote unity in diversity, social and cultural solidarity, tolerance and harmonious attitudes, we also express our determination to create an egalitarian society on the basis of the principles of proportional inclusion and participation, to ensure equitable economy, prosperity and social justice, … (Preamble)

Nepali

xfdL ;fj{ef}d;Qf ;DkGg g]kfnL hgtfÙ ===
;fdGtL, lg/+s'z, s]Gb|Ls[t / PsfTds /fHo Joj:yfn] ;[hgf u/]sf ;a} k|sf/sf lje]b / pTkL8gsf] cGTo ub}{Ù ax'hftLo, ax'eflifs, ax'wfld{s, ax';f+:s[lts tyf ef}uf]lns ljljwtfo'Qm ljz]iftfnfO{ cfTd;ft\ u/L ljljwtf aLrsf] Pstf, ;fdflhs ;f+:s[lts P]Soa4tf, ;lxi0f'tf / ;b\efjnfO{ ;+/If0f Pj+ k|jw{g ub}{Ù juL{o, hftLo, If]qLo, eflifs, wfld{s, n}+lus lje]b / ;a} k|sf/sf hftLo 5'jf5"tsf] cGTo u/L cfly{s ;dfgtf, ;d[l4 / ;fdflhs Gofo ;'lglZrt ug{ ;dfg'kflts ;dfj]zL / ;xeflutfd"ns l;4fGtsf cfwf/df ;dtfd"ns ;dfhsf] lgdf{0f ug]{ ;+sNk ub}{Ù === -k|:tfjgf_

Equality and Non-Discrimination

English

(1) All citizens shall be equal before law. No person shall be denied the equal protection of law.
(2) There shall be no discrimination in the application of general laws on the grounds of origin, religion, race, caste, tribe, sex, physical conditions, disability, health condition, matrimonial status, pregnancy, economic condition, language or geographical region, or ideology or any other such grounds.
(3) The state shall not discriminate among citizens on grounds of origin, religion, race, caste, tribe, sex, economic condition, language or geographical region, ideology and such other matters.
Provided that nothing shall be deemed to bar the making of special provisions by law for the protection, empowerment or advancement of the women lagging behind socially and culturally, Dalits, Adibasi, Madhesi, Tharus, Muslims, oppressed class, backward communities, minorities, marginalized groups, peasants, laborers, youths, children, senior citizens, sexual minorities, persons with disability, pregnant, incapacitated and the helpless persons, and of the citizens who belong to backward regions and financially deprived citizens including the Khas Arya.
… (Art. 18)

Nepali

-!_ ;a} gful/s sfg"gsf] b[li6df ;dfg x'g]5g\ .
s;}nfO{ klg sfg"gsf] ;dfg ;+/If0faf6 jl~rt ul/g] 5}g .
-@_ ;fdfGo sfg"gsf] k|of]udf pTklQ, wd{, j0f{, hft, hflt, ln+u, zf/Ll/s cj:yf, ckf+utf, :jf:Yo l:ylt, j}jflxs l:ylt, uef{j:yf, cfly{s cj:yf, efiff jf If]q, j}rfl/s cf:yf jf o:t} cGo s'g} cfwf/df e]befj ul/g] 5}g .
-#_ /fHon] gful/sx¿sf aLr pTklQ, wd{, j0f{, hft, hflt, ln+u, cfly{s cj:yf, efiff, If]q, j}rfl/s cf:yf jf o:t} cGo s'g} cfwf/df e]befj ug]{ 5}g .
t/ ;fdflhs jf ;f+:s[lts b[li6n] lk5l8Psf dlxnf, blnt, cflbjf;L, cflbjf;L hghflt, dw]zL, yf¿, d'l:nd, pTkLl8t ju{, lk58f ju{, cNk;+Vos, ;LdfGtLs[t, ls;fg, >lds, o'jf, afnaflnsf, Ho]i7 gful/s, n}+lus tyf of}lgs cNk;+Vos, ckf+utf ePsf JolQm, uef{j:yfsf JolQm, czQm jf c;xfo, lk5l8Psf] If]q / cfly{s ¿kn] ljkGg v; cfo{ nufot gful/ssf] ;+/If0f, ;zQmLs/0f jf ljsf;sfnflu sfg"g adf]lhd ljz]if Joj:yf ug{ /f]s nufPsf] dflgg] 5}g .
=== -wf/f !*_

Equality and Non-Discrimination

English

(1) No person shall be treated with any kind of untouchability or discrimination in any private or public place on grounds of caste, ethnicity, origin, community, occupation, or physical condition.
(2) No person belonging to a particular caste or ethnicity shall be prevented from buying an object or getting services or facilities in the process of production of such objects or in the distribution or delivery of services, or no such objects shall be sold to, or facilities or services distributed or delivered to persons belonging to a particular caste or ethnicity only.
(3) Racial discriminations shall not be encouraged in any way, or there shall not be any behavioral attitude to exhibit high or low status on grounds of a particular caste, ethnicity or community, or physical condition of a person, or there shall not be any behavioral attitude that justifies social discrimination based on caste, ethnicity, or untouchability, or encouragement for the propagation of attitudes based on caste superiority and untouchability, or hatred.
(4) There shall not be any racial discrimination in the workplace by indulging or not indulging in untouchability. (5) All forms of untouchability or discrimination contrary to this provision shall be punishable by law as a serious social crime, and the victim of such an act shall have the right to compensation as provided for by law. (Art. 24)

Nepali

-!_ s'g} klg JolQmnfO{ lghsf] pTklQ, hft, hflt, ;d'bfo, k]zf, Joj;fo jf zf/Ll/s cj:yfsf] cfwf/df s'g} klg lghL tyf ;fj{hlgs :yfgdf s'g} k|sf/sf] 5'jf5"t jf e]befj ul/g] 5}g .
-@_ s'g} j:t', ;]jf jf ;'ljwf pTkfbg jf ljt/0f ubf{ To:tf] j:t', ;]jf jf ;'ljwf s'g} vf; hft jf hfltsf] JolQmnfO{ v/Lb jf k|fKt ug{af6 /f]s nufOg] jf To:tf] j:t', ;]jf jf ;'ljwf s'g} vf; hft jf hfltsf] JolQmnfO{ dfq laqmL ljt/0f jf k|bfg ul/g] 5}g .
-#_ pTklQ, hft, hflt jf zf/Ll/s cj:yfsf] cfwf/df s'g} JolQm jf ;d'bfonfO{ pRr jf gLr bzf{pg], hft, hflt jf 5'jf5"tsf] cfwf/df ;fdflhs e]befjnfO{ Gofof]lrt 7fGg] jf 5'jf5"t tyf hftLo pRrtf jf 3[0ffdf cfwfl/t ljrf/sf] k|rf/ k|;f/ ug{ jf hftLo lje]bnfO{ s'g} klg lsl;dn] k|f]T;fxg ug{ kfOg] 5}g .
-$_ hftLo cfwf/df 5'jf5"t u/L jf gu/L sfo{:yndf s'g}k|sf/sf] e]befj ug{ kfOg] 5}g .
-%_ o; wf/fsf] k|lts"n x'g] u/L ePsf ;a} k|sf/sf 5'jf5"t tyf e]befjhGo sfo{ uDeL/ ;fdflhs ck/fwsf ¿kdf sfg"g adf]lhd b08gLo x'g]5g\ / To:tf] sfo{af6 kLl8t JolQmnfO{ sfg"g adf]lhd Ifltk"lt{ kfpg] xs x'g]5 . -wf/f @$_

Equality and Non-Discrimination

English

(1) It shall be the political objective of the State to strengthen a federal democratic republican system to ensure an atmosphere where democratic rights are exercised by acknowledging sovereignty, independence and integrity of the country to be of utmost importance; by protecting freedom, equality, property and all citizens through rule of law; by embracing the norms and values of fundamental rights and human rights, gender equality, proportional inclusion, participation and social justice; and by maintaining a just system in all spheres of national life in order to establish a government system aimed at public welfare, while maintaining relations between federal units on the basis of cooperation between them, and internalizing the principle of inclusion in the governance system on the basis of local autonomy and decentralization,
(2) It shall be the socio-cultural objective of the State to build a civilized and egalitarian society by ending all forms of discrimination, oppression and injustice based on religion, culture, cultural practices, customs, traditional practices, or on any other grounds; develop socio-cultural values based on national pride, democracy, people orientation, dignity of labor, entrepreneurship, discipline, dignity and tolerance, by respecting cultural diversity and maintaining communal harmony, solidarity and amity.
… (Art. 50)

Nepali

-!_ g]kfnsf] :jtGqtf, ;fj{ef}d;Qf, ef}uf]lns cv08tf / :jfwLgtfnfO{ ;jf]{kl/ /fVb} gful/ssf] hLp, wg, ;dfgtf / :jtGqtfsf] ;+/If0f u/L sfg"gsf] zf;g, df}lns xs tyf dfgj clwsf/sf d"No / dfGotf, n}+lus ;dfgtf, ;dfg'kflts ;dfj]zLs/0f, ;xeflutf / ;fdflhs Gofosf] dfWodaf6 /fli6«o hLjgsf ;a} If]qdf Gofok"0f{ Joj:yf sfod ub}{ nf]s sNof0fsf/L /fHoJoj:yfsf] :yfkgf ug]{tyf k/:k/ ;xof]udf cfwfl/t ;+3Lotfsf cfwf/df ;+3Lo OsfOx¿ aLrsf] ;DaGw ;~rfng ub}{ :yfgLo :jfoQtf / ljs]Gb|Ls/0fsf] cfwf/df zf;g Joj:yfdf ;dfg'kflts l;4fGtnfO{ cfTd;ft\ ub}{ nf]stflGqs clwsf/sf] pkef]u ug{ kfpg] cj:yf ;'lglZrt ug{ ;+3Lo nf]stflGqs u0ftGqfTds Joj:yf ;'b[9 ug]{ /fHosf] /fhgLlts p2]Zo x'g]5 .
-@_ wd{, ;+:s[lt, ;+:sf/, k|yf, k/Dk/f, k|rng jf cGo s'g} klg cfwf/df x'g] ;a} k|sf/sf lje]b, zf]if0f / cGofosf] cGTo u/L ;Eo / ;dtfd"ns ;dfhsf] lgdf{0f ug]{ Pj+ /fli6«o uf}/j, nf]stGq, hgkIfLotf, >dsf] ;Ddfg, pBdzLntf, cg'zf;g, dof{bf / ;lxi0f'tfdf cfwfl/t ;fdflhs ;f+:s[lts d"Nox¿sf] ljsf; ug]{ tyf ;f+:s[lts ljljwtfsf] ;Ddfg ub}{ ;fdflhs ;b\efj, P]Soa4tf / ;fd~h:o sfod u/L /fli6«o Pstf ;'b[9 ug]{ /fHosf] ;fdflhs / ;f+:s[lts p2]Zo x'g]5 .
=== -wf/f %)_

Equality and Non-Discrimination

English

(6) The Federation, provinces and local levels shall protect Nepal’s independence, sovereignty, territorial integrity, autonomy, national interests, overall development, multi-party competitive democratic republic and federal system of governance, human rights and fundamental rights, rule of law, separation of powers and check and balance, equitable society based on plurality and equality, and inclusive representation and identity. (Art. 56)

Nepali

-^_ ;+3, k|b]z / :yfgLo txn] g]kfnsf] :jtGqtf, ;fj{ef}d;Qf, ef}uf]lns cv08tf, :jfwLgtf, /fli6«o lxt, ;jf{+uL0f ljsf;, ax'bnLo k|lt:kwf{Tds nf]stflGqs u0ftGqfTds ;+3Lo zf;g k|0ffnL, dfgj clwsf/ tyf df}lns xs, sfg"gL /fHo, zlQm k[ysLs/0f / lgoGq0f tyf ;Gt'ng, ax'ntf / ;dfgtfdf cfwfl/t ;dtfd"ns ;dfh, ;dfj]zL k|ltlglwTj / klxrfgsf] ;+/If0f ug]{ 5g\ . -wf/f %^_

Gender Equality Machineries

English

(1) There shall be a National Women Commission in Nepal consisting of a Chairperson and four other members.

(6) Any person who possesses the following qualifications is eligible to be appointed as the Chairperson or member of National Women Commission:-
(a) a woman who has made a significant contribution for the rights, interest of women or gender justice or women development or in the field of human rights and law for at least ten years,
(b) holds a Bachelor's Degree from a recognized university in case of the Chairperson,
(c) has attained the age of forty-five,
(d) is not a member of any political party immediately before the appointment, and
(e) possesses high moral character,
… (Art. 252)

Nepali

-!_ g]kfndf Ps /fli6«o dlxnf cfof]u /xg]5 h;df cWoIf / cGo rf/hgf ;b:o /xg]5g\ .
===
-^_ b]xfosf] of]Uotf ePsf] JolQm /fli6«o dlxnf cfof]usf] cWoIf / ;b:osf] kbdf lgo'lQmsfnflu of]Uo x'g]5M–
-s_ sDtLdf bz jif{ dlxnfsf] xs, lxt jf n}+lus Gofo jf dlxnf ljsf; jf dfgj clwsf/ / sfg"gsf] If]qdf dxTjk"0f{ of]ubfg k'¥ofPsf] dlxnf,
-v_ cWoIfsf] xsdf dfGotfk|fKt ljZjljBfnoaf6 :gfts pkflw xfl;n u/]sf],
-u_ k}+tfln; jif{ pd]/ k"/f u/]sf],
-3_ lgo'lQm x'Fbfsf] avt s'g} /fhgLlts bnsf] ;b:o g/x]sf], /
-ª_ pRr g}lts rl/q ePsf] .
=== -wf/f @%@_

Gender Equality Machineries

English

(1) Functions, duties and powers of the Federal Women Commission shall be as follows:-
(a) To formulate policies and programs regarding women welfare for the Government of Nepal and forward them to the Government for implementation,
(b) To review whether or not statutes related to women’s welfare are executed, and whether the international covenant signed by Nepal, as a signatory, has been executed, and to forward a recommendation to the Government of Nepal in case they are found not to have been executed,
(c) To monitor, review and evaluate policies and programs implemented by the State to bring women into the mainstream of national development such as proportionate representation in all of the state agencies, and to forward a recommendation to the Government of Nepal for an effective implementation of those provisions, (d) To carry out research and studies regarding gender equality, women empowerment, other legal provisions concerning women, and to forward a recommendation to the concerned bodies regarding the areas to be amended in those laws, and to monitor the same,
(e) To monitor the government regarding report to be submitted by the Government of Nepal in matters related to international covenant and treaties to which Nepal is a party,
(f) To forward a recommendation to concerned authority to lodge a petition in the court, in accordance with the law, in matters related with gender violence, and women deprived of women rights due to social malpractices, (2) The National Women Commission may delegate, some of its rights to the Chairperson of the Commission, member, or an officer of the Government of Nepal, to be exercised in compliance with the conditions specified. (3) Other functions, duties and powers of the National Women Commission shall be as specified in Federal law. (Art. 253)

Nepali

-!_ /fli6«o dlxnf cfof]usf] sfd, st{Jo / clwsf/ b]xfo adf]lhd x'g]5M–
-s_ dlxnfsf] xs lxt;Fu ;/f]sf/ /fVg] gLlt tyf sfo{qmdsf] th'{df u/L sfof{Gjogsfnflu g]kfn ;/sf/ ;dIf k]z ug]{,
-v_ dlxnfsf] xs lxt;Fu ;DalGwt sfg"g jf g]kfn kIf ePsf] cGt/f{li6«o ;lGw jf ;Demf}tf cGtu{tsf] bfloTj sfof{Gjog eP jf gePsf] ljifodf cg'udg u/L To;sf] k|efjsf/L kfng jf sfof{Gjogsf] pkfo ;lxt g]kfn ;/sf/nfO{ ;'emfj lbg],
-u_ dlxnfnfO{ /fli6«o ljsf;sf] d"n k|jfxdf ;dflxt ug{ tyf /fHosf ;a} lgsfodf ;dfg'kflts ;xeflutf ;'lglZrt ug{ df}h"bf gLlt tyf sfo{qmdsf] ;dLIff, cg'udg tyf d"Nof+sg ug]{ / To;sf] k|efjsf/L sfof{Gjogsfnflu g]kfn ;/sf/nfO{ l;kmfl/; ug]{,
-3_ n}+lus ;dfgtf, dlxnf ;zQmLs/0f tyf dlxnf;Fu ;DalGwt sfg"gL Joj:yfsf] cWoog, cg';Gwfg u/L To:tf sfg"gdf ug'{kg]{ ;'wf/sf ;DaGwdf ;DalGwt lgsfonfO{ l;kmfl/; ug]{ / ;f]sf] cg'udg ug]{,
-ª_ dlxnf clwsf/;Fu ;DalGwt g]kfn kIf ePsf] cGt/f{li6«o ;lGw jf ;Demf}tfdf ePsf] Joj:yf adf]lhd g]kfnn] k7fpg' kg]{ k|ltj]bg tof/Lsf ;DaGwdf g]kfn ;/sf/nfO{ ;'emfj lbg],
-r_ dlxnf lx+;f jf ;fdflhs s'/Lltaf6 kLl8t ePsf] jf dlxnf clwsf/ k|of]u ug{ glbPsf] jf jl~rt u/]sf] ljifodf s'g} JolQm jf ;+:yf lj?4 d'2f bfo/ ug'{kg]{ cfjZostf b]lvPdf sfg"g adf]lhd cbfntdf d'2f bfo/ ug{ ;DalGwt lgsfo ;dIf l;kmfl/; ug]{ .
-@_ /fli6«o dlxnf cfof]un] cfˆgf] sfd, st{Jo / clwsf/ dWo] s'g} sfd, st{Jo / clwsf/ cfof]usf] cWoIf, s'g} ;b:o jf g]kfn ;/sf/sf] s'g} sd{rf/LnfO{ tf]lsPsf] zt{sf] cwLgdf /xL k|of]u tyf kfng ug{] u/L k|Tofof]hg ug{ ;Sg]5 .
-#_ /fli6«o dlxnf cfof]usf] cGo sfd, st{Jo, clwsf/ tyf tt\;DaGwL cGo Joj:yf ;+3Lo sfg"g adf]lhd x'g]5 . -wf/f @%#_

Obligations of the State

English

We, the people of Nepal, in exercise of the sovereign powers inherent in us,…
Expressing commitment to create the bases of socialism by adopting democratic norms and values, including peoples' competitive multi-party democratic governance system, civil liberty, fundamental rights, human rights, adult franchise, periodic elections, complete press freedom and an independent, impartial and competent judiciary, and the concept of rule of law, … (Preamble)

Nepali

xfdL ;fj{ef}d;Qf ;DkGg g]kfnL hgtfÙ ===
hgtfsf] k|lt:kwf{Tds ax'bnLo nf]stflGqs zf;g k|0ffnL, gful/s :jtGqtf, df}lns clwsf/, dfgj clwsf/, aflnu dtflwsf/, cfjlws lgjf{rg, k"0f{ k|]; :jtGqtf tyf :jtGq, lgikIf / ;Ifd Gofokflnsf / sfg"gL /fHosf] cjwf/0ff nufotsf nf]stflGqs d"No / dfGotfdf cfwfl/t ;dfhjfb k|lt k|lta4 /xL ;d[4 /fi6« lgdf{0f ug{Ù === -k|:tfjgf_

Obligations of the State

English

(1) Independence, sovereignty, territorial integrity, nationality, autonomy, self-respect, protection of rights and interests of Nepali people, protection of boundaries, and economic progress and prosperity, shall be the fundamental subjects of Nepal’s national interest.
… (Art. 5)

Nepali

-!_ g]kfnsf] :jtGqtf, ;fj{ef}d;Qf, ef}uf]lns cv08tf, /fli6«otf, :jfwLgtf, :jfledfg, g]kfnLsf] xs lxtsf] /Iff, ;Ldfgfsf] ;'/Iff, cfly{s ;d'Gglt / ;d[l4 g]kfnsf] /fli6«o lxtsf cfwf/e"t ljifo x'g]5g\ .
=== -wf/f %_

Obligations of the State

English

For the enforcement of the rights conferred in this Part, the State shall make legal provisions, as required, within three years of the commencement of this constitution. (Art. 47)

Nepali

o; efuåf/f k|bQ xsx¿sf] sfof{Gjogsfnflu cfjZostf cg';f/ /fHon] of] ;+ljwfg k|f/De ePsf] tLg jif{leq sfg"gL Joj:yf ug]{5 . -wf/f $&_

Obligations of the State

English

(1) It shall be the political objective of the State to strengthen a federal democratic republican system to ensure an atmosphere where democratic rights are exercised by acknowledging sovereignty, independence and integrity of the country to be of utmost importance; by protecting freedom, equality, property and all citizens through rule of law; by embracing the norms and values of fundamental rights and human rights, gender equality, proportional inclusion, participation and social justice; and by maintaining a just system in all spheres of national life in order to establish a government system aimed at public welfare, while maintaining relations between federal units on the basis of cooperation between them, and internalizing the principle of inclusion in the governance system on the basis of local autonomy and decentralization,
… (Art. 50)

Nepali

-!_ g]kfnsf] :jtGqtf, ;fj{ef}d;Qf, ef}uf]lns cv08tf / :jfwLgtfnfO{ ;jf]{kl/ /fVb} gful/ssf] hLp, wg, ;dfgtf / :jtGqtfsf] ;+/If0f u/L sfg"gsf] zf;g, df}lns xs tyf dfgj clwsf/sf d"No / dfGotf, n}+lus ;dfgtf, ;dfg'kflts ;dfj]zLs/0f, ;xeflutf / ;fdflhs Gofosf] dfWodaf6 /fli6«o hLjgsf ;a} If]qdf Gofok"0f{ Joj:yf sfod ub}{ nf]ssNof0fsf/L /fHoJoj:yfsf] :yfkgf ug]{ tyf k/:k/ ;xof]udf cfwfl/t ;+3Lotfsf cfwf/df ;+3Lo OsfOx¿aLrsf] ;DaGw ;~rfng ub}{ :yfgLo :jfoQtf / ljs]Gb|Ls/0fsf] cfwf/df zf;g Joj:yfdf ;dfg'kflts l;4fGtnfO{ cfTd;ft\ ub}{ nf]stflGqs clwsf/sf] pkef]u ug{ kfpg] cj:yf ;'lglZrt ug{ ;+3Lo nf]stflGqs u0ftGqfTds Joj:yf ;'b[9 ug]{ /fHosf] /fhgLlts p2]Zo x'g]5 .
=== -wf/f %)_

Obligations of the State

English

The State shall pursue the following policies:

(b) Policies regarding political and governance system:

(2) Maintaining rule of law by protecting and practicing human rights.
… (Art. 51)

Nepali

/fHon] b]xfosf gLltx¿ cjnDag ug]{5 M–
===
-v_ /fhgLlts tyf zf;g Joj:yf ;DaGwL gLltM
===
-@_ dfgj clwsf/sf] ;+/If0f / ;+jw{g ub}{ ljlwsf] zf;g sfod /fVg],
=== -wf/f %!_

Obligations of the State

English

It shall be the obligation of the State to maintain Nepal's independence, sovereignty, territorial integrity, autonomy of Nepal, protecting and promoting fundamental rights and human rights, and to observe the directive principles of the State and gradually implementing the policies. (Art. 52)

Nepali

g]kfnsf] :jtGqtf, ;fj{ef}d;Qf, ef}uf]lns cv08tf / :jfwLgtfnfO{ cIf'00f /fVb} df}lns xs tyf dfgj clwsf/sf] ;+/If0f / ;+jw{g, /fHosf lgb]{zs l;4fGtx¿sf] cg';/0f tyf /fHosf gLltx¿sf] qmdzM sfof{Gjog ub}{ g]kfnnfO{ ;d[4 tyf ;d'Ggt agfpg] /fHosf] bfloTj x'g]5 . -wf/f %@_

Obligations of the State

English

(6) The Federation, provinces and local levels shall protect Nepal’s independence, sovereignty, territorial integrity, autonomy, national interests, overall development, multi-party competitive democratic republic and federal system of governance, human rights and fundamental rights, rule of law, separation of powers and check and balance, equitable society based on plurality and equality, and inclusive representation and identity. (Art. 56)

Nepali

-^_ ;+3, k|b]z / :yfgLo txn] g]kfnsf] :jtGqtf, ;fj{ef}d;Qf, ef}uf]lns cv08tf, :jfwLgtf, /fli6«o lxt, ;jf{+uL0f ljsf;, ax'bnLo k|lt:kwf{Tds nf]stflGqs u0ftGqfTds ;+3Lo zf;g k|0ffnL, dfgj clwsf/ tyf df}lns xs, sfg"gL /fHo, zlQm k[ysLs/0f / lgoGq0f tyf ;Gt'ng, ax'ntf / ;dfgtfdf cfwfl/t ;dtfd"ns ;dfh, ;dfj]zL k|ltlglwTj / klxrfgsf] ;+/If0f ug]{ 5g\ . -wf/f %^_

Judicial Protection

English

There shall be right to constitutional remedy pursuant to the Articles 133 or 144 in course of implementation of rights granted in this part. (Art. 46)

Nepali

o; efuåf/f k|bQ xssf] k|rngsfnflu wf/f !## jf !$$ df n]lvP adf]lhd ;+j}wflgs pkrf/ kfpg] xs x'g]5 . -wf/f $^_

Judicial Protection

English

(1) Any Nepali citizen may file a petition in the Supreme Court to have any law or any part thereof declared void on the ground of inconsistency with this Constitution because it imposes an unreasonable restriction on the enjoyment of the fundamental rights conferred by this Constitution or on any other ground, or any law formulated by the Provincial Assembly is inconsistent with the law formulated by Federal Parliament or any law formulated by Municipal Assembly or Village Assembly is inconsistent with the law formulated by Federal Parliament or Provincial Assembly, and extra-ordinary power shall rest with the Supreme Court to declare that law void either ab initio or from the date of its decision if it appears that the law in question is inconsistent. (2) The Supreme Court shall, for the enforcement of the fundamental rights conferred by this Constitution, for the enforcement of any other legal right for which no other remedy has been provided or for which the remedy even though provided appears to be inadequate or ineffective, or for the settlement of any constitutional or legal question involved in any dispute of public interest or concern, have the extraordinary power to issue necessary and appropriate orders to enforce such rights or settle the dispute.
… (Art. 133)

Nepali

-!_ o; ;+ljwfgåf/f k|bQ df}lns xspk/ cg'lrt aGb]h nufOPsf] jf cGo s'g} sf/0fn] s'g} sfg"g of] ;+ljwfg;Fu aflemPsf] x'Fbf To:tf] sfg"g jf To;sf] s'g} efu jf k|b]z ;efn] agfPsf] s'g} sfg"g ;+3Lo ;+;bn] agfPsf] s'g} sfg"g;Fu aflemPsf] jf gu/ ;ef jf ufpF ;efn] agfPsf] s'g} sfg"g ;+3Lo ;+;b jf k|b]z ;efn] agfPsf] s'g} sfg"g;Fu aflemPsf] xF'bf To:tf] sfg"g jf To;sf] s'g} efu ab/ 3f]lift u/L kfpFm egL s'g} klg g]kfnL gful/sn] ;jf]{Rr cbfntdf lgj]bg lbg ;Sg]5 / ;f] cg';f/ s'g} sfg"g aflemPsf] b]lvPdf ;f] sfg"gnfO{ k|f/Deb]lv g} jf lg0f{o ePsf] ldltb]lv cdfGo / ab/ 3f]lift ug]{ c;fwf/0f clwsf/ ;jf]{Rr cbfntnfO{ x'g]5 .
-@_ o; ;+ljwfgåf/f k|bQ df}lns xssf] k|rngsfnflu jf csf]{ pkrf/sf] Joj:yf gePsf] jf csf]{ pkrf/sf] Joj:yf eP klg To:tf] pkrf/ ckof{Kt jf k|efjxLg b]lvPsf] cGo s'g} sfg"gL xssf] k|rngsfnflu jf ;fj{hlgs xs jf ;/f]sf/sf] s'g} ljjfbdf ;dfj]z ePsf] s'g} ;+j}wflgs jf sfg"gL k|Zgsf] lg¿k0fsfnflu cfjZos / pko'Qm cfb]z hf/L ug{], plrt pkrf/ k|bfg ug{], To:tf] xssf] k|rng u/fpg] jf ljjfb 6'+uf] nufpg] c;fwf/0f clwsf/ ;jf]{Rr cbfntnfO{ x'g]5 .
=== -wf/f !##_

Judicial Protection

English

(1) The High Court shall, for the enforcement of the fundamental rights conferred by this Constitution, for the enforcement of any other legal right for which no other remedy has been provided or for which the remedy even though provided appears to be inadequate or ineffective, or for the settlement of any legal question involved in any dispute of public interest or concern, have the right to issue necessary and appropriate orders in the name of governments, office-bearers, institutions or individuals within its provincial jurisdiction.
… (Art. 144)

Nepali

-!_ o; ;+ljwfgåf/f k|bQ df}lns xssf] k|rngsfnflu jf csf]{ pkrf/sf] Joj:yf gePsf] jf csf]{ pkrf/sf] Joj:yf eP klg ;f] pkrf/ ckof{Kt jf k|efjxLg b]lvPsf] cGo s'g} sfg"gL xssf] k|rngsfnflu jf ;fj{hlgs xs jf ;/f]sf/sf] s'g} ljjfbdf ;dfj]z ePsf] s'g} sfg"gL k|Zgsf] lg¿k0fsfnflu cfjZos / pko'Qm cfb]z hf/L ug]{ clwsf/ pRr cbfntnfO{ x'g]5 .
=== -wf/f !$$_

National Human Rights Bodies

English

(1) It shall be the duty of the National Human Rights Commission to ensure the respect, protection and promotion of human rights and their effective implementation.
(2) In order to perform the duty pursuant to Clause (1), the National Human Rights Commission may carry out the following functions:-
(a) conduct inquiries into, and investigations of, and recommendation for action against the perpetrator of, instances of violation or abetment of violation the human rights of any person or a group of persons, upon a petition or complaint presented to the Commission by the victim herself/himself or any person on her/his behalf or upon information received from any sources, or on its own initiative,
(b) forward a recommendation to the authority concerned to take departmental action against any authority that has the duty of responsibility to prevent violations of human rights, if it failed to perform such duty or responsibility or showed recklessness or lack of interest in performing that duty,
(c) make recommendations if necessary, to lodge a petition in the court, in accordance with the law, against a person or institution that has violated human rights,
(d) work jointly and in a coordinated manner with civil society to enhance awareness of human rights, (e) forward a recommendation to the relevant authority for taking departmental action against or imposing punishment on the violators of human rights, giving clear reasons and basis therefor,
(f) review existing laws relating to human rights on a periodic basis and to recommend to the Government of Nepal necessary reforms and amendment thereto,
(g) recommend with reasons to the Government of Nepal that it become a party to any international treaties and agreements on human rights, if it is desirable to do so, and to monitor the implementation of the international treaties and agreements on human rights to which Nepal is a party and if found not to be implemented, forward recommendations to the Government of Nepal for effective implementation of such agreements,
(h) Publicize the names of any official, person or bodies not following or implementing the recommendations and directions of the National Human Rights Commission regarding the violations of human rights in accordance with law, and to record them as human rights violators.
… (Art. 249)

Nepali

-!_ dfgj clwsf/sf] ;Ddfg, ;+/If0f / ;+jw{g tyf To;sf] k|efjsf/L sfof{GjognfO{ ;'lglZrt ug'{ /fli6«o dfgj clwsf/ cfof]usf] st{Jo x'g]5 .
-@_ pkwf/f -!_ df plNnlvt st{Jo k"/f ug{sf nflu /fli6«o dfgj clwsf/ cfof]un] b]xfo adf]lhdsf sfd ug{]5 M–
-s_ s'g} JolQm jf ;d"xsf] dfgj clwsf/ pNn+3g jf To;sf] b'?T;fxg ePsf]df kLl8t cfkm}+ jf lghsf] tk{maf6 s;}n] cfof]u ;dIf k|:t't jf k|]lift u/]sf] lgj]bg jf ph"/L jf s'g} ;|f]taf6 cfof]unfO{ k|fKt ePsf] jf cfof]usf] hfgsf/Ldf cfPsf] ljifodf 5fglag tyf cg';Gwfg u/L bf]ifL pk/ sf/afxL ug{ l;kmfl/; ug{],
-v_ dfgj clwsf/sf] pNn+3g x'gaf6 /f]Sg] lhDd]jf/L jf st{Jo ePsf] kbflwsf/Ln] cfˆgf] lhDd]jf/L k"/f gu/]df jf st{Jo kfng gu/]df jf lhDd]jf/L k"/f ug{ jf st{Jokfng ug{ pbf;Lgtf b]vfPdf To:tf] kbflwsf/L pk/ ljefuLo sf/afxL ug{ ;DalGwt clwsf/L ;dIf l;kmfl/; ug{],
-u_ dfgj clwsf/ pNn+3g ug{] JolQm jf ;+:yfsf lj?4 d'2f rnfpg' kg{] cfjZostf ePdf sfg"g adf]lhd cbfntdf d'2f bfo/ ug{ l;kmfl/; ug{],
-3_ dfgj clwsf/sf] r]tgf clej[l4 ug{ gful/s ;dfh;Fu ;dGjo / ;xsfo{ ug{],
-ª_ dfgj clwsf/sf] pNn+3gstf{nfO{ ljefuLo sf/afxL tyf ;hfo ug{ sf/0f / cfwf/ v'nfO{ ;DalGwt lgsfo ;dIf l;kmfl/; ug]{,
-r_ dfgj clwsf/;Fu ;DalGwt sfg"gsf] cfjlws ¿kdf k'g/fjnf]sg ug{] tyf To;df ug'{ kg{] ;'wf/ tyf ;+zf]wgsf ;DaGwdf g]kfn ;/sf/ ;dIf l;kmfl/; ug{],
-5_ dfgj clwsf/;Fu ;DalGwt cGt/f{li6«o ;lGw jf ;Demf}tfsf] g]kfn kIf aGg' kg{] ePdf To;sf] sf/0f ;lxt g]kfn ;/sf/nfO{ l;kmfl/; ug{] / g]kfn kIf alg;s]sf ;lGw jf ;Demf}tfsf] sfof{Gjog eP jf gePsf] cg'udgu/L sfof{Gjog gePsf] kfOPdf To;sf] sfof{Gjog ug{ g]kfn ;/sf/ ;dIf l;kmfl/; ug{],
-h_ dfgj clwsf/sf] pNn+3gsf ;DaGwdf /fli6«o dfgj clwsf/ cfof]un] u/]sf] l;kmfl/; jf lgb{]zg kfng jf sfof{Gjog gug{] kbflwsf/L, JolQm jf lgsfosf] gfd sfg"g adf]lhd ;fj{hlgs u/L dfgj clwsf/ pNn+3gstf{sf] ¿kdf clen]v /fVg] .
=== -wf/f @$(_

Indigenous Peoples

English

The State shall pursue the following policies:

(j) Policies regarding social justice and inclusion:

(8) Making special arrangements to ensure the rights of Adivasi Janajatis (indigenous ethnic groups) to lead a dignified life with their respective identities, and making them participate In decision making processes that concern them, and preserving and maintaining the traditional knowledge, skill, experience, culture and social practices of Adivasi Janajatis and local communities.
… (Art. 51)

Nepali

/fHon] b]xfosf gLltx¿ cjnDag ug]{5 M–
===
-`_ ;fdflhs Gofo / ;dfj]zLs/0f ;DaGwL gLltM
===
-*_ cflbjf;L hghfltsf] klxrfg ;lxt ;Ddfgk"j{s afFRg kfpg] clwsf/ ;'lglZrt ug{ cj;/ tyf nfesfnflu ljz]if Joj:yf ub}{ o; ;d'bfo;Fu ;/f]sf/ /fVg] lg0f{ox¿df ;xefuL u/fpg] tyf cflbjf;L hghflt / :yfgLo ;d'bfosf] k/Dk/fut 1fg, ;Lk, ;+:s[lt, ;fdflhs k/Dk/f / cg'ejnfO{ ;+/If0f / ;+jw{g ug]{]{,
=== -wf/f %!_

Indigenous Peoples

English

(6) The representation of women, Dalit, indigenous, indigenous nationalities, Khas Arya, Madhesi, Muslim, backward region and minorities community on the basis of geography and population in the nominations filed by the political parties for the election to be held for the Provincial Assembly through the proportional representation (PR) election system shall be made on the basis of closed list in accordance with Federal law.
… (Art. 176)

Nepali

-^_ ;dfg'kflts lgjf{rg k|0ffnL adf]lhd x'g] k|b]z ;efsf] lgjf{rgsfnflu /fhgLlts bnn] pDd]bjf/L lb+bf hg;+Vofsf] cfwf/df dlxnf, blnt, cflbjf;L hghflt, v; cfo{, dw];L, yf¿, d'l:nd, lk5l8Psf] If]q, cNk;+Vos ;d'bfo ;d]taf6 aGb ;"rLsf cfwf/df k|ltlglwTj x'g] Joj:yf ;+3Lo sfg"g adf]lhd x'g]5 . To;/L pDd]bjf/L lb+bf ;DalGwt k|b]zsf] ef}uf]lns ;Gt'ngnfO{ ;d]t Wofg lbg' kg{]5 .
=== -wf/f !&^_

Indigenous Peoples

English

(3) The entry of women, Dalit, indigenous community, Khash Arya, Madhesi, Tharu, Muslim, people of backward class and backward region shall be ensured in Nepal Army, based on the principle of equality and principles of inclusion as provided for in the Federal law.
… (Art. 267)

Nepali

-#_ g]kfnL ;]gfdf dlxnf, blnt, cflbjf;L, cflbjf;L hghflt, v; cfo{, dw]zL, yf¿, d'l:nd, lk58f ju{ tyf lk5l8Psf] If]qsf gful/ssf] k|j]z ;dfgtf / ;dfj]zL l;4fGtsf] cfwf/df ;+3Lo sfg"g adf]lhd ;'lglZrt ul/g]5 .
=== -wf/f @^&_

Limitations and/or Derogations

English

(1) In case a grave emergency arises in relation to the sovereignty or territorial integrity of Nepal or the security of any part thereof, whether by war, external attack, armed revolt, extreme economic breakdown, natural calamity or epidemic outbreak, the President may, by Proclamation or Order, declare a state of emergency to be enforced in Nepal or any specified part thereof.

(10) While issuing the Proclamation or Order of state of emergency pursuant to clause (1), the President may suspend the fundamental rights provided in Part 3 so long as the Proclamation or Order is in operation. Provided that, Article 16, section (c) and (d) of Article 17(2), Article 18, 19 (2), 20, 21, 22, 24, 26 (1), 29, 30, 31, 32, 35, 36 (1) and (2), 38, 39, 40 (2) and (3), 41, 42, 43, 45 and the right to constitutional remedy and right to habeas corpus related to Article 46 shall not be suspended.
(11) In circumstances where any Article of this constitution is suspended pursuant to clause (10), no petition may be made in any court of law, nor any question be raised for the enforcement of the fundamental rights conferred by such Article.
… (Art. 273)

Nepali

-!_ g]kfnsf] ;fj{ef}d;Qf, ef}uf]lns cv08tf jf s'g} efusf] ;'/Iffdf o'4, afXo cfqmd0f, ;z:q ljb|f]x, r/d cfly{s lj>[+vntf, k|fs[lts ljkb jf dxfdf/Lsf] sf/0fn] uDeL/ ;+s6 pTkGg ePdf /fi6«kltn] g]kfne/ jf g]kfnsf] s'g} vf; If]qdf nfu" x'g] u/L ;+s6sfnLg cj:yfsf] 3f]if0ff ug{ jf cfb]z hf/L ug{ ;Sg]5 .
===
-!)_ pkwf/f -!_ adf]lhd ;+s6sfnLg cj:yfsf] 3f]if0ff jf cfb]z hf/L ubf{ To:tf] 3f]if0ff jf cfb]z axfn /x];Ddsfnflu efu–# df Joj:yf ePsf df}lns xs lgnDag ug{ ;lsg]5 . t/ wf/f !^, wf/f !& sf] pkwf/f -@_ sf] v08 -u_ / -3_, wf/f !*, wf/f !( sf] pkwf/f -@_, wf/f @), @!, @@, @$, wf/f @^ sf pkwf/f -!_, @(, #), #!, #@, #%, #^ sf] pkwf/f -!_ / -@_, #*, #(, $) sf] pkwf/f -@_ / -#_, $!, $@, $#, $% / wf/f $^ adf]lhdsf] ;+j}wflgs pkrf/sf] xs / aGbL k|ToIfLs/0fsf] pkrf/ k|fKt ug{] xs lgnDag ul/g] 5}g . -!!_ pkwf/f -!)_ adf]lhd o; ;+ljwfgsf] s'g} wf/f lgnDag ul/Psf]df ;f] wf/fåf/f k|bQ df}lns xssf] k|rngsfnflu s'g} cbfntdf lgj]bg lbg jf To; ;DaGwdf s'g} cbfntdf k|Zg p7fpg ;lsg] 5}g .
=== -wf/f @&#_

Marriage and Family Life

English

(5) There shall be no gender discrimination regarding the right to parental property with regard to all family members. (Art. 18)

Nepali

-%_ k}t[s ;DklQdf n}+lus e]befj ljgf ;a} ;Gtfgsf] ;dfg xs x'g]5 . -wf/f !*_

Marriage and Family Life

English

(1) Every woman shall have equal right to lineage without any gender discriminations.
(2) Every woman shall have the right relating to safe motherhood and reproductive health.

(6) Both the spouses shall have equal rights in property and family affairs. (Art. 38)

Nepali

-!_ k|To]s dlxnfnfO{ n}+lus e]befj ljgf ;dfg j+zLo xs x'g]5 .
-@_ k|To]s dlxnfnfO{ ;'/lIft dft[Tj / k|hgg :jf:Yo ;DaGwL xs x'g]5 .
===
-^_ ;DklQ tyf kfl/jfl/s dfldnfdf bDktLsf] ;dfg xs x'g]5 . -wf/f #*_

Marriage and Family Life

English

The State shall pursue the following policies:

(h) Policies regarding the basic needs of citizens:

(10) It shall be the policy of the State to increase general life expectancy by decreasing maternity-infant mortality rate by encouraging family planning population management based on the need and capacity of the country.

(j) Policies regarding social justice and inclusion:

(3) Ensuring the use of necessary services and facilities during the reproductive stage
(4) Economically evaluating the works and contribution in regard to child care and care for the family.
… (Art. 51)

Nepali

/fHon] b]xfosf gLltx¿ cjnDag ug]{5 M–
===
-h_ gful/ssf cfwf/e"t cfjZostf ;DaGwL gLltM
===
-!)_ g]kfnsf] Ifdtf / cfjZostfsf cfwf/df hg;+Vof Joj:yfkgsfnflu kl/jf/ lgof]hgnfO{ k|f]T;flxt ub}{ dft[–lzz' d[To'b/ 36fO{ cf};t cfo' a9fpg],
===
-`_ ;fdflhs Gofo / ;dfj]zLs/0f ;DaGwL gLltM
===
-#_ k|hgg cj:yfdf cfjZos ;]jf ;'ljwf pkef]usf] ;'lglZrttf ug]{,
-$_ afnaRrfsf] kfng kf]if0f, kl/jf/sf] x]/rfx h:tf sfd / of]ubfgnfO{ cfly{s ¿kdf d"Nof+sg ug]{]{, === -wf/f %!_

Marriage and Family Life

English

5. Laws related to family affairs (marriage, property transfer, divorce, endangered, orphan, adopted child, successors and joint family).

10. Planning, family planning and population management
… (Schedule 7, List of Concurrent (federal and provincial) Powers/Jurisdiction)

Nepali

5. kfl/jfl/s dfldnf -ljjfx, ;DklQ x:tfGt/0f, ;DaGw ljR5]b, nf]kf]Gd'v, 6'x'/f, wd{k'q, wd{k'qL pQ/flwsf/ / ;+o'Qm kl/jf/_ ;DaGwL sfg"g
===
10. of]hgf, kl/jf/ lgof]hg / hg;+Vof Joj:yfkg
=== -cg';"rL–&, ;+3 / k|b]zsf] ;femf clwsf/sf] ;"rL_

Marriage and Family Life

English

11. Registration of personal incidents, birth, death, marriage and statistics
… (Schedule 9, List of concurrent Powers/Jurisdiction for Federation, Province and Local Level)

Nepali

-!!_ JolQmut 36gf, hGd, d[To', ljjfx / tYof+s
=== -cg';"rL–(, ;+3, k|b]z / :yfgLo txsf] clwsf/sf] ;femf ;"rL_

Minorities

English

(3) The state shall not discriminate among citizens on grounds of origin, religion, race, caste, tribe, sex, economic condition, language or geographical region, ideology and such other matters.
Provided that nothing shall be deemed to bar the making of special provisions by law for the protection, empowerment or advancement of the women lagging behind socially and culturally, Dalits, Adibasi, Madhesi, Tharus, Muslims, oppressed class, backward communities, minorities, marginalized groups, peasants, laborers, youths, children, senior citizens, sexual minorities, persons with disability, pregnant, incapacitated and the helpless persons, and of the citizens who belong to backward regions and financially deprived citizens including the Khas Arya.
… (Art. 18)

Nepali

-#_ /fHon] gful/sx¿sf aLr pTklQ, wd{, j0f{, hft, hflt, ln+u, cfly{s cj:yf, efiff, If]q, j}rfl/s cf:yf jf o:t} cGo s'g} cfwf/df e]befj ug]{ 5}g .
t/ ;fdflhs jf ;f+:s[lts b[li6n] lk5l8Psf dlxnf, blnt, cflbjf;L, cflbjf;L hghflt, dw]zL, yf¿, d'l:nd, pTkLl8t ju{, lk58f ju{, cNk;+Vos, ;LdfGtLs[t, ls;fg, >lds, o'jf, afnaflnsf, Ho]i7 gful/s, n}+lus tyf of}lgs cNk;+Vos, ckf+utf ePsf JolQm, uef{j:yfsf JolQm, czQm jf c;xfo, lk5l8Psf] If]q / cfly{s ¿kn] ljkGg v; cfo{ nufot gful/ssf] ;+/If0f, ;zQmLs/0f jf ljsf;sfnflu sfg"g adf]lhd ljz]if Joj:yf ug{ /f]s nufPsf] dflgg] 5}g .
===-wf/f !*_

Minorities

English

(1) Dalit shall have the right to participate in all agencies of the state based on the principle of proportional inclusion. There shall be special legal provision of empowerment, representation, and participation of Dalit community for employment in other area also including the public service.
(2) Provisions of free education with scholarships shall be made for Dalit students from the primary to higher level of education as provided for in law. Special provision shall be made in law for Dalits to pursue higher education in technical and professional subjects.
(3) In order to provide health care and social security to Dalit community, special arrangements shall be made in accordance with law.
(4) Dalit community shall have the right to use, preserve and develop their traditional occupation, knowledge, skill and technology. The State shall give priority to modern profession of Dalits in relation to their traditional occupation, by providing them with necessary skill and resources.
(5) The State shall, according to law, provide land to landless Dalits for one time.
(6) The State shall, according to law, make housing arrangements for Dalits who do not have housing of their own.
(7) The facilities provided to the Dalit community according to this Article, shall have to be justly distributed to Dalit women and men and all the Dalit communities living in different parts of the country, ensuring that all Dalits receive the facilities proportionally. (Art. 40)

Nepali

-!_ /fHosf ;a} lgsfodf blntnfO{ ;dfg'kflts ;dfj]zL l;4fGtsf] cfwf/df ;xefuL x'g] xs x'g]5 . ;fj{hlgs ;]jf nufotsf /f]huf/Lsf cGo If]qdf blnt ;d'bfosf] ;zQmLs/0f, k|ltlglwTj / ;xeflutfsfnflu sfg"g adf]lhd ljz]if Joj:yf ul/g]5 .
-@_ blnt ljBfyL{nfO{ k|fyldsb]lv pRr lzIff;Dd sfg"g adf]lhd 5fqj[lQ ;lxt lgMz'Ns lzIffsf] Joj:yf ul/g]5 . k|fljlws / Jofj;flos pRr lzIffdf blntsfnflu sfg"g adf]lhd ljz]if Joj:yf ul/g]5 .
-#_ blnt ;d'bfonfO{ :jf:Yo / ;fdflhs ;'/Iff k|bfg ug{ sfg"g adf]lhd ljz]if Joj:yf ul/g]5 .
-$_ blnt ;d'bfonfO{ cfˆgf] k/Dk/fut k]zf, 1fg, ;Lk / k|ljlwsf] k|of]u, ;+/If0f / ljsf; ug]{ xs x'g]5 .
/fHon] blnt ;d'bfosf k/Dk/fut k]zf;Fu ;DalGwt cfw'lgs Joj;fodf pgLx¿nfO{ k|fyldstf lbO{ To;sfnflu cfjZos kg]{ ;Lk / ;|f]t pknAw u/fpg]5 .
-%_ /fHon] e"ldxLg blntnfO{ sfg"g adf]lhd Ps k6s hdLg pknAw u/fpg' kg]{5 .
-^_ /fHon] cfjf;ljxLg blntnfO{ sfg"g adf]lhd a;f]af;sf] Joj:yf ug]{5 .
-&_ blnt ;d'bfonfO{ o; wf/fåf/f k|bQ ;'ljwf blnt dlxnf, k'?if / ;a} ;d'bfodf /x]sf blntn] ;dfg'kflts ¿kdf k|fKt ug]{ u/L Gofof]lrt ljt/0f ug'{ kg]{5 . -wf/f $)_

Minorities

English

(1) Socially backward women, Dalits, Adibasi, Janajati, Adibasi Janajati, Madhesi, Tharu, minority groups, persons with disability, marginalized groups, Muslim, backward classes, gender and sexually minority groups, youths, peasants, laborers, the oppressed and the citizens of backward regions, and economically poor Khas Arya shall have the right to employment in state structures on the basis of the principle of inclusion.
(2) Citizens who are economically very poor and communities on the verge of extinction, shall have the right to special opportunity and facilities in the areas of education, health, housing, employment, food and social security, for their protection, progress, empowerment and development.
… (Art. 42)

Nepali

-!_ ;fdflhs ¿kn] k5fl8 k/]sf dlxnf, blnt, cflbjf;L, cflbjf;L hghflt, dw]zL, yf¿, cNk;+Vos, ckf+utf ePsf JolQm, ;LdfGtLs[t, d'l:nd, lk58f ju{, n}+lus tyf of}lgs cNk;+Vos, o'jf, ls;fg, >lds, pTkLl8t jf lk5l8Psf] If]qsf gful/s tyf cfly{s¿kn] ljkGg v; cfo{nfO{ ;dfj]zL l;4fGtsf cfwf/df /fHosf] lgsfodf ;xeflutfsf] xs x'g]5 .
-@_ cfly{s ¿kn] ljkGg tyf nf]kf]Gd'v ;d'bfosf gful/ssf] ;+/If0f, pTyfg, ;zQmLs/0f / ljsf;sfnflu lzIff, :jf:Yo, cfjf; /f]huf/L, vfBfGg / ;fdflhs ;'/Iffdf ljz]if cj;/ tyf nfe kfpg]xs x'g]5 .
=== -wf/f $@_

Minorities

English

The State shall pursue the following policies:

(j) Policies regarding social justice and inclusion:

(8) Making special arrangements to ensure the rights of Adivasi Janajatis (indigenous ethnic groups) to lead a dignified life with their respective identities, and making them participate In decision making processes that concern them, and preserving and maintaining the traditional knowledge, skill, experience, culture and social practices of Adivasi Janajatis and local communities.
(9) Making special arrangements for minority communities to exercise their social and cultural rights by maintaining their identity.
(10) Making special arrangements for the Madhesi community to have equal distribution of benefits of economic, social and cultural opportunities, and also for the protection, progress, empowerment and development of the very poor and backward classes within the Madhesi community.
… (Art. 51)

Nepali

/fHon] b]xfosf gLltx¿ cjnDag ug]{5 M–
===
-`_ ;fdflhs Gofo / ;dfj]zLs/0f ;DaGwL gLltM
===
-*_ cflbjf;L hghfltsf] klxrfg ;lxt ;Ddfgk"j{s afFRg kfpg] clwsf/ ;'lglZrt ug{ cj;/ tyf nfesfnflu ljz]if Joj:yf ub}{ o; ;d'bfo;Fu ;/f]sf/ /fVg] lg0f{ox¿df ;xefuL u/fpg] tyf cflbjf;L hghflt / :yfgLo ;d'bfosf] k/Dk/fut 1fg, ;Lk, ;+:s[lt, ;fdflhs k/Dk/f / cg'ejnfO{ ;+/If0f / ;+jw{g ug]{]{,
-(_ cNk;+Vos ;d'bfonfO{ cfˆgf] klxrfg sfod /fvL ;fdflhs / ;+f:s[lts clwsf/ k|of]usf] cj;/ tyf nfesfnflu ljz]if Joj:yf ug]{,
-!)_ dw]zL ;d'bfo, d'l:nd / lk58f ju{nfO{ cfly{s, ;fdflhs tyf ;f+:s[lts cj;/ / nfesf] ;dfg ljt/0f tyf To:tf ;d'bfoleqsf ljkGg gful/ssf] ;+/If0f, pTyfg, ;zQmLs/0f / ljsf;sf cj;/ tyf nfesfnflu ljz]if Joj:yf ug]{,
=== -wf/f %!_

Minorities

English

(6) The representation of women, Dalit, indigenous, indigenous nationalities, Khas Arya, Madhesi, Muslim, backward region and minorities community on the basis of geography and population in the nominations filed by the political parties for the election to be held for the Provincial Assembly through the proportional representation (PR) election system shall be made on the basis of closed list in accordance with Federal law.
… (Art. 176)

Nepali

-^_ ;dfg'kflts lgjf{rg k|0ffnL adf]lhd x'g] k|b]z ;efsf] lgjf{rgsfnflu /fhgLlts bnn] pDd]bjf/L lb+bf hg;+Vofsf] cfwf/df dlxnf, blnt, cflbjf;L hghflt, v; cfo{, dw];L, yf¿, d'l:nd, lk5l8Psf] If]q, cNk;+Vos ;d'bfo ;d]taf6 aGb ;"rLsf cfwf/df k|ltlglwTj x'g] Joj:yf ;+3Lo sfg"g adf]lhd x'g]5 . To;/L pDd]bjf/L lb+bf ;DalGwt k|b]zsf] ef}uf]lns ;Gt'ngnfO{ ;d]t Wofg lbg' kg{]5 .
=== -wf/f !&^_

Minorities

English

(1) Functions, duties and powers of National Dalit Commission shall be as follows:-
(a) To carry out research and studies regarding Dalit community of Nepal so as to identify legal and institutional reforms to be made and make a recommendation to the Government of Nepal,
(b) To formulate national policies and programs in matters related with ending caste discrimination, untouchability, suppression and to enhance Dalit’s status and development, and to forward a recommendation to the Government of Nepal for implementation,
(c) To monitor, so as to ensure whether the special provisions and laws related with Dalit welfare have been implemented or not, and to forward a recommendation to the government of Nepal, in case these provisions are found not to have been implemented,
(d) To review or monitor the Government of Nepal, so as to ensure that the Government of Nepal submits the report as a signatory to the international treaties and agreement, as provisioned by those treaties,
(e) To monitor, review and evaluate the policies and programs implemented by the State to bring Dalit community into the mainstream of national development such as proportionate representation in all of the state agencies, and to forward a recommendation to the Government of Nepal for an effective implementation of those provisions, (f) To recommend to respective agencies on filing petitions in court according to the law, against any person or organization if it is deemed necessary on subjects of discriminations on caste and untouchability or victim of social malpractices or disallowing or depriving of exercising the right of Dalits.
(2) The National Dalit Commission may delegate, as required, some of its powers to the Chairperson of the Commission, member, or an officer of the Government of Nepal, to be exercised in compliance with the conditions specified.
(3) Other functions, duties and powers of the National Dalit Commission, shall be as specified by Federal law. (Art. 256)

Nepali

-!_ /fli6«o blnt cfof]usf] sfd, st{Jo / clwsf/ b]xfo adf]lhd x'g]5 M–
-s_ blnt ;d'bfosf] ;du| l:yltsf] cWoog tyf cGj]if0f u/L tt\;DaGwdf ug{' kg{] gLltut, sfg"gL / ;+:Yffut ;'wf/sf ljifo klxrfg u/L g]kfn ;/sf/nfO{ l;kmfl/; ug{],
-v_ hftLo 5'jf5"t, pTkL8g / lje]bsf] cGTo u/L blnt pTyfg / ljsf;sfnflu blnt lxt;Fu ;/f]sf/ /fVg] /fli6«o gLlt tyf sfo{qmdsf] th'{df u/L sfof{Gjogsfnflu g]kfn ;/sf/ ;dIf k]z ug{],
-u_ blnt ;d'bfosf] pTyfg tyf lxtdf ePsf ljz]if Joj:yf nufot blnt lxt;Fu ;DjlGwt sfg"gsf] k|efjsf/L ¿kdf kfngf eP jf gePsf] ljifodf cg'udg u/L kfngf jf sfof{Gjog gePsf] eP ;f]sf] kfngf jf sfof{Gjogsfnflu g]kfn ;/sf/ ;dIf ;'emfa lbg],
-3_ blnt ;d'bfosf] clwsf/;+u ;DalGwt g]kfn kIf ePsf] cGt/f{li6«o ;lGw jf ;Demf}tfdf ePsf] Joj:yf adf]lhd g]kfnn] k7fpg' kg]{ k|ltj]bg tof/Lsf ;DaGwdf g]kfn ;/sf/nfO{ ;'emfj lbg],
-ª_ blnt ;d'bfonfO{ /fli6«o ljsf;sf] d"n k|jfxdf ;dflxt ug{ tyf /fHosf ;a} c+ux¿df ;dfg'kflts ;xeflutf ;'lglZrt ug{ df}h"bf gLlt tyf sfo{qmdsf] ;dLIff, cg'udg tyf d"Nof+sg ug]{ / ;f] sf] k|efjsf/L sfof{Gjogsfnflu g]kfn ;/sf/nfO{ l;kmfl/; ug]{,
-r_ hftLo e]befj tyf 5"jf5"t jf ;fdflhs s'/Lltaf6 kLl8t ePsf] jf blntsf] xs k|of]u ug{ glbPsf] jf jl~rt u/]sf] ljifodf s'g} JolQm jf ;+:yf lj?4 d'2f bfo/ ug{' kg{] cfjZostf b]lvPdf sfg"g adf]lhd cbfntdf d'2f bfo/ ug{ ;DalGwt lgsfo ;dIf l;kmfl/; ug{] .
-@_ /fli6«o blnt cfof]un] cfˆgf] sfd, st{Jo / clwsf/ dWo] s'g} sfd, st{Jo / clwsf/ cfof]usf] cWoIf, s'g} ;b:o jf g]kfn ;/sf/sf] s'g} sd{rf/LnfO{ tf]lsPsf] zt{sf] cwLgdf /xL k|of]u tyf kfng ug{] u/L k|Tofof]hg ug{ ;Sg]5 .
-#_ /fli6«o blnt cfof]usf] cGo sfd, st{Jo, clwsf/ tyf tt\;DaGwL cGo Joj:yf ;+3Lo sfg"g adf]lhd x'g]5 . -wf/f @%^_

Minorities

English

(1) Functions, duties and powers of National Inclusion Commission shall be as follows:-
(a) To carry out research and studies for protecting rights and welfare of Khash Arya, backward class, persons with disability, senior citizens, laborers, peasants, marginalized and minoritycommunities, people of Karnali region and economically disadvantaged people,
(b) To review the policies of the Government of Nepal for inclusion of the persons as mentioned in section (a) above and their implementation, and to forward necessary recommendation to the government for reform,
(c) To conduct study about the rightful representation of the persons as mentioned in section (a) above in the state mechanisms, and to forward a recommendation to the Government of Nepal to review the provision to ensure their representation therein,
(d) To study whether protection, empowerment and development of the persons as mentioned in section (a) is satisfactory and to forward a recommendation to the Government of Nepal regarding the policies to be adopted for the future,
(e) To recommend the Government of Nepal regarding policies and programs to be implemented for development and prosperity of Karnali and other backward regions, (f) To recommend for timely revision in the laws related to minorities and marginalized communities,
(g) To monitor the situation of implementation of rights and interests of minorities and marginalized communities, and to make recommendations for revision based on reports of periodic census and human development indices.
(2) The National Inclusion Commission may delegate, as required, some of its powers to the Chairperson of the Commission, member, or an officer of the Government of Nepal, to be exercised in compliance with the conditions specified.
(3) Other functions, duties and powers of the National Inclusion Commission shall be as specified by Federal law. (Art. 259)

Nepali

-!_ /fli6«o ;dfj]zL cfof]usf] sfd, st{Jo / clwsf/ b]xfo adf]lhd x'g]5 M–
-s_ v; cfo{, lk58f ju{, ckf+utf ePsf JolQm, Ho]i7
gful/s, >lds, ls;fg, cNk;+Vos Pj+ ;LdfGtLs[t
;d'bfo tyf lk5l8Psf] ju{ / s0ff{nL tyf cfly{s ¿kn] ljkGg ju{ nufotsf ;d'bfosf] xs clwsf/sf] ;+/If0fsfnflu cWoog tyf cg';Gwfg ug{],
-v_ v08 -s_ df plNnlvt ;d'bfo, ju{ / If]qsf] ;dfj]zLs/0fsfnflu g]kfn ;/sf/n] cjnDag u/]sf] gLlt tyf sfg"gsf] sfof{Gjog cj:yfsf] cWoog u/L ;'wf/sfnflu g]kfn ;/sf/nfO{ ;'emfj lbg],
-u_ v08 -s_ df plNnlvt ;d'bfo, ju{ / If]qsf] /fHo ;+oGqdf plrt k|ltlglwTj eP gePsf] cWoog u/L To:tf] ;d'bfo, ju{ / If]qsf] k|ltlglwTjsfnflu ul/Psf] ljz]if Joj:yfsf] k'g/fjnf]sg ug{ g]kfn ;/sf/nfO{ ;'emfj lbg],
-3_ v08 -s_ df plNnlvt ;d'bfo, ju{ / If]qsf] ;+/If0f, ;zQmLs/0f / ljsf; ;Gtf]ifhgs eP gePsf] cWoogu/L eljiodf cjnDag ug{' kg{] gLltsf] ;DaGwdf g]kfn ;/sf/ ;dIf l;kmfl/; ug{],
-ª_ s0ff{nL / lk5l8Psf] If]qsf] ljsf; / ;d[l4sfnflu canDag ug'{ kg]{ gLlt / sfo{qmdsf] ;DaGwdf g]kfn ;/sf/nfO{ ;'emfj lbg],
-r_ cNk;+Vos tyf ;LdfGtLs[t ;d'bfo ;DaGwL sfg"gdf ;dofg's'n kl/dfh{gsfnflu l;kmfl/; ug{],
-5_ cNk;+Vos tyf ;LdfGtLs[t ;d'bfosfnflu k|Tofe"t xs clwsf/sf] sfof{Gjog l:ylt cg'udg u/L cfjlws ¿kdf x'g] /fli6«o hgu0fgf tyf dfgj ljsf; ;"rsf+s ;DaGwL k|ltj]bgsf] cfwf/df cfjZos k'g/fjnf]sg u/L kl/dfh{gsfnflu l;kmfl/; ug{] .
-@_ /fli6«o ;dfj]zL cfof]un] cfˆgf] sfd, st{Jo / clwsf/ dWo] s'g} sfd, st{Jo / clwsf/ ;f] cfof]usf] cWoIf, s'g} ;b:o jf g]kfn ;/sf/sf] s'g} sd{rf/LnfO{ tf]lsPsf] zt{sf] cwLgdf /xL k|of]u tyf kfng ug]{ u/L k|Tofof]hg ug{ ;Sg]5 .
-#_ /fli6«o ;dfj]zL cfof]usf] cGo sfd, st{Jo, clwsf/ tyf tt\;DaGwL cGo Joj:yf ;+3Lo sfg"g adf]lhd
x'g]5 . -wf/f @%(_

Minorities

English

(3) The entry of women, Dalit, indigenous community, Khash Arya, Madhesi, Tharu, Muslim, people of backward class and backward region shall be ensured in Nepal Army, based on the principle of equality and principles of inclusion as provided for in the Federal law.
… (Art. 267)

Nepali

-#_ g]kfnL ;]gfdf dlxnf, blnt, cflbjf;L, cflbjf;L hghflt, v; cfo{, dw]zL, yf¿, d'l:nd, lk58f ju{ tyf lk5l8Psf] If]qsf gful/ssf] k|j]z ;dfgtf / ;dfj]zL l;4fGtsf] cfwf/df ;+3Lo sfg"g adf]lhd ;'lglZrt ul/g]5 .
=== -wf/f @^&_

Minorities

English

The Government of Nepal shall review and revise, along with census of every ten years, the provisions regarding special rights of the women and Dalit community and its implementation and effectiveness based on human development index. (Art. 281)

Nepali

g]kfn ;/sf/n] k|To]s bz jif{df x'g] /fli6«o hgu0fgf;Fu} dlxnf tyf blnt ;d'bfosf] ljz]if clwsf/sf] Joj:yfsf] sfo{fGjog / To;sf] k|efj ;DaGwdf dfgj ljsf; ;"rsf+ssf] cfwf/df ;dLIff tyf k'g/fjnf]sg ug]{5 . -wf/f @*!_

Minorities

English

(1) Unless the subject or context otherwise requires, in this Constitution:-
(a) “Minority” means those caste, language, and religious communities, whose population is less than that determined by the law, and who has their own specialties, and who aim to protect them; it also signifies those groups who have faced discrimination and harassed.

(m) “Marginalized” means those who have been forced to fall backward politically, economically and socially, those who have been unable to avail services because of discrimination and harassment, and because of geographical disconnection, and those communities whose standard of living has been below the legal standard as specified in the Human Development indicators. It also signifies the ultra-marginalized and communities on verge of extinction.
… (Art. 306)

Nepali

-!_ ljifo jf k|;Ën] csf]{ cy{ gnfu]df o;;+ljwfgdf,–
-s_ æcNk;+VosÆ eGgfn] ;+3Lo sfg"g adf]lhd lgwf{l/t k|ltzt eGbf sd hg;+Vof /x]sf hftLo, eflifs / wfld{s ;d"x ;Demg' k5{ / ;f] zAbn] cfˆg} hftLo, wfld{s / eflifs ljlzi6tf ePsf], To;nfO{ arfO{ /fVg] cfsf+Iff /x]sf, lje]b / pTkL8g ef]u]sf ;d"x ;d]tnfO{ hgfpF5 .
===
-8_ æ;LdfGtLs[tÆ eGgfn] /fhgLlts, cfly{s / ;fdflhs ¿kn] k5fl8 kfl/Psf, lje]b / pTkL8g tyf ef}uf]lns ljs6tfsf] sf/0fn] ;]jf ;'ljwfsf] pkef]u ug{ g;s]sf jf To;af6 jl~rt /x]sf ;+3Lo sfg"g adf]lhdsf] dfgj ljsf;sf] :t/ eGbf Go"g l:yltdf /x]sf ;d'bfo ;Demg'k5{ / ;f] zAbn] clt ;LdfGtLs[t / nf]kf]Gd'v ;d'bfo;d]tnfO{ hgfpF5 .
=== -wf/f #)^_

Participation in Public Life and Institutions

English

(4) Women shall have the right to access participate in all state structures and bodies on the basis of the principle of proportional inclusion.
… (Art. 38)

Nepali

-$_ /fHosf ;a} lgsfodf dlxnfnfO{ ;dfg'kflts ;dfj]zL l;4fGtsf] cfwf/df ;xefuL x'g] xs x'g]5 .
=== -wf/f #*_

Participation in Public Life and Institutions

English

(1) Socially backward women, Dalits, Adibasi, Janajati, Adibasi Janajati, Madhesi, Tharu, minority groups, persons with disability, marginalized groups, Muslim, backward classes, gender and sexually minority groups, youths, peasants, laborers, the oppressed and the citizens of backward regions, and economically poor Khas Arya shall have the right to employment in state structures on the basis of the principle of inclusion.
… (Art. 42)

Nepali

-!_ ;fdflhs ¿kn] k5fl8 k/]sf dlxnf, blnt, cflbjf;L, cflbjf;L hghflt, dw]zL, yf¿, cNk;+Vos, ckf+utf ePsf JolQm, ;LdfGtLs[t, d'l:nd, lk58f ju{, n}+lus tyf of}lgs cNk;+Vos, o'jf, ls;fg, >lds, pTkLl8t jf lk5l8Psf] If]qsf gful/s tyf cfly{s¿kn] ljkGg v; cfo{nfO{ ;dfj]zL l;4fGtsf cfwf/df /fHosf] lgsfodf ;xeflutfsf] xs x'g]5 .
=== -wf/f $@_

Participation in Public Life and Institutions

English

(1) There shall be an organization of Nepal Army, committed to democratic principles, inclusive in character and national in form, for the protection of Nepal’s independence, sovereignty, territorial integrity, autonomy and national unity.

(3) The entry of women, Dalit, indigenous community, Khash Arya, Madhesi, Tharu, Muslim, people of backward class and backward region shall be ensured in Nepal Army, based on the principle of equality and principles of inclusion as provided for in the Federal law.
… (Art. 267)

Nepali

-!_ g]kfnsf] :jtGqtf, ;fj{ef}d;Qf, ef}uf]lns cv08tf, :jfwLgtf / /fli6«o Pstfsf] /Iffsfnflu o; ;+ljwfgk|lt k|lta4 ;dfj]zL g]kfnL ;]gfsf] Ps ;+u7g /xg]5 .
===
-#_ g]kfnL ;]gfdf dlxnf, blnt, cflbjf;L, cflbjf;L hghflt, v; cfo{, dw]zL, yf¿, d'l:nd, lk58f ju{ tyf lk5l8Psf] If]qsf gful/ssf] k|j]z ;dfgtf / ;dfj]zL l;4fGtsf] cfwf/df ;+3Lo sfg"g adf]lhd ;'lglZrt ul/g]5 .
=== -wf/f @^&_

Political Rights and Association

English

(2) Every citizen shall have the following freedoms:

(c) freedom to form political party,
(d) freedom to form unions and associations,
… (Art. 17)

Nepali

-@_ k|To]s gful/snfO{ b]xfosf] :jtGqtf x'g]5 M–
===
-u_ /fhgLlts bn vf]Ng] :jtGqtf,
-3_ ;+3 / ;+:yf vf]Ng] :jtGqtf,
=== -wf/f !&_

Political Rights and Association

English

(4) Women shall have the right to access participate in all state structures and bodies on the basis of the principle of proportional inclusion.
… (Art. 38)

Nepali

-$_ /fHosf ;a} lgsfodf dlxnfnfO{ ;dfg'kflts ;dfj]zL l;4fGtsf] cfwf/df ;xefuL x'g] xs x'g]5 .
=== -wf/f #*_

Political Rights and Association

English

(5) Every Nepali citizen who has attained the age of eighteen years, as provided in law, shall be entitled to vote in any constituency.
… (Art. 84)

Nepali

-%_ c7f/ jif{ pd]/ k"/f ePsf] k|To]s g]kfnL gful/snfO{ ;+3Lo sfg"g adf]lhd s'g} Ps lgjf{rg If]qdf dtbfg ug]{ clwsf/ x'g]5 .
=== -wf/f *$_

Political Rights and Association

English

(1) Persons who are committed to a common political ideology, philosophy and program shall, subject to the laws under section (b), clause (2) of the Article (17), be entitled to form and operate the political parties and to generate or cause to be generated publicity in order to secure public support and cooperation from the general public for their ideology, philosophy and program, and to carry out any other activities for that purpose.
… (Art. 269)

Nepali

-!_ ;dfg /fhgLlts ljrf/wf/f, bz{g / sfo{qmddf k|lta4 JolQmx¿n] wf/f !& sf] pkwf/f -@_ sf] v08 -u_ cGtu{t ag]sf] sfg"gsf] cwLgdf /xL /fhgLlts bn u7g u/L ;~rfng ug{ / bnsf] ljrf/wf/f, bz{g / sfo{qmd k|lt hg;fwf/0fsf] ;dy{g / ;xof]u k|fKt ug{sfnflu To;sf] k|rf/ / k|;f/ ug{, u/fpg jf ;f] k|of]hgsfnflu cGo cfjZos sfd ug{ ;Sg]5g\ .
=== -wf/f @^(_

National level

English

(1) The House of Representatives shall consist of two hundred and seventy five members as follows:-
(a) One hundred and sixty five members elected through the first-past-the-post electoral system consisting of one member from each of the one hundred and sixty five electoral constituencies formed by dividing Nepal into 165 constituencies based on geography, and population.
(b) One hundred and ten members elected from proportional representation electoral system where voters vote for parties, while treating the whole country as a single electoral constituency.
(2) Provision shall be made according to Federal law for the representation of political parties to file candidacy for the election of the House of Representatives for proportional representation system through closed list of women, Dalit, Adibasi Janajati, Khas Arya, Madhesi, Tharu, Muslim, and backward regions. Balance in geography and province shall be considered for such candidacy.
Explanation: For the purpose of this provision, Khas Arya means Chhetri, Brahmin, Thakuri and Sannyasi (Dasnami) community.

(8) Notwithstanding anything contained elsewhere in this Article, women should account for at least one third of total members elected from each party in Federal Parliament. In case, one-third percentage of women are not elected while being elected under section (a) of clause (1), and section (a), clause (2) of Article 84, the party that fails to ensure one-third representation shall have to elect at least one-third of total numbers as woman in the Federal Parliament while electing members under section (b) of clause (1).
… (Art. 84)

Nepali

-!_ k|ltlglw ;efdf b]xfo adf]lhdsf b'O{ ;o krxQ/ ;b:o /xg]5g\ M–
-s_ g]kfnnfO{ e"uf]n / hg;+Vofsf] cfwf/df Ps ;o k}+;¶L lgjf{rg If]q sfod u/L k|To]s lgjf{rg If]qaf6 Pshgf /xg] u/L klxnf] x'g] lgjf{lrt x'g] lgjf{rg k|0ffnL adf]lhd lgjf{lrt x'g] Ps ;o k}+;¶L ;b:o, -v_ ;Dk"0f{ b]znfO{ Ps lgjf{rg If]q dfgL /fhgLlts bnnfO{ dt lbg] ;dfg'kflts lgjf{rg k|0ffnL adf]lhd lgjf{lrt x'g] Ps ;o bz ;b:o .
-@_ ;dfg'kflts lgjf{rg k|0ffnL adf]lhd x'g] k|ltlglw ;efsf] lgjf{rgsfnflu /fhgLlts bnn] pDd]bjf/L lb+bf hg;+Vofsf] cfwf/df dlxnf, blnt, cflbjf;L hghflt, v; cfo{, dw];L, yf¿, d'l:nd, lk5l8Psf] If]q ;d]taf6 aGb ;"rLsf cfwf/df k|ltlglwTj u/fpg]
Joj:yf ;+3Lo sfg"g adf]lhd x'g]5 . To;/L pDd]bjf/L lb+bf e"uf]n / k|fb]lzs ;Gt'ngnfO{ ;d]t Wofg lbg' kg{]5 .
:ki6Ls/0f M o; pkwf/fsf] k|of]hgsfnflu æv; cfo{Æ eGgfn] If]qL, a|fDx0f, 7s'/L, ;+Gof;L -bzgfdL_ ;d'bfo ;Demg' k5{ .
===
-*_ o; efudf cGoq h'g;'s} s'/f n]lvPsf] eP tfklg ;+3Lo ;+;bdf k|ltlglwTj ug]{ k|To]s /fhgLlts bnaf6 lgjf{lrt s'n ;b:o ;+Vofsf] sDtLdf Ps ltxfO ;b:o dlxnf x'g' kg]{5 . To;/L lgjf{lrt ubf{ pkwf/f -!_ sf] v08 -s_ / wf/f *^ sf] pkwf/f -@_ sf] v08 -s_ adf]lhd lgjf{lrt ;b:ox¿ dWo] s'g} /fhgLlts bnsf] Ps ltxfO ;b:o dlxnf lgjf{lrt x'g g;s]df To:tf] /fhgLlts bnn] pkwf/f -!_ sf] v08 -v_ adf]lhd ;b:o lgjf{lrt ubf{ cfˆgf] bnaf6 ;+3Lo ;+;bdf lgjf{lrt x'g] s'n ;b:osf] sDtLdf Ps ltxfO dlxnf ;b:o x'g] u/L lgjf{lrt ug'{ kg]{5 .
=== -wf/f *$_

National level

English

(1) National Assembly shall be a permanent house.
(2) There shall be fifty-nine members in the National Assembly as follows:-
(a) Fifty six members elected from an Electoral College comprising members of Provincial Assembly and chairpersons and vice-chairpersons of Village councils and Mayors and Deputy Mayors of Municipal councils, with different weights of votes for each, with eight members from each province, including at least three women, one Dalit, one person with disability or minority;
(b) Three members, including at least one woman, to be nominated by the President on the recommendation of Government of Nepal.
… (Art. 86)

Nepali

-!_ /fli6«o ;ef Ps :yfoL ;bg x'g]5 .
-@_ /fli6«o ;efdf b]xfo adf]lhdsf pgfG;f7L ;b:o /xg]5g\ M–
-s_ k|b]z ;efsf ;b:o, ufpFkflnsfsf cWoIf / pkfWoIf tyf gu/kflnsfsf k|d'v / pkk|d'v /x]sf] lgjf{rs d08nåf/f ;+3Lo sfg"g adf]lhd k|b]z ;efsf ;b:o, ufpFkflnsfsf cWoIf / pkfWoIf tyf gu/kflnsfsf k|d'v / pkk|d'vsf] dtsf] ef/ km/s x'g] u/L k|To]s k|b]zaf6 sDtLdf tLghgf dlxnf, Pshgf blnt / Pshgf ckf+utf ePsf JolQm jf cNk;+Vos ;lxt cf7hgf u/L] lgjf{lrt 5kGg hgf,
-v_ g]kfn ;/sf/sf] l;kmfl/;df /fi6«kltaf6 dgf]gLt sDtLdf Pshgf dlxnf ;lxt tLghgf .
=== -wf/f *^_

National level

English

(1) The House of Representatives shall, within fifteen days of commencement of first meeting, elect a Speaker and a Deputy Speaker from among its members.
(2) While electing Speaker and Deputy Speaker as per clause (1), either Speaker or Deputy Speaker shall be a woman and belong to different parties.
… (Art. 91)

Nepali

-!_ k|ltlglw ;efsf] klxnf] a}7s k|f/De ePsf] ldltn] kGw| lbgleq k|ltlglw ;efsf ;b:ox¿n] cfkm"dWo]af6 k|ltlglw ;efsf] ;efd'v / pk;efd'vsf] lgjf{rg ug]{5g\ .
-@_ pkwf/f -!_ adf]lhd lgjf{rg ubf{ k|ltlglw ;efsf] ;efd'v / pk;efd'v dWo] Pshgf dlxnf x'g] u/L ug{' kg]{5 / k|ltlglw ;efsf] ;efd'v / pk;efd'v km/s km/s bnsf] k|ltlglw x'g' kg]{5 .
=== -wf/f (!_

National level

English

(1) After the commencement of its first session, the National Assembly shall, within fifteen days of commencement of first meeting, elect a Chairperson and Vice chairperson from among its members.
(2) While electing as per clause (1), either Chairperson or Vice chairperson Chairman of the National Assembly shall be a woman.
… (Art. 92)

Nepali

-!_ /fli6«o ;efsf] klxnf] a}7s k|f/De ePsf] ldltn] kGw| lbgleq /fli6«o ;efsf ;b:ox¿n] cfkm"dWo]af6 /fli6«o ;efsf] cWoIf / pkfWoIfsf] lgjf{rg ug]{5g\ .
-@_ pkwf/f -!_ adf]lhd lgjf{rg ubf{ /fli6«o ;efsf] cWoIf / pkfWoIf dWo] Pshgf dlxnf x'g] u/L ug{' kg]{5 .
=== -wf/f (@_

Subnational levels

English

(1) Every Provincial Assembly shall consist of the following number of members: -
(a) Members equal to double the number of members to be elected through the first-past-the-post (FPTP) election system to the House of Representatives from the concerned province,
(b) The number of members to be elected through the Proportional Representation (PR) election system equal to the number equivalent to the remaining forty per cent when the number of members maintained pursuant to section (a) is regarded as sixty per cent.

(6) The representation of women, Dalit, indigenous, indigenous nationalities, Khas Arya, Madhesi, Muslim, backward region and minorities community on the basis of geography and population in the nominations filed by the political parties for the election to be held for the Provincial Assembly through the proportional representation (PR) election system shall be made on the basis of closed list in accordance with Federal law.
Explanation: ‘Khas Arya’ shall mean Chettri, Brahman, Thakuri, Sanyasi (Dashanami) community.

(9) Notwithstanding anything contained elsewhere in this Article, at least one third of the total number of members to be elected from each political party to the Provincial Assembly shall have to be women. In case at least one third of the candidates elected from a political party pursuant to section (a) of clause (1) are not women, the political party shall have to make provision of electing at least one third women while electing members pursuant to section (b) of the same clause.
… (Art. 176)

Nepali

-!_ k|To]s k|b]z ;efdf b]xfo adf]lhdsf] ;+Vofdf ;b:o /xg]5g\ M–
-s_ ;DalGwt k|b]zaf6 k|ltlglw ;efdf klxnf] x'g] lgjf{lrt x'g] lgjf{rg k|0ffnL adf]lhd lgjf{lrt x'g] ;b:o ;+Vofsf] bf]Aa/ ;+Vofdf x'g cfpg] ;b:o,
-v_ v08 -s_ adf]lhd sfod x'g] ;b:o ;+VofnfO{ ;f7L k|ltzt dfgL afFsL rfnL; k|ltztdf ;dfg'kflts lgjf{rg k|0ffnLaf6 lgjf{lrt x'g] ;b:o .
===
-^_ ;dfg'kflts lgjf{rg k|0ffnL adf]lhd x'g] k|b]z ;efsf] lgjf{rgsfnflu /fhgLlts bnn] pDd]bjf/L lb+bf hg;+Vofsf] cfwf/df dlxnf, blnt, cflbjf;L hghflt, v; cfo{, dw];L, yf¿, d'l:nd, lk5l8Psf] If]q, cNk;+Vos ;d'bfo ;d]taf6 aGb ;"rLsf cfwf/df k|ltlglwTj x'g] Joj:yf ;+3Lo sfg"g adf]lhd x'g]5 . To;/L pDd]bjf/L lb+bf ;DalGwt k|b]zsf] ef}uf]lns ;Gt'ngnfO{ ;d]t Wofg lbg' kg{]5 .
:ki6Ls/0fM o; efusf] k|of]hgsfnflu æv; cfo{Æ eGgfn] If]qL, a|fDx0f, 7s'/L, ;+Gof;L -bzgfdL_ ;d'bfo ;Demg' k5{ .
===
-(_ o; wf/fdf cGoq h'g;'s} s'/f n]lvPsf] eP tfklg k|b]z ;efdf k|ltlglwTj ug]{ k|To]s /fhgLlts bnaf6 lgjf{lrt s'n ;b:o ;+Vofsf] sDtLdf Ps ltxfO ;b:o dlxnf x'g' kg]{5 . To;/L lgjf{lrt ubf{ pkwf/f -!_ sf] v08 -s_ adf]lhd lgjf{lrt ;b:ox¿ dWo] s'g} /fhgLlts bnsf] Ps ltxfO ;b:o dlxnf lgjf{lrt gePdf To:tf] /fhgLlts bnn] ;f]xL pkwf/fsf] v08 -v_ adf]lhd ;b:o lgjf{lrt ubf{ cfˆgf] bnaf6 k|b]z ;efdf lgjf{lrt x'g] s'n ;b:osf] sDtLdf Ps ltxfO dlxnf ;b:o x'g] u/L lgjf{lrt ug'{ kg]{5 . === -wf/f !&^_

Subnational levels

English

(1) The Provincial Assembly shall elect a Speaker and a Deputy Speaker from among its members within fifteen days of the first meeting of the Assembly.
(2) While electing speaker and deputy speaker as per clause (1), either of Speaker or Deputy Speaker shall be woman and they shall belong to different parties.… (Art. 182)

Nepali

-!_ k|b]z ;efsf] klxnf] a}7s k|f/De ePsf] ldltn] kGw| lbgleq k|b]z ;efsf ;b:ox¿n] cfkm"dWo]af6 k|b]z ;efd'v / k|b]z pk;efd'vsf] lgjf{rg ug]{5g\ .
-@_ pkwf/f -!_ adf]lhd lgjf{rg ubf{ k|b]z ;efd'v jf k|b]z pk;efd'v dWo] Pshgf dlxnf x'g] u/L ug{' kg]{5 / k|b]z ;efd'v jf k|b]z pk;efd'v km/s km/s bnsf] k|ltlglw x'g' kg]{5 . === -wf/f !*@_

Subnational levels

English

(1) There shall be a Head of Village executive in every Village Council. The Village executive shall be formed under her/his chairpersonship.
(2) The Village executive, pursuant to Clause (1), shall have a Deputy Head and ward chairpersons elected from each ward and members elected as per clause (4) below.
(3) The election of the Head and Deputy Head shall be held through secret ballot based on one person one vote according to the the first-past-thepost electoral system by the voters of the concerned Village Council area.
Explanation: For the purpose of this Article, ‘Head and Deputy Head’ shall mean the Head and Deputy Head of the Village executive.
(4) Four women members that are elected by the Village Assembly members from among themselves and two persons elected from the Dalit or minority community with qualifications pursuant to Clause (5) below shall also be members of the Village executive and this election shall be held within 15 days following the final result of the election of Village Assembly as per Article 222.
… (Art. 215)

Nepali

-!_ k|To]s ufpFkflnsfdf Pshgf ufpF sfo{kflnsf cWoIf /xg]5 . lghsf] cWoIftfdf ufpF sfo{kflnsf u7g x'g]5 .
-@_ pkwf/f -!_ adf]lhdsf] ufpF sfo{kflnsfdf Pshgf pkfWoIf, k|To]s j8faf6 lgjf{lrt j8f cWoIf / pkwf/f -$_ adf]lhd lgjf{lrt ;b:o /xg]5g\ .
-#_ cWoIf / pkfWoIfsf] lgjf{rg ;DalGwt ufpFkflnsf If]qleqsf dtbftfn] Ps JolQm Ps dtsf] cfwf/df uf]Ko dtbfgåf/f klxnf] x'g] lgjf{lrt x'g] lgjf{rg k|0ffnL adf]lhd ug]{5g\ .
:ki6Ls/0f M o; wf/fsf] k|of]hgsfnflu æcWoIf / pkfWoIfÆ eGgfn] ufpF sfo{kflnsfsf] cWoIf / pkfWoIf ;Demg' k5{ .
-$_ wf/f @@@ adf]lhdsf] ufpF ;efsf] lgjf{rgsf] clGtd kl/0ffd k|fKt ePsf] ldltn] kGw| lbgleq ufpF ;efsf ;b:ox¿n] cfk"mdWo]af6 lgjf{lrt u/]sf rf/hgf dlxnf ;b:o / pkwf/f -%_ adf]lhdsf] of]Uotf ePsf blnt jf cNk;+Vos ;d'bfoaf6 ufpF ;efn] lgjf{lrt u/]sf b'O{hgf ;b:o ;d]t ufpF sfo{kflnsfsf] ;b:o x'g]5g\ .
=== -wf/f @!%_

Subnational levels

English

(1) There shall be a Mayor of the Municipal Executive in every municipality. The municipal executive shall be formed under her/his chair.
(2) The Municipal Executive, pursuant to Clause (1), shall have a Deputy Mayor, ward chairperson elected from each ward and members elected as per clause (4) below.
(3) The election of the Mayor and Deputy Mayor shall be held through secret ballot based on one person one vote according to the first-past-the-post electoral system by the voters of the concerned Municipal Council area.
Explanation: For the purpose of this Article, ‘Mayor and Deputy Mayor’ shall mean the Head and Deputy Head of the Municipal executive.
(4) Five women members that are elected by the Municipal Assembly members from among themselves and three persons elected from the Dalit or minority community with qualifications pursuant to Clause (5) below shall also be members of the Municipal executive and this election shall be held within 15 days following the final result of the election of Municipal Assembly as per Article 223.
… (Art. 216)

Nepali

-!_ k|To]s gu/kflnsfdf Pshgf gu/ sfo{kflnsf k|d'v /xg]5 . lghsf] cWoIftfdf gu/ sfo{kflnsf u7g x'g]5 .
-@_ pkwf/f -!_ adf]lhdsf] gu/ sfo{kflnsfdf Pshgf pkk|d'v, k|To]s j8faf6 lgjf{lrt j8f cWoIf / pkwf/f -$_ adf]lhd lgjf{lrt ;b:o /xg]5g\ .
-#_ k|d'v / pkk|d'vsf] lgjf{rg ;DalGwt gu/kflnsf If]qleqsf dtbftfn] Ps JolQm Ps dtsf] cfwf/df uf]Ko dtbfgåf/f klxnf] x'g] lgjf{lrt x'g] lgjf{rg k|0ffnL adf]lhd ug]{ 5g\ .
:ki6Ls/0f M o; wf/fsf] k|of]hgsfnflu æk|d'v / pkk|d'vÆ eGgfn] gu/ sfo{kflnsfsf] k|d'v / pkk|d'v ;Demg' k5{ .
-$_ wf/f @@# adf]lhdsf] gu/ ;efsf] lgjf{rgsf] clGtd kl/0ffd k|fKt ePsf] ldltn] kGw| lbgleq gu/ ;efsf ;b:ox¿n] cfk"mdWo]af6 lgjf{lrt u/]sf kfFrhgf dlxnf ;b:o / pkwf/f -%_ adf]lhdsf] of]Uotf ePsf blnt jf cNk;+Vos ;d'bfoaf6 gu/ ;efn] lgjf{lrt u/]sf tLghgf ;b:o ;d]t gu/ sfo{kflnsfsf] ;b:o x'g]5g\ .
=== -wf/f @!^_

Subnational levels

English

(3) The District Assembly shall, pursuant to Provincial laws, elect a District Coordination Committee with a maximum of nine members including a Head, a Deputy Head, at least three women and at least one person from the Dalit or minority community. The District Coordination Committee shall execute all tasks to be carried out on behalf of the District Assembly.
… (Art. 220)

Nepali

-#_ lhNnf ;efn] Pshgf k|d'v, Pshgf pkk|d'v, sDtLdf tLghgf dlxnf / sDtLdf Pshgf blnt jf cNk;+Vos ;lxt a9Ldf gf}hgf ;b:o /x]sf] lhNnf ;dGjo ;ldltsf] lgjf{rg ug]{5 . lhNnf ;dGjo ;ldltn] lhNnf ;efsf] tkm{af6 ug'{ kg]{ ;Dk"0f{ sfo{ ;Dkfbg ug]{5 .
=== -wf/f @@)_

Subnational levels

English

(1) There shall be a Village Assembly in each Village Council.
(2) The Village Assembly referred to in clause (1) shall comprise a village executive Head, a Deputy Head and four members elected from every Ward of the Village council and member of the village executive elected from the Dalit or minority community pursuant to clause (4) of Article 215.
(3) The Village Assembly to be constituted pursuant to Clause (1) shall have the representation of at least two women from every Ward of the Village Council.
… (Art. 222)

Nepali

-!_ k|To]s ufpFkflnsfdf Ps ufpF ;ef /xg]5 .
-@_ pkwf/f -!_ adf]lhdsf] ufpF ;efdf ufpF sfo{kflnsf cWoIf / pkfWoIf, j8f cWoIf / k|To]s j8faf6 lgjf{lrt rf/hgf ;b:o / wf/f @!% sf] pkwf/f -$_ adf]lhd blnt jf cNk;+Vos ;d'bfoaf6 lgjf{lrt ufpF sfo{kflnsfsf ;b:o /xg]5g\ .
-#_ pkwf/f -!_ adf]lhd u7g x'g] ufpF ;efdf k|To]s j8faf6 sDtLdf b'O{hgf dlxnfsf] k|ltlglwTj x'g]5 . === -wf/f @@@_

Subnational levels

English

(1) There shall be one Municipal Assembly in each Municipality.
(2) The Municipal Assembly referred to in clause (1) shall comprise the Mayor and Deputy Mayor, ward Chairperson and four members elected from every Ward of the Municipal council and member of the Municipal executive elected from the Dalit or minority community pursuant to clause (4) of Article 216.
(3) The Municipal Assembly to be constituted pursuant to Clause (1) shall have the representation of at least two women from every Ward of the Municipality.
… (Art. 223)

Nepali

-!_ k|To]s gu/kflnsfdf Ps gu/ ;ef /xg]5 .
-@_ pkwf/f -!_ adf]lhdsf] gu/ ;efdf gu/ sfo{kflnsfsf k|d'v / pkk|d'v, j8f cWoIf / k|To]s j8faf6 lgjf{lrt rf/hgf ;b:o / wf/f @!^ sf] pkwf/f -$_ adf]lhd blnt jf cNk;+Vos ;d'bfoaf6 lgjf{lrt gu/ sfo{kflnsfsf ;b:o /xg]5g\ .
-#_ pkwf/f -!_ adf]lhd u7g x'g] gu/ ;efdf k|To]s j8faf6 sDtLdf b'O{hgf dlxnfsf] k|ltlglwTj x'g]5 .
=== -wf/f @@#_

Political Parties

English

(2) Every citizen shall have the following freedoms:

(c) freedom to form political party,

Provided that,

(3) Nothing in section (c) shall be deemed to prevent the making of an Act to impose reasonable restrictions on any act which may undermine the nationality, sovereignty, indivisibility or Nepal, or an act of espionage against the nation, or disclosing national secrets, or helping foreign state or organization that may jeopardize Nepal’ security, or an act of treason, or an act that undermines the harmonious relations subsisting between federal units, or instigates communal animosity, or jeopardizes the harmonious relations subsisting among different caste, ethnicity, religious groups and communities, or an act of acquiring or depriving the membership of a political party only on the grounds of caste, language, religion, community or gender, or the formation of a political party that creates discrimination against citizens, or an act that incites violence, or is contrary to decent public behavior.
… (Art. 17)

Nepali

-@_ k|To]s gful/snfO{ b]xfosf] :jtGqtf x'g]5 M–
===
-u_ /fhgLlts bn vf]Ng] :jtGqtf,
===
t/,
===
-#_ v08 -u_ sf] s'g} s'/fn] g]kfnsf] ;fj{ef}d;Qf, ef}uf]lns cv08tf, /fli6«otf / :jfwLgtfdf vnn kg]{, /fi6«sf] lj?4 hf;";L ug]{, /fli6«o uf]kgLotf e+u ug]{ jf g]kfnsf] ;'/Iffdf cfFr k'¥ofpg] u/L s'g} ljb]zL /fHo, ;+u7g jf k|ltlglwnfO{ ;xof]u ug]{ jf /fHob|f]x ug]{ jf ;+3Lo OsfOaLrsf] ;'–;DaGwdf vnn kg]{ jf hftLo jf ;fDk|bflos ljå]if km}nfpg] jf ljleGg hft, hflt, wd{ / ;Dk|bfoaLrsf] ;'–;DaGwdf vnn kg]{ jf s]jn hflt, efiff, wd{, ;Dk|bfo jf ln+usf] cfwf/df s'g} /fhgLlts bnsf] ;b:otf k|fKt ug{] jf aGb]h nufpg] jf gful/sx¿aLr lje]b ug]{ u/L /fhgLlts bn u7g ug{], lx+;fTds sfo{ ug{ b'?T;fxg ug]{ jf ;fj{hlgs g}ltstfsf] k|lts"n x'g] sfo{df dgfl;a k|ltaGw nufpg] u/L P]g agfpg /f]s nufPsf] dflgg]5}g .
=== -wf/f !&_

Political Parties

English

(1) The House of Representatives shall consist of two hundred and seventy five members as follows:-
(a) One hundred and sixty five members elected through the first-past-the-post electoral system consisting of one member from each of the one hundred and sixty five electoral constituencies formed by dividing Nepal into 165 constituencies based on geography, and population.
(b) One hundred and ten members elected from proportional representation electoral system where voters vote for parties, while treating the whole country as a single electoral constituency.
(2) Provision shall be made according to Federal law for the representation of political parties to file candidacy for the election of the House of Representatives for proportional representation system through closed list of women, Dalit, Adibasi Janajati, Khas Arya, Madhesi, Tharu, Muslim, and backward regions. Balance in geography and province shall be considered for such candidacy.
Explanation: For the purpose of this provision, Khas Arya means Chhetri, Brahmin, Thakuri and Sannyasi (Dasnami) community.

(8) Notwithstanding anything contained elsewhere in this Article, women should account for at least one third of total members elected from each party in Federal Parliament. In case, one-third percentage of women are not elected while being elected under section (a) of clause (1), and section (a), clause (2) of Article 84, the party that fails to ensure one-third representation shall have to elect at least one-third of total numbers as woman in the Federal Parliament while electing members under section (b) of clause (1).
… (Art. 84)

Nepali

-!_ k|ltlglw ;efdf b]xfo adf]lhdsf b'O{ ;o krxQ/ ;b:o /xg]5g\ M–
-s_ g]kfnnfO{ e"uf]n / hg;+Vofsf] cfwf/df Ps ;o k}+;¶L lgjf{rg If]q sfod u/L k|To]s lgjf{rg If]qaf6 Pshgf /xg] u/L klxnf] x'g] lgjf{lrt x'g] lgjf{rg k|0ffnL adf]lhd lgjf{lrt x'g] Ps ;o k}+;¶L ;b:o,
-v_ ;Dk"0f{ b]znfO{ Ps lgjf{rg If]q dfgL /fhgLlts bnnfO{ dt lbg] ;dfg'kflts lgjf{rg k|0ffnL adf]lhd lgjf{lrt x'g] Ps ;o bz ;b:o .
-@_ ;dfg'kflts lgjf{rg k|0ffnL adf]lhd x'g] k|ltlglw ;efsf] lgjf{rgsfnflu /fhgLlts bnn] pDd]bjf/L lb+bf hg;+Vofsf] cfwf/df dlxnf, blnt, cflbjf;L hghflt, v; cfo{, dw];L, yf¿, d'l:nd, lk5l8Psf] If]q ;d]taf6 aGb ;"rLsf cfwf/df k|ltlglwTj u/fpg]
Joj:yf ;+3Lo sfg"g adf]lhd x'g]5 . To;/L pDd]bjf/L lb+bf e"uf]n / k|fb]lzs ;Gt'ngnfO{ ;d]t Wofg lbg' kg{]5 .
:ki6Ls/0f M o; pkwf/fsf] k|of]hgsfnflu æv; cfo{Æ eGgfn] If]qL, a|fDx0f, 7s'/L, ;+Gof;L -bzgfdL_ ;d'bfo ;Demg' k5{ .
===
-*_ o; efudf cGoq h'g;'s} s'/f n]lvPsf] eP tfklg ;+3Lo ;+;bdf k|ltlglwTj ug]{ k|To]s /fhgLlts bnaf6 lgjf{lrt s'n ;b:o ;+Vofsf] sDtLdf Ps ltxfO ;b:o dlxnf x'g' kg]{5 . To;/L lgjf{lrt ubf{ pkwf/f -!_ sf] v08 -s_ / wf/f *^ sf] pkwf/f -@_ sf] v08 -s_ adf]lhd lgjf{lrt ;b:ox¿ dWo] s'g} /fhgLlts bnsf] Ps ltxfO ;b:o dlxnf lgjf{lrt x'g g;s]df To:tf] /fhgLlts bnn] pkwf/f -!_ sf] v08 -v_ adf]lhd ;b:o lgjf{lrt ubf{ cfˆgf] bnaf6 ;+3Lo ;+;bdf lgjf{lrt x'g] s'n ;b:osf] sDtLdf Ps ltxfO dlxnf ;b:o x'g]u/L lgjf{lrt ug'{ kg]{5 .
=== -wf/f *$_

Political Parties

English

(1) Every Provincial Assembly shall consist of the following number of members: -
(a) Members equal to double the number of members to be elected through the first-past-the-post (FPTP) election system to the House of Representatives from the concerned province,
(b) The number of members to be elected through the Proportional Representation (PR) election system equal to the number equivalent to the remaining forty per cent when the number of members maintained pursuant to section (a) is regarded as sixty per cent.

(6) The representation of women, Dalit, indigenous, indigenous nationalities, Khas Arya, Madhesi, Muslim, backward region and minorities community on the basis of geography and population in the nominations filed by the political parties for the election to be held for the Provincial Assembly through the proportional representation (PR) election system shall be made on the basis of closed list in accordance with Federal law.
Explanation: ‘Khas Arya’ shall mean Chettri, Brahman, Thakuri, Sanyasi (Dashanami) community.

(9) Notwithstanding anything contained elsewhere in this Article, at least one third of the total number of members to be elected from each political party to the Provincial Assembly shall have to be women. In case at least one third of the candidates elected from a political party pursuant to section (a) of clause (1) are not women, the political party shall have to make provision of electing at least one third women while electing members pursuant to section (b) of the same clause.
… (Art. 176)

Nepali

-!_ k|To]s k|b]z ;efdf b]xfo adf]lhdsf] ;+Vofdf ;b:o /xg]5g\ M–
-s_ ;DalGwt k|b]zaf6 k|ltlglw ;efdf klxnf] x'g] lgjf{lrt x'g] lgjf{rg k|0ffnL adf]lhd lgjf{lrt x'g] ;b:o ;+Vofsf] bf]Aa/ ;+Vofdf x'g cfpg] ;b:o,
-v_ v08 -s_ adf]lhd sfod x'g] ;b:o ;+VofnfO{ ;f7L k|ltzt dfgL afFsL rfnL; k|ltztdf ;dfg'kflts lgjf{rg k|0ffnLaf6 lgjf{lrt x'g] ;b:o .
===
-^_ ;dfg'kflts lgjf{rg k|0ffnL adf]lhd x'g] k|b]z ;efsf] lgjf{rgsfnflu /fhgLlts bnn] pDd]bjf/L lb+bf hg;+Vofsf] cfwf/df dlxnf, blnt, cflbjf;L hghflt, v; cfo{, dw];L, yf¿, d'l:nd, lk5l8Psf] If]q, cNk;+Vos ;d'bfo ;d]taf6 aGb ;"rLsf cfwf/df k|ltlglwTj x'g] Joj:yf ;+3Lo sfg"g adf]lhd x'g]5 . To;/L pDd]bjf/L lb+bf ;DalGwt k|b]zsf] ef}uf]lns ;Gt'ngnfO{ ;d]t Wofg lbg' kg{]5 .
:ki6Ls/0fM o; efusf] k|of]hgsfnflu æv; cfo{Æ eGgfn] If]qL, a|fDx0f, 7s'/L, ;+Gof;L -bzgfdL_ ;d'bfo ;Demg' k5{ .
===
-(_ o; wf/fdf cGoq h'g;'s} s'/f n]lvPsf] eP tfklg k|b]z ;efdf k|ltlglwTj ug]{ k|To]s /fhgLlts bnaf6 lgjf{lrt s'n ;b:o ;+Vofsf] sDtLdf Ps ltxfO ;b:o dlxnf x'g' kg]{5 . To;/L lgjf{lrt ubf{ pkwf/f -!_ sf] v08 -s_ adf]lhd lgjf{lrt ;b:ox¿ dWo] s'g} /fhgLlts bnsf] Ps ltxfO ;b:o dlxnf lgjf{lrt gePdf To:tf] /fhgLlts bnn] ;f]xL pkwf/fsf] v08 -v_ adf]lhd ;b:o lgjf{lrt ubf{ cfˆgf] bnaf6 k|b]z ;efdf lgjf{lrt x'g] s'n ;b:osf] sDtLdf Ps ltxfO dlxnf ;b:o x'g] u/L lgjf{lrt ug'{ kg]{5 .
=== -wf/f !&^_

Political Parties

English

(1) Persons who are committed to a common political ideology, philosophy and program shall, subject to the laws under section (b), clause (2) of the Article (17), be entitled to form and operate the political parties and to generate or cause to be generated publicity in order to secure public support and cooperation from the general public for their ideology, philosophy and program, and to carry out any other activities for that purpose.
(2) The political parties formed under clause (1) shall be required to register their names under the Election Commission in accordance with the procedure determined by law.
(3) While submitting application for registration pursuant to clause (2) above, the political parties shall be required to submit the documents relating to constitution of the party, annual auditing report and other documents as required by law.
(4) While applying for the registration of the parties pursuant to clause (2) above, the political parties shall have to meet the following conditions:-
(a) The constitution and rules of the political party should be democratic,
(b) There should be the provision, in the constitution of the political party, of the election of the office bearers in the federal and provincial levels, at least once in five years. Provided that in case election of the office bearers could not be held within five years due to situation arising out of special circumstance, there shall be no hindrance to make provision in the statute of a political party to hold such election within a period of six months.
(c) There should be the provision of proportional participation so as to reflect the diversity of Nepal, in the executive committees at various levels of the party.
(5) No political party shall be registered if its name, objective, symbol and flag is of a character that may disturb the country’s religious or communal unity or is divisive in character. (Art. 269)

Nepali

-!_ ;dfg /fhgLlts ljrf/wf/f, bz{g / sfo{qmddf k|lta4 JolQmx¿n] wf/f !& sf] pkwf/f -@_ sf] v08 -u_ cGtu{t ag]sf] sfg"gsf] cwLgdf /xL /fhgLlts bnu7g u/L ;~rfng ug{ / bnsf] ljrf/wf/f, bz{g / sfo{qmdk|lt hg;fwf/0fsf] ;dy{g / ;xof]u k|fKt ug{sfnflu To;sf] k|rf/ / k|;f/ug{, u/fpg jf ;f] k|of]hgsfnflu cGo cfjZos sfd ug{ ;Sg]5g\ .
-@_ pkwf/f -!_ adf]lhd u7g ePsf /fhgLlts bnn] sfg"g adf]lhdsf] sfo{ljlw k"/f u/L lgjf{rg cfof]udf bn btf{ u/fpg' kg{]5 .
-#_ pkwf/f -@_ adf]lhd bn btf{ u/fpg] k|of]hgsfnflu lgj]bg k]z ubf{ ;DalGwt /fhgLlts bnsf] ljwfg / 3f]if0ffkqsf cltl/Qm ;+3Lo sfg"g adf]lhdsf cGo sfuhft k]z ug'{ kg{]5 .
-$_ pkwf/f -@_ adf]lhd bn btf{sfnflu lgj]bg lb+bf /fhgLlts bnn] b]xfosf zt{ k"/f ug'{ kg{]5 M–
-s_ /fhgLlts bnsf] ljwfg / lgodfjnL nf]stflGqs x'g' k5{,
-v_ /fhgLlts bnsf] ljwfgdf sDtLdf kfFr jif{df Ps k6s ;f] bnsf ;+3Lo / k|b]z txsf k|To]s kbflwsf/Lsf lgjf{rg x'g] Joj:yf x'g' k5{, t/ ljz]if kl/l:ylt pTkGg eO{ kfFr jif{leqdf kbflwsf/Lsf] lgjf{rg ;DkGg x'g g;s]df, 5 dxLgfleq To:tf] lgjf{rg ug{ ;lsg] u/L /fhgLlts bnsf] ljwfgdf Joj:yf ug{ afwf kg{] 5}g .
-u_ bnsf] ljleGg txsf sfo{sfl/0fL ;ldltdf g]kfnsf] ljljwtfnfO{ k|ltlalDat ug]{ u/L ;dfj]zL k|ltlglwTjsf] Joj:yf ul/Psf] x'g' k5{ .
-%_ s'g} /fhgLlts bnsf] gfd, p2]Zo, lrGx jf em08f b]zsf] wfld{s jf ;fDk|bflos Pstfdf vnn kfg{] jf b]znfO{ ljvl08t ug{] k|s[ltsf] /x]5 eg] To:tf] /fhgLlts bn btf{ x'g] 5}g . -wf/f @^(_

Political Parties

English

(1) Any provision, law or the decision that prohibits formation, registration and operation of political parties under Article 269, and generate or cause to be generated publicity in order to secure public support and cooperation from the general public for ideology, philosophy and program of the parties, shall be deemed against this constitution and shall ipso facto be void.
(2) Any law, arrangement or decision which allows for participation or involvement of only a single political party or persons having a single political ideology, philosophy or programs in the election, political system of the country or conduct of sates affairs shall be considered against this constitution and shall ipso facto be void. (Art. 270)

Nepali

-!_ wf/f @^( adf]lhd /fhgLlts bnsf] u7g u/L ;~rfng ug{ / bnsf] ljrf/wf/f, bz{g / sfo{qmdk|lt hg;fwf/0fsf] ;dy{g / ;xof]u k|fKt ug{sfnflu To;sf] k|rf/ / k|;f/ ug]{ sfo{df s'g} k|ltaGw nufpg] u/L agfOPsf] sfg"g jf ul/Psf] s'g} Joj:yf jf lg0f{o of] ;+ljwfgsf] k|lts"n dflgg]5 / :jtM cdfGo x'g]5 .
-@_ s'g} Pp6} /fhgLlts bn jf Ps} lsl;dsf] /fhgLlts ljrf/wf/f, bz{g jf sfo{qmd ePsf JolQmx¿n] dfq lgjf{rg, b]zsf] /fhgLlts k|0ffnL jf /fHo Joj:yf ;~rfngdf efu lng kfpg] jf ;lDdlnt x'g kfpg] u/L agfOPsf] sfg"g jf ul/Psf] s'g} Joj:yf jf lg0f{o of] ;+ljwfgsf] k|lts"n dflgg]5 / :jtM cdfGo x'g]5 . -wf/f @&)_

Electoral Bodies

English

(1) The Election Commission shall, subject to this Constitution and other laws, conduct, supervise, direct and control the election of the President, the VicePresident, Federal Parliament, Provincial assemblies, local bodies. The Election Commission shall be responsible for preparing the voters’ list for the purpose of election.
(2) The Election Commission shall hold referendum on subject of national importance as per this Constitution and Federal laws.
(3) If candidacy nominations have been registered for the election of the President, the Vice-President, the member of Federal Parliament and Provincial Assembly but a question arises before the completion of the election about the illegitimacy of a candidate, a final decision thereon shall be made by the Election Commission.
(4) The Election Commission may delegate any of its functions, duties and powers to the Chief Election Commissioner, Election Commissioner or any employee of the Government of Nepal to be exercised and followed in compliance with the conditions specified.
(5) Other functions, duties and powers and working procedures of the Election Commission shall be as regulated by law. (Art. 246)

Nepali

-!_ lgjf{rg cfof]un] o; ;+ljwfg / ;+3Lo sfg"gsf] cwLgdf /xL /fi6«klt, pk/fi6«klt, ;+3Lo ;+;bsf ;b:o, k|b]z ;efsf ;b:o, :yfgLo txsf ;b:osf] lgjf{rgsf]] ;+rfng, /]vb]v, lgb]{zg / lgoGq0f ug{]5 . lgjf{rgsf] k|of]hgsfnflu dtbftfsf] gfdfjnL tof/ ug{] sfo{ lgjf{rg cfof]un] ug{]5 .
-@_ lgjf{rg cfof]un] o; ;+ljwfg / ;+3Lo sfg"g adf]lhd /fli6«o dxTjsf] ljifodf hgdt ;+u|x u/fpg]5 .
-#_ /fi6«klt, pk/fi6«klt, ;+3Lo ;+;bsf ;b:o, k|b]z ;ef ;b:o jf :yfgLo txsf ;b:osfnflu pDd]bjf/Lsf] dgf]gog btf{ eO;s]sf] t/ lgjf{rg kl/0ffd 3f]if0ff eO{ g;s]sf] cj:yfdf s'g} pDd]bjf/sf] of]Uotf ;DaGwdf s'g} k|Zg p7]df To;sf] lg0f{o lgjf{rg cfof]un] ug]{5 .
-$_ lgjf{rg cfof]un] cfˆgf] sfd, st{Jo / clwsf/ dWo] s'g} sfd, st{Jo / clwsf/ k|d'v lgjf{rg cfo'Qm, s'g} lgjf{rg cfo'Qm jf ;/sf/L sd{rf/LnfO{ tf]lsPsf] zt{sf] cwLgdf /xL k|of]u tyf kfng ug]{u/L k|Tofof]hg ug{ ;Sg]5 .
-%_ lgjf{rg cfof]usf] cGo sfd, st{Jo / clwsf/ tyf sfo{ljlw ;+3Lo sfg"g adf]lhd x'g]5 . -wf/f @$^_

Head of State

English

(1) There shall be a President in Nepal.
(2) The President shall be the head of the State. He/she shall perform his/her duties according to this Constitution and Federal laws.
… (Art. 61)

Nepali

-!_ g]kfndf Ps /fi6«klt /xg]5 .
-@_ /fi6«klt g]kfnsf] /fi6«fWoIf x'g]5 . lghn] o; ;+ljwfg / ;+3Lo sfg"g adf]lhd cfˆgf] sfo{ ;Dkfbg ug]{5 .
=== -wf/f ^!_

Head of State

English

(1) An electoral college, consisting of voting members of the Federal Parliament and the members of Provincial Assembly, shall elect the President. It shall be done as provided for in law with the difference of weightage in voting of the members of the Federal Parliament and the members of Provincial Assembly.
(2) Notwithstanding anything contained in clause (1), it shall not be deemed to prevent the formation of an electoral college for the use of the election of the President simply because of the reason that an election of Provincial Assembly has not been held in any province.
… (Art. 62)

Nepali

-!_ /fi6«kltsf] lgjf{rg ;+3Lo ;+;bsf ;b:o / k|b]z ;efsf ;b:o dtbftf /x]sf] lgjf{rs d08naf6 x'g]5 . ;+3Lo ;+;bsf ;b:o / k|b]z ;efsf ;b:osf] dtef/ ;+3Lo sfg"g adf]lhd km/s x'g]5 .
-@_ pkwf/f -!_ df h'g;'s} s'/f n]lvPsf] eP tfklg s'g} k|b]zdf k|b]z ;efsf] lgjf{rg gePsf sf/0fn] dfq /fi6«kltsf] lgjf{rg k|of]hgsfnflu lgjf{rs d08n u7g ug{ afwf k/]sf] dflgg] 5}g .
=== -wf/f ^@_

Head of State

English

(1) A person shall be eligible to be President if he/she fulfils the following qualifications:
(a) He/she is eligible to be a member of the Federal Parliament.
(b) He/she has attained at least 45 years of age, and
(c) Is not ineligible by any law.
… (Art. 64)

Nepali

-!_ b]xfosf] of]Uotf ePsf] JolQm /fi6«klt x'gsfnflu of]Uo x'g]5 M–
-s_ ;+3Lo ;+;bsf] ;b:o x'g of]Uo ePsf],
-v_ sDtLdf k}+tfln; jif{ pd]/ k"/f ePsf], /
-u_ s'g} sfg"gn] cof]Uo gePsf] .
=== -wf/f ^$_

Head of State

English

While conducting election of the President and Vice-President under this constitution, the election shall be held so as to represent different gender or communities. (Art. 70)

Nepali

o; ;+ljwfg adf]lhd /fi6«klt / pk/fi6«kltsf] lgjf{rg km/s km/s ln+u jf ;d'bfosf] k|ltlglwTj x'g] u/L ug{' kg{]5 . -wf/f &)_

Vice-President

English

(1) A person shall be eligible to be President if he/she fulfils the following qualifications:
(a) He/she is eligible to be a member of the Federal Parliament.
(b) He/she has attained at least 45 years of age, and
(c) Is not ineligible by any law.
… (Art. 64)

Nepali

-!_ b]xfosf] of]Uotf ePsf] JolQm /fi6«klt x'gsfnflu of]Uo x'g]5 M–
-s_ ;+3Lo ;+;bsf] ;b:o x'g of]Uo ePsf],
-v_ sDtLdf k}+tfln; jif{ pd]/ k"/f ePsf], /
-u_ s'g} sfg"gn] cof]Uo gePsf] .
=== -wf/f ^$_

Vice-President

English

(1) There shall be a Vice-President in Nepal.
(2) The Vice-President shall perform the duties of the President until a new President is elected in the case when the President ceases to hold Office due to reasons other than when the President is absent or the term of office has expired.
… (Art. 67)

Nepali

-!_ g]kfndf Ps pk/fi6«klt /xg]5 .
-@_ /fi6«kltsf] cg'kl:yltdf /fi6«kltaf6 ul/g] sfo{x¿ pk/fi6«kltaf6 ;Dkfbg ul/g]5 .
=== -wf/f ^&_

Vice-President

English

The qualification of the VicePresident, election process, and other provisions regarding the term of office, shall be similar to that of the President. (Art. 69)

Nepali

pk/fi6«kltsf] of]Uotf, lgjf{rg k|lqmof, kbfjlw ;DaGwL Joj:yf /fi6«kltsf] ;/x x'g]5 . -wf/f ^(_

Vice-President

English

While conducting election of the President and Vice-President under this constitution, the election shall be held so as to represent different gender or communities. (Art. 70)

Nepali

o; ;+ljwfg adf]lhd /fi6«klt / pk/fi6«kltsf] lgjf{rg km/s km/s ln+u jf ;d'bfosf] k|ltlglwTj x'g] u/L ug{' kg{]5 . -wf/f &)_

Government

English

(1) The executive power of Nepal shall rest with the Council of Ministers in accordance with this Constitution and law.
… (Art. 75)

Nepali

-!_ g]kfnsf] sfo{sfl/0fL clwsf/ of] ;+ljwfg / sfg"g adf]lhd dlGq kl/ifbdf lglxt x'g]5 .
=== -wf/f &%_

Government

English

(1) The President shall appoint the parliamentary party leader of the political party with the majority in the House of Representatives as a Prime Minister, and a Council of Ministers shall be formed in his/her chairmanship.
(2) If there is not a clear majority of any party according to clause (1), the President shall appoint as Prime Minister the member of the House of Representatives who can have the majority with the support of two or more political parties represented in the House of Representatives.
(3) If there is a situation wherein it is not possible to make the appointment of the Prime Minister as provided for in clause (2) within 30 days of the final result of the election of the House of Representatives, or if the appointed Prime Minister, as provided for in clause (4), fails to receive a vote of confidence, the President shall appoint the leader of the party with the highest number of members in the House of Representatives as the Prime Minister.

(9) The President shall, on the recommendation of the Prime Minister, form a council of ministers consisting of members not exceeding twenty five in number from among the members of the Federal Parliament on the basis of the principle of inclusion.… (Art. 76)

Nepali

-!_ /fi6«kltn] k|ltlglw ;efdf ax'dt k|fKt ;+;bLo bnsf] g]tfnfO{ k|wfgdGqL lgo'Qm ug]{5 / lghsf] cWoIftfdf dlGq kl/ifbsf] u7g x'g]5 .
-@_ pkwf/f -!_ adf]lhd k|ltlglw ;efdf s'g} klg bnsf] :ki6 ax'dt g/x]sf] cj:yfdf k|ltlglw ;efdf k|ltlglwTj ug]{ b'O{ jf b'O{eGbf a9L bnx¿sf] ;dy{gdf ax'dt k|fKt ug{ ;Sg] k|ltlglw ;efsf] ;b:onfO{ /fi6«kltn] k|wfgdGqL lgo'Qm ug]{5 .
-#_ k|ltlglw ;efsf] lgjf{rgsf] clGtd kl/0ffd 3f]if0ff ePsf] ldltn] tL; lbgleq pkwf/f -@_ adf]lhd k|wfgdGqL lgo'lQm x'g ;Sg] cj:yf gePdf jf To;/L lgo'Qm k|wfgdGqLn] pkwf/f -$_ adf]lhd ljZjf;sf] dt k|fKt ug{ g;s]df /fi6«kltn] k|ltlglw ;efdf ;a}eGbf a9L ;b:ox¿ ePsf] bnsf] ;+;bLo bnsf] g]tfnfO{ k|wfgdGqL lgo'Qm ug]{5 .
===
-(_ /fi6«kltn] k|wfgdGqLsf] l;kmfl/;df ;+3Lo ;+;bsf ;b:odWo]af6 ;dfj]zL l;4fGt adf]lhd k|wfgdGqL ;lxt a9Ldf kRrL;hgf dGqL /x]sf] dlGqkl/ifb u7g ug]{5 . === -wf/f &^_

Legislature

English

There shall be a Legislature, called Federal Parliament, consisting of two Houses, namely the House of Representatives and the National Assembly. (Art. 83)

Nepali

k|ltlglw ;ef / /fli6«o ;ef gfdsf b'O{ ;bg ;lxtsf] Ps ;+3Lo Joj:yflksf x'g]5 h;nfO{ ;+3Lo ;+;b elgg]5 . -wf/f *#_

Legislature

English

(1) The House of Representatives shall consist of two hundred and seventy five members as follows:-
(a) One hundred and sixty five members elected through the first-past-the-post electoral system consisting of one member from each of the one hundred and sixty five electoral constituencies formed by dividing Nepal into 165 constituencies based on geography, and population.
(b) One hundred and ten members elected from proportional representation electoral system where voters vote for parties, while treating the whole country as a single electoral constituency. (2) Provision shall be made according to Federal law for the representation of political parties to file candidacy for the election of the House of Representatives for proportional representation system through closed list of women, Dalit, Adibasi Janajati, Khas Arya, Madhesi, Tharu, Muslim, and backward regions. Balance in geography and province shall be considered for such candidacy.
Explanation: For the purpose of this provision, Khas Arya means Chhetri, Brahmin, Thakuri and Sannyasi (Dasnami) community.
(3) While filing candidacy by political parties pursuant to clause (2), provision of representation of persons with disability shall also be made.
(4) The election for the members of House of Representatives pursuant to clause (1) shall be held through secret ballots as provided in the law.

(6) Subject to law, any Nepali citizen, who is entitled to vote in election for House of Representatives, and who meets the requirements under Article 87, shall be allowed to file candidacy from any constituency.
(7) In case of vacancy of a seat of a member in House of Representatives, while still ahead of six months of its terms, such vacancy shall be filled through process by which said member had been elected.
(8) Notwithstanding anything contained elsewhere in this Article, women should account for at least one third of total members elected from each party in Federal Parliament. In case, one-third percentage of women are not elected while being elected under section (a) of clause (1), and section (a), clause (2) of Article 84, the party that fails to ensure one-third representation shall have to elect at least one-third of total numbers as woman in the Federal Parliament while electing members under section (b) of clause (1).
(9) Election of House of Representatives and other matters thereto shall be pursuant to Federal laws. (Art. 84)

Nepali

-!_ k|ltlglw ;efdf b]xfo adf]lhdsf b'O{ ;o krxQ/ ;b:o /xg]5g\ M–
-s_ g]kfnnfO{ e"uf]n / hg;+Vofsf] cfwf/df Ps ;o k}+;¶L lgjf{rg If]q sfod u/L k|To]s lgjf{rg If]qaf6 Pshgf /xg] u/L klxnf] x'g] lgjf{lrt x'g] lgjf{rg k|0ffnL adf]lhd lgjf{lrt x'g] Ps ;o k}+;¶L ;b:o, -v_ ;Dk"0f{ b]znfO{ Ps lgjf{rg If]q dfgL /fhgLlts bnnfO{ dt lbg] ;dfg'kflts lgjf{rg k|0ffnL adf]lhd lgjf{lrt x'g] Ps ;o bz ;b:o .
-@_ ;dfg'kflts lgjf{rg k|0ffnL adf]lhd x'g] k|ltlglw ;efsf] lgjf{rgsfnflu /fhgLlts bnn] pDd]bjf/L lb+bf hg;+Vofsf] cfwf/df dlxnf, blnt, cflbjf;L hghflt, v; cfo{, dw];L, yf¿, d'l:nd, lk5l8Psf] If]q ;d]taf6 aGb ;"rLsf cfwf/df k|ltlglwTj u/fpg]
Joj:yf ;+3Lo sfg"g adf]lhd x'g]5 . To;/L pDd]bjf/L lb+bf e"uf]n / k|fb]lzs ;Gt'ngnfO{ ;d]t Wofg lbg' kg{]5 .
:ki6Ls/0f M o; pkwf/fsf] k|of]hgsfnflu æv; cfo{Æ eGgfn] If]qL, a|fDx0f, 7s'/L, ;+Gof;L -bzgfdL_ ;d'bfo ;Demg' k5{ .
-#_ pkwf/f -@_ adf]lhd /fhgLlts bnn] pDd]bjf/L lb+bf ckf+utf ePsf] JolQmsf] ;d]t k|ltlglwTj x'g] Joj:yf ug{' kg{]5 .
-$_ pkwf/f -!_ adf]lhd x'g] k|ltlglw ;ef ;b:osf] lgjf{rg sfg"g adf]lhd uf]Ko dtbfgåf/f x'g]5 .
===
-^_ k|ltlglw ;efsf ;b:osfnflu x'g] lgjf{rgdf dtbfg ug{ clwsf/ kfPsf] wf/f *& adf]lhd of]Uotf k'u]sf] JolQm ;+3Lo sfg"gsf] cwLgdf /xL s'g} klg lgjf{rg If]qaf6 pDd]bjf/ x'g kfpg]5 . t/ Pp6} JolQm PseGbf a9L lgjf{rg If]qdf Ps} k6s pDd]bjf/ x'g kfpg] 5}g .
-&_ k|ltlglw ;efsf] sfo{sfn 5 dxLgfeGbf a9L cjlw afFsL 5Fb} s'g} ;b:osf] :yfg l/Qm ePdf To:tf] :yfg h'g lgjf{rg k|0ffnLaf6 k"lt{ ePsf] lyof] ;f]xL k|lqmofåf/f k"lt{ ul/g]5 .
-*_ o; efudf cGoq h'g;'s} s'/f n]lvPsf] eP tfklg ;+3Lo ;+;bdf k|ltlglwTj ug]{ k|To]s /fhgLlts bnaf6 lgjf{lrt s'n ;b:o ;+Vofsf] sDtLdf Ps ltxfO ;b:o dlxnf x'g' kg]{5 . To;/L lgjf{lrt ubf{ pkwf/f -!_ sf] v08 -s_ / wf/f *^ sf] pkwf/f -@_ sf] v08 -s_ adf]lhd lgjf{lrt ;b:ox¿ dWo] s'g} /fhgLlts bnsf] Ps ltxfO ;b:o dlxnf lgjf{lrt x'g g;s]df To:tf] /fhgLlts bnn] pkwf/f -!_sf] v08 -v_ adf]lhd ;b:o lgjf{lrt ubf{ cfˆgf] bnaf6 ;+3Lo ;+;bdf lgjf{lrt x'g] s'n ;b:osf] sDtLdf Ps ltxfO dlxnf ;b:o x'g]u/L lgjf{lrt ug'{ kg]{5 .
-(_ k|ltlglw ;efsf] lgjf{rg / tT;DaGwL cGo ljifo ;+3Lo sfg"g adf]lhd x'g]5 . -wf/f *$_

Legislature

English

(1) National Assembly shall be a permanent house.
(2) There shall be fifty-nine members in the National Assembly as follows:-
(a) Fifty six members elected from an Electoral College comprising members of Provincial Assembly and chairpersons and vice-chairpersons of Village councils and Mayors and Deputy Mayors of Municipal councils, with different weights of votes for each, with eight members from each province, including at least three women, one Dalit, one person with disability or minority;
(b) Three members, including at least one woman, to be nominated by the President on the recommendation of Government of Nepal.
… (Art. 86)

Nepali

-!_ /fli6«o ;ef Ps :yfoL ;bg x'g]5 .
-@_ /fli6«o ;efdf b]xfo adf]lhdsf pgfG;f7L ;b:o /xg]5g\ M–
-s_ k|b]z ;efsf ;b:o, ufpFkflnsfsf cWoIf / pkfWoIf tyf gu/kflnsfsf k|d'v / pkk|d'v /x]sf] lgjf{rs d08nåf/f ;+3Lo sfg"g adf]lhd k|b]z ;efsf ;b:o, ufpFkflnsfsf cWoIf / pkfWoIf tyf gu/kflnsfsf k|d'v / pkk|d'vsf] dtsf] ef/ km/s x'g] u/L k|To]s k|b]zaf6 sDtLdf tLghgf dlxnf, Pshgf blnt / Pshgf ckf+utf ePsf JolQm jf cNk;+Vos ;lxt cf7 hgf u/L] lgjf{lrt 5kGg hgf,
-v_ g]kfn ;/sf/sf] l;kmfl/;df /fi6«kltaf6 dgf]gLt sDtLdf Ps hgf dlxnf ;lxt tLg hgf .
=== -wf/f *^_

Legislature

English

(1) Persons who meet the following requirement shall be considered eligible to be the member of Federal Parliament:-
(a) citizen of Nepal,
(b) who has attained twenty five years of age for the House of Representatives and thirty five years of age for the National Assembly;
(c) who has not been punished for any criminal offence involving moral turpitude
(d) not ineligible under any law,
(e) not holding an office of profit.
… (Art. 87)

Nepali

-!_ b]xfosf] of]Uotf ePsf] JolQm ;+3Lo ;+;bsf] ;b:o x'g of]Uo x'g]5 M–
-s_ g]kfnsf] gful/s,
-v_ k|ltlglw ;efsfnflu kRrL; jif{ / /fli6«o ;efsfnflu k}+tL; jif{ pd]/ k"/f ePsf],
-u_ g}lts ktg b]lvg] kmf}hbf/L s;"/df ;hfo gkfPsf],
-3_ s'g} ;+3Lo sfg"gn] cof]Uo gePsf], /
-ª_ s'g} nfesf] kbdf axfn g/x]sf] .
=== -wf/f *&_

Legislature

English

(1) The House of Representatives shall, within fifteen days of commencement of first meeting, elect a Speaker and a Deputy Speaker from among its members.
(2) While electing Speaker and Deputy Speaker as per clause (1), either Speaker or Deputy Speaker shall be a woman and belong to different parties.… (Art. 91)

Nepali

-!_ k|ltlglw ;efsf] klxnf] a}7s k|f/De ePsf] ldltn] kGw| lbgleq k|ltlglw ;efsf ;b:ox¿n] cfkm"dWo]af6 k|ltlglw ;efsf] ;efd'v / pk;efd'vsf] lgjf{rg ug]{5g\ .
-@_ pkwf/f -!_ adf]lhd lgjf{rg ubf{ k|ltlglw ;efsf] ;efd'v / pk;efd'v dWo] Pshgf dlxnf x'g] u/L ug{' kg]{5 / k|ltlglw ;efsf] ;efd'v / pk;efd'v km/s km/s bnsf] k|ltlglw x'g' kg]{5 . === -wf/f (!_

Legislature

English

(1) After the commencement of its first session, the National Assembly shall, within fifteen days of commencement of first meeting, elect a Chairperson and Vice chairperson from among its members.
(2) While electing as per clause (1), either Chairperson or Vice chairperson Chairman of the National Assembly shall be a woman.
… (Art. 92)

Nepali

-!_ /fli6«o ;efsf] klxnf] a}7s k|f/De ePsf] ldltn] kGw| lbgleq /fli6«o ;efsf ;b:ox¿n] cfkm"dWo]af6 /fli6«o ;efsf] cWoIf / pkfWoIfsf] lgjf{rg ug]{5g\ .
-@_ pkwf/f -!_ adf]lhd lgjf{rg ubf{ /fli6«o ;efsf] cWoIf / pkfWoIf dWo] Pshgf dlxnf x'g] u/L ug{' kg]{5 .
=== -wf/f (@_

Property, Inheritance and Land Tenure

English

(5) There shall be no gender discrimination regarding the right to parental property with regard to all family members. (Art. 18)

Nepali

-%_ k}t[s ;DklQdf n}+lus e]befj ljgf ;a} ;Gtfgsf] ;dfg xs x'g]5 . -wf/f !*_

Property, Inheritance and Land Tenure

English

(1) Every citizen shall, subject to laws, have the right to acquire, enjoy own, sell, have professional gains, and otherwise utilize, or dispose of property.
Explanation: For the purpose of this Article, “property” means all type of movable and immovable property and the word also includes intellectual property.
… (Art. 25)

Nepali

-!_ k|To]s gful/snfO{ sfg"gsf] cwLgdf /xL ;DklQ cfh{g ug]{, ef]u ug]{, a]rlavg ug]{, Jofj;flos nfe k|fKt ug]{ / ;DklQsf] cGo sf/f]af/ ug]{ xs x'g]5 .
t/ /fHon] JolQmsf] ;DklQdf s/ nufpg / k|ultzLn s/sf] dfGotf cg'¿k JolQmsf] cfodf s/ nufpg ;Sg]5 .
:ki6Ls/0f M o; wf/fsf] k|of]hgsfnflu æ;DklQÆ eGgfn] rn crn nufot ;a} k|sf/sf] ;DklQ ;Demg' k5{ / ;f] zAbn] af}l4s ;DklQ ;d]tnfO{ hgfpF5 .
=== -wf/f @%_

Property, Inheritance and Land Tenure

English

(6) Both the spouses shall have equal rights in property and family affairs. (Art. 38)

Nepali

-^_ ;DklQ tyf kfl/jfl/s dfldnfdf bDktLsf] ;dfg xs x'g]5 . -wf/f #*_

Property, Inheritance and Land Tenure

English

(5) The State shall, according to law, provide land to landless Dalits for one time.

(7) The facilities provided to the Dalit community according to this Article, shall have to be justly distributed to Dalit women and men and all the Dalit communities living in different parts of the country, ensuring that all Dalits receive the facilities proportionally. (Art. 40)

Nepali

-%_ /fHon] e"ldxLg blntnfO{ sfg"g adf]lhd Ps k6s hdLg pknAw u/fpg' kg]{5 .
===
-&_ blnt ;d'bfonfO{ o; wf/fåf/f k|bQ ;'ljwf blnt dlxnf, k'?if / ;a} ;d'bfodf /x]sf blntn] ;dfg'kflts ¿kdf k|fKt ug]{ u/L Gofof]lrt ljt/0f ug'{ kg]{5 . -wf/f $)_

Property, Inheritance and Land Tenure

English

(4) Each peasant shall have the right to access to land as provided for in law for agricultural purposes, along with the right to choose and preserve traditionally adopted and used endemic seeds and agricultural species.
… (Art. 42)

Nepali

-$_ k|To]s ls;fgnfO{ sfg"g adf]lhd s[lif sfo{sfnflu e"lddf kx'Fr, k/Dk/fut ¿kdf k|of]u / cjnDag ul/Psf] :yfgLo aLp lahg / s[lif k|hfltsf] 5gf}6 / ;+/If0fsf] xs x'g]5 .
=== -wf/f $@_

Property, Inheritance and Land Tenure

English

The State shall pursue the following policies:

(e) Policies regarding agriculture and land reform:
(1) Introducing scientific land reform by ending dual ownership of land for the benefit of farmers. … (Art. 51)

Nepali

/fHon] b]xfosf gLltx¿ cjnDag ug]{5M–
===
-ª_ s[lif / e"ld;'wf/ ;DaGwL gLltM
-!_ e"lddf /x]sf] bf]xf]/f] :jfldTj cGTo ub}{ ls;fgsf] lxtnfO{ Wofgdf /fvL j}1flgs e"ld;'wf/ ug]{,
=== -wf/f %!_

Property, Inheritance and Land Tenure

English

(1) Without prejudice to the fundamental norms of trusts, the Federal Parliament shall make laws concerning the rights of peasants having possession on trusts land and the rights of the trusts.
… (Art. 290)

Nepali

-!_ u'7Lsf] d"ne"t dfGotfdf k|lts"n c;/ gkg]{u/L u'7L hUufdf ef]uflwsf/ e}/x]sf ls;fg Pj+ u'7Lsf] clwsf/sf ;DaGwdf ;+3Lo ;+;bn] cfjZos sfg"g agfpg]5 .
=== -wf/f @()_

Property, Inheritance and Land Tenure

English

16. Land management, record-keeping of the land
… (Schedule 6, List of Provincial Powers/Jurisdiction)

Nepali

 -!^_ e"ld Joj:yfkg, hUufsf] clen]v
=== -cg';"rL–^, k|b]zsf] clwsf/sf] ;"rL_

Property, Inheritance and Land Tenure

English

5. Laws related to family affairs (marriage, property transfer, divorce, endangered, orphan, adopted child, successors and joint family).
6. Receiving property, acquisition and creation of rights

24. Land policy and related legal provisions
… (Schedule 7, List of Concurrent (federal and provincial) Powers/Jurisdiction)

Nepali

-%_ kfl/jfl/s dfldnf -ljjfx, ;DklQ x:tfGt/0f, ;DaGw ljR5]b, nf]kf]Gd'v, 6'x'/f, wd{k'q, wd{k'qL pQ/flwsf/ / ;+o'Qm kl/jf/_ ;DaGwL sfg"g
-^_ ;DklQ k|flKt, clwu|x0f / clwsf/sf] ;[hgf
===
-@$_ e"ld gLlt / ;f] ;DaGwL sfg"g
=== -cg';"rL–&, ;+3 / k|b]zsf] ;femf clwsf/sf] ;"rL_

Property, Inheritance and Land Tenure

English

14. Distribution of land, building ownership certificates
… (Schedule 8, List of Powers/Jurisdiction for Local Level)

Nepali

-!$_ 3/ hUuf wgL k'hf{ ljt/0f
=== -cg';"rL–*, :yfgLo txsf] clwsf/sf] ;"rL_

Protection from Violence

English

(2) Every citizen shall have the following freedoms:

(c) freedom to form political party,
(d) freedom to form unions and associations,

Provided that,

(3) Nothing in section (c) shall be deemed to prevent the making of an Act to impose reasonable restrictions on any act which may undermine the nationality, sovereignty, indivisibility or Nepal, or an act of espionage against the nation, or disclosing national secrets, or helping foreign state or organization that may jeopardize Nepal’ security, or an act of treason, or an act that undermines the harmonious relations subsisting between federal units, or instigates communal animosity, or jeopardizes the harmonious relations subsisting among different caste, ethnicity, religious groups and communities, or an act of acquiring or depriving the membership of a political party only on the grounds of caste, language, religion, community or gender, or the formation of a political party that creates discrimination against citizens, or an act that incites violence, or is contrary to decent public behavior.
(4) Nothing in section (d) shall be deemed to prevent the making of an Act to impose reasonable restrictions on any act which may undermine the nationality, sovereignty, indivisibility or Nepal, or an act of espionage against the nation, or disclosing national secrets, or helping foreign state or organization that may jeopardize Nepal’ security, or an act of treason, or an act that undermines the harmonious relations subsisting between federal units, or instigates communal animosity, or jeopardizes the harmonious relations subsisting among different caste groups, ethnicity, religious groups and communities, or an incitement of violence, or an act which is contrary to public morality.
… (Art. 17)

Nepali

-@_ k|To]s gful/snfO{ b]xfosf] :jtGqtf x'g]5 M–
===
-u_ /fhgLlts bn vf]Ng] :jtGqtf,
-3_ ;+3 / ;+:yf vf]Ng] :jtGqtf,
===
t/,
===
-#_ v08 -u_ sf] s'g} s'/fn] g]kfnsf] ;fj{ef}d;Qf, ef}uf]lns cv08tf, /fli6«otf / :jfwLgtfdf vnn kg]{, /fi6« lj?4 hf;";L ug]{, /fli6«o uf]kgLotf e+u ug]{ jf g]kfnsf] ;'/Iffdf cfFr k'¥ofpg] u/L s'g} ljb]zL /fHo, ;+u7g jf k|ltlglwnfO{ ;xof]u ug]{ jf /fHob|f]x ug]{ jf ;+3Lo OsfOaLrsf] ;'–;DaGwdf vnn kg]{ jf hftLo jf ;fDk|bflos ljå]if km}nfpg] jf ljleGg hft, hflt, wd{ / ;Dk|bfoaLrsf] ;'–;DaGwdf vnn kg]{ jf s]jn hflt, efiff, wd{, ;Dk|bfo jf ln+usf] cfwf/df s'g} /fhgLlts bnsf] ;b:otf k|fKt ug{] jf aGb]h nufpg] jf gful/sx¿aLr lje]b ug]{ u/L /fhgLlts bn u7g ug{], lx+;fTds sfo{ ug{ b'?T;fxg ug]{ jf ;fj{hlgs g}ltstfsf] k|lts"n x'g] sfo{df dgfl;a k|ltaGw nufpg] u/L P]g agfpg /f]s nufPsf] dflgg] 5}g .
-$_ v08 -3_ sf] s'g} s'/fn] g]kfnsf] ;fj{ef}d;Qf, ef}uf]lns cv08tf, /fli6«otf / :jfwLgtfdf vnn kg]{, /fi6«sf] lj?4 hf;";L ug]{, /fli6«o uf]kgLotf e+u ug]{ jf g]kfnsf] ;'/Iffdf cfFr k'¥ofpg] u/L s'g} ljb]zL /fHo, ;+u7g jf k|ltlglwnfO{ ;xof]u ug]{, /fHob|f]x ug]{ jf ;+3Lo OsfOaLrsf] ;'–;DaGwdf vnn kg]{ jf hftLo jf ;fDk|bflos ljå]if km}nfpg] jf ljleGg hft, hflt, wd{ / ;Dk|bfoaLrsf] ;'–;DaGwdf vnn kg]{ jf lx+;fTds sfo{ ug{ b'?T;fxg ug]{ jf ;fj{hlgs g}ltstfsf] k|lts"n x'g] sfo{df dgfl;a k|ltaGw nufpg] u/L P]g agfpg /f]s nufPsf] dflgg] 5}g .
=== -wf/f !&_

Protection from Violence

English

(1) There shall be no prior censorship of publications and broadcasting, or information dissemination, or printing of any news item, editorial, article, feature, or other reading material, or the use of audio-visual material by any medium, including electronic publication, broadcasting and printing.
Provided that nothing shall be deemed to prevent the making of laws to impose reasonable restriction on any act which may undermine the nationality, sovereignty, and indivisibility of Nepal, or the good relations between federal units, or jeopardizes the harmonious relations subsisting among different caste groups and tribes, or communities, or an act of treason, or defamation of social dignity of individuals through the publication and dissemination of false material, or contempt of court, or material that incites criminal offence, or an act that is contrary to decent public behavior and morality, or disrespects labor, or incites untouchability or gender discriminations.
… (Art. 19)

Nepali

-!_ ljB'tLo k|sfzg, k|;f/0f tyf 5fkf nufotsf h'g;'s} dfWodaf6 s'g} ;dfrf/, ;DkfbsLo, n]v, /rgf jf cGo s'g} kf7\o, >Jo, >Job[Zo ;fdu|Lsf] k|sfzg tyf k|;f/0f ug{ jf ;"rgf k|jfx ug{ jf 5fKg k"j{ k|ltaGw nufOg] 5}g . t/ g]kfnsf] ;fj{ef}d;Qf, ef}uf]lns cv08tf, /fli6«otf jf ;+3Lo OsfOaLrsf] ;'–;DaGw jf ljleGg hft, hflt, wd{ jf ;Dk|bfo aLrsf] ;'–;DaGwdf vnn kg]{, /fHob|f]x, ufnL a]OHhtL jf cbfntsf] cjx]ngf x'g] jf ck/fw ug{ b'?T;fxg ug]{ jf ;fj{hlgs lzi6frf/, g}ltstfsf] k|lts"n sfo{ ug{], >dk|lt cjx]ngf ug{] / hftLo 5'jf5"t Pj+ n}+lus e]befjnfO{ b'?T;fxg ug]{ sfo{df dgfl;a k|ltaGw nufpg] u/L P]g agfpg /f]s nufPsf] dflgg] 5}g .
=== -wf/f !(_

Protection from Violence

English

(1) No person in detention shall be subjected to physical or mental torture, or be treated in a cruel, inhuman or degrading manner.
… (Art. 22)

Nepali

-!_ kqmfp k/]sf] jf y'gfdf /x]sf] JolQmnfO{ zf/Ll/s jf dfgl;s oftgf lbOg] jf lgh;Fu lgd{d, cdfgjLo jf ckdfghgs Jojxf/ ul/g] 5}g .
=== -wf/f @@_

Protection from Violence

English

(3) Racial discriminations shall not be encouraged in any way, or there shall not be any behavioral attitude to exhibit high or low status on grounds of a particular caste, ethnicity or community, or physical condition of a person, or there shall not be any behavioral attitude that justifies social discrimination based on caste, ethnicity, or untouchability, or encouragement for the propagation of attitudes based on caste superiority and untouchability, or hatred.
… (Art. 24)

Nepali

-#_ pTklQ, hft, hflt jf zf/Ll/s cj:yfsf] cfwf/df s'g} JolQm jf ;d'bfonfO{ pRr jf gLr bzf{pg], hft, hflt jf 5'jf5"tsf] cfwf/df ;fdflhs e]befjnfO{ Gofof]lrt 7fGg] jf 5'jf5"t tyf hftLo pRrtf jf 3[0ffdf cfwfl/t ljrf/sf] k|rf/ k|;f/ ug{ jf hftLo lje]bnfO{ s'g} klg lsl;dn] k|f]T;fxg ug{ kfOg] 5}g .
=== -wf/f @$_

Protection from Violence

English

(1) Every person shall have the right against exploitation.
(2) No person shall be subjected to any kind of exploitation on the basis of religion, custom, tradition, culture, practices or any other bases.
(3) No person shall be subjected to human trafficking or bonded labor, and such an act shall be punishable by law.
(4) No person shall be subjected to forced labor.
Provided that nothing in this clause shall prevent the enactment of a law requiring citizens to be engaged in compulsory service for public purposes.
(5) Any act contrary to clause (3) and (4) shall be punishable by law and the victim of such an act shall have the right to compensation from the perpetrator. (Art. 29)

Nepali

-!_ k|To]s JolQmnfO{ zf]if0f lj?4sf] xs x'g]5 .
-@_ wd{, k|yf, k/Dk/f, ;+:sf/, k|rng jf cGo s'g} cfwf/df s'g}klg JolQmnfO{ s'g} lsl;dn] zf]if0f ug{ kfOg] 5}g .
-#_ s;}nfO{ klg a]rlavg ug{, bf; jf afFwf agfpg kfOg] 5}g .
-$_ s;}nfO{ klg lghsf] OR5f lj?4 sfddf nufpg kfOg] 5}g . t/ ;fj{hlgs k|of]hgsfnflu gful/snfO{ /fHon] clgjfo{ ;]jfdf nufpg ;Sg] u/L sfg"g agfpg /f]s nufPsf] dflgg] 5}g .
-%_ pkwf/f -#_ / -$_ ljk/Ltsf] sfo{ sfg"g adf]lhd b08gLo x'g]5 / kLl8tnfO{ kL8saf6 sfg"g adf]lhd Ifltk"lt{ kfpg] xs x'g]5 . -wf/f @(_

Protection from Violence

English

(3) There shall not be any physical, mental, sexual or psychological or any other kind of violence against women, or any kind of oppression based on religious, social and cultural tradition, and other practices. Such an act shall be punishable by law and the victim shall have the right to be compensation as provided for in law.
… (Art. 38)

Nepali

-#_ dlxnf lj?å wfld{s, ;fdflhs, ;f+:s[lts k/Dk/f, k|rng jf cGo s'g} cfwf/df zf/Ll/s, dfgl;s, of}ghGo, dgf]j}1flgs jf cGos'g} lsl;dsf] lx+;fhGo sfo{ jf zf]if0f ul/g] 5}g . To:tf] sfo{ sfg"g adf]lhd b08gLo x'g]5 / kLl8tnfO{ sfg"g adf]lhd Ifltk"lt{ kfpg] xsx'g]5 .
=== -wf/f #*_

Protection from Violence

English

(4) No child shall be employed in factories, mines, or in any other hazardous works.
(5) No child shall be subjected to child marriage, illegal trafficking, kidnapping, or being held hostage.
(6) No child shall be subjected to recruitment or any kind of use in the army, police or armed groups, neglected, or used immorally, or abused physically, mentally, or sexually, or exploited through any other means, in the name of religious or cultural practices.
(7) No child shall be subjected to physical, mental, or any other forms of torture at home, in school, or in any other places or situations.
… (Art. 39)

Nepali

-$_ s'g} klg afnaflnsfnfO{ snsf/vfgf, vfgL jf o:t} cGo hf]lvdk"0f{ sfddf nufpg kfOg] 5}g .
-%_ s'g} klg afnaflnsfnfO{ afn ljjfx, u}/sfg"gL cf];f/k;f/ / ckx/0f ug{ jf aGws /fVg kfOg] 5}g .
-^_ s'g} klg afnaflnsfnfO{ ;]gf, k|x/L jf ;z:q ;d"xdf egf{ jf k|of]u ug{ jf ;f+:s[lts jf wfld{s k|rngsf gfddf s'g} klg dfWod jf k|sf/n] b'Jo{jxf/, pk]Iff jf zf/Ll/s, dfgl;s, of}ghGo jf cGo s'g} k|sf/sf] zf]if0f ug{ jf cg'lrt k|of]u ug{ kfOg] 5}g .
-&_ s'g} klg afnaflnsfnfO{ 3/, ljBfno jf cGo h'g;'s} :yfg / cj:yfdf zf/Ll/s, dfgl;s jf cGo s'g} lsl;dsf] oftgf lbg kfOg]5}g . === -wf/f #(_

Protection from Violence

English

(3) It shall be the economic objective of the State to make the national economy self-reliant, independent, and developing it towards socialism oriented economy with equitable distribution of resources and means, by ending all forms of economic exploitation and inequality, with maximum utilization of available resources and means through the participation of cooperatives, and public and private sector for sustainable development, and to build an exploitation-free society by fair distribution of the achievements made so far.
… (Art. 50)

Nepali

-#_ ;fj{hlgs, lghL / ;xsf/L If]qsf] ;xeflutf tyf ljsf; dfkm{t pknAw ;fwg / ;|f]tsf] clwstd kl/rfngåf/f tLj| cfly{s j[l4 xfl;n ub{} lbuf] cfly{s ljsf; ug]{ tyf k|fKt pknlAwx¿sf] Gofof]lrt ljt/0f u/L cfly{s c;dfgtfsf] cGTo ub}{ zf]if0f /lxt ;dfhsf] lgdf{0f ug{ /fli6«o cy{tGqnfO{ cfTdlge{/, :jtGq tyf pGgltzLn agfpFb} ;dfhjfb pGd'v :jtGq / ;d[4 cy{tGqsf] ljsf; ug]{ /fHosf] cfly{s p2]Zo x'g]5 .
=== -wf/f %)_

Protection from Violence

English

The State shall pursue the following policies:

(i) Policies regarding labor and employment:

(3) Ending child labor and all forms of labor exploitation.
… (Art. 51)

Nepali

/fHon] b]xfosf gLltx¿ cjnDag ug]{5M–
===
-em_ >d / /f]huf/ ;DaGwL gLltM
===
-#_ afn>d nufot >d zf]if0fsf ;a} ¿ksf] cGTo ug]{,
=== -wf/f %!_

Public Institutions and Services

English

(5) The families of martyrs who sacrificed their lives in the people’s movements, armed conflicts and revolutions for a democratic progressive change in Nepal, the families of those who were disappeared, persons who fought for democracy, victims of conflict and the displaced, persons who were physically maimed, the wounded and the victims, shall have the right with priority, as provided for by law, to education, health, employment, housing and social security, with justice and appropriate respect. (Art. 42)

Nepali

-%_ g]kfndf cu|ufdL nf]stflGqs kl/jt{gsf]nflu ePsf ;a} hg cfGbf]ng, ;z:q ;+3if{ / qmflGtsf qmddf hLjg pT;u{ ug]{ zxLbsf kl/jf/, a]kQf kfl/Psf JolQmsf kl/jf/, nf]stGqsf of]4f, åGåkLl8t / lj:yflkt, ckf+utf ePsf JolQm, 3fOt] tyf kLl8tnfO{ Gofo Pj+ plrt ;Ddfg ;lxt lzIff, :jf:Yo, /f]huf/L, cfjf; / ;fdflhs ;'/Iffdf sfg"g adf]lhd k|fyldstfsf ;fy cj;/ kfpg] xs x'g]5 .
-wf/f $@_

Public Institutions and Services

English

Economically poor, physically incapacitated and helpless person, helpless single women, persons with physical impairment, children, persons who cannot look after themselves and the citizens who belong to communities that are on the verge of extinction, shall have the right to social security as provided for by law. (Art. 43)

Nepali

cfly{s ¿kn] ljkGg, czQm / c;xfo cj:yfdf /x]sf, c;xfo Psn dlxnf, ckf+utf ePsf, afnaflnsf, cfk\mgf] x]/rfx cfkm}+ ug{ g;Sg] tyf nf]kf]Gd'v hfltsf gful/snfO{ sfg"g adf]lhd ;fdflhs ;'/Iffsf] xs x'g]5 . -wf/f $#_

Public Institutions and Services

English

(3) It shall be the economic objective of the State to make the national economy self-reliant, independent, and developing it towards socialism oriented economy with equitable distribution of resources and means, by ending all forms of economic exploitation and inequality, with maximum utilization of available resources and means through the participation of cooperatives, and public and private sector for sustainable development, and to build an exploitation-free society by fair distribution of the achievements made so far.
… (Art. 50)

Nepali

-#_ ;fj{hlgs, lghL / ;xsf/L If]qsf] ;xeflutf tyf ljsf; dfkm{t pknAw ;fwg / ;|f]tsf] clwstd kl/rfngåf/f tLj| cfly{s j[l4 xfl;n ub{} lbuf] cfly{s ljsf; ug]{ tyf k|fKt pknlAwx¿sf] Gofof]lrt ljt/0f u/L cfly{s c;dfgtfsf] cGTo ub}{ zf]if0f /lxt ;dfhsf] lgdf{0f ug{ /fli6«o cy{tGqnfO{ cfTdlge{/, :jtGq tyf pGgltzLn agfpFb} ;dfhjfb pGd'v :jtGq / ;d[4 cy{tGqsf] ljsf; ug]{ /fHosf] cfly{s p2]Zo x'g]5 .
=== -wf/f %)_

Public Institutions and Services

English

The State shall pursue the following policies:

(b) Policies regarding political and governance system:

(4) Guaranteeing good governance by ensuring equal and easy access of people to services provided by the State and making public administration clean, competent, impartial, transparent, accountable and participatory.

(f) Development policy:

(6) Prioritizing poor citizens in the distribution of the fruits of development, and making necessary arrangements for the general public to have a fair share of it.

(h) Policies regarding the basic needs of citizens:

(6) Ensuring easily available and equal access to high quality health care for all.

(13) Making a well-planned supply system by ensuring equal access of citizens to the basic needs and services, and prioritizing the remote areas and regions that were made to lag behind.
(14) Increasing investment in the transportation sector by ensuring simple, easy and equal access of all citizens to transportation facilities, and prioritizing environment friendly technology, encouraging public transportation and quality private transportation, while also making the transportation sector safe, well managed and disabled friendly.

(j) Policies regarding social justice and inclusion:

(2) Making women self reliant who are vulnerable, victims of conflict, excluded by family and the society, by making necessary arrangements of rehabilitation, protection and empowerment for them.

(6) Rehabilitation of kamaiya (bonded laborers), kamlari, haruwa, charuwa, haliya, the landless and the squatters by identifying them, and making arrangements of housing, or providing small plot of land or house, employment, or arable land for their livelihoods.

(12) Giving priority to the very poor within all communities, regions, and gender, while providing social security and social justice.
(13) Making a well planned investment in sports and sports men and women in order to produce healthy, able and disciplined citizens and developing sports as a medium of consolidating national unity and promoting national prestige in the international arena.
… (Art. 51)

Nepali

/fHon] b]xfosf gLltx¿ cjnDag ug]{5 M–
===
-v_ /fhgLlts tyf zf;g Joj:yf ;DaGwL gLltM
===
-$_ ;fj{hlgs k|zf;gnfO{ :jR5, ;Ifd, lgikIf, kf/bzL{, e|i6frf/d'Qm, hgpQ/bfoL / ;xeflutfd"ns agfpFb} /fHoaf6 k|fKt x'g] ;]jf ;'ljwfdf hgtfsf] ;dfg / ;xh kx'Fr ;'lglZrt u/L ;'zf;gsf] k|Tofe"lt ug]{,
===
-r_ ljsf; ;DaGwL gLltM
===
-^_ ljsf;sf] k|ltkmn ljt/0fdf ljkGg gful/snfO{ k|fyldstf lb+b} cfd hgtfn] Gofof]lrt ¿kdf kfpg] Joj:yf ug]{],
===
-h_ gful/ssf cfwf/e"t cfjZostf ;DaGwL gLltM
===
-^_ u'0f:t/Lo :jf:Yo ;]jfdf ;a}sf] ;xh, ;'ne / ;dfg kxF'r ;'lglZrt ug{]{,
===
-!#_ cfwf/e"t j:t' tyf ;]jfdf ;a} gful/sx¿sf] ;dfg kxF'r ;'lglZrt ub}{ b'u{d / k5fl8 kfl/Psf] If]qnfO{ ljz]if k|fyldstf lbO{ of]hgfa4 cfk"lt{sf] Joj:yf ug]{,
-!$_ oftfoft ;'ljwfdf gful/sx¿sf] ;/n, ;xh / ;dfg kxF'r ;'lglZrt ub}{ oftfoft If]qdf nufgL clej[l4 ug]{ / jftfj/0f cg's"n k|ljlwnfO{ k|fyldstf lb+b} ;fj{hlgs oftfoftnfO{ k|f]T;fxg / lghL oftfoftnfO{ lgodg u/L oftfoft If]qnfO{ ;'/lIft, Jojl:yt / ckf+utf ePsf JolQm cg's"n agfpg],
===
-`_ ;fdflhs Gofo / ;dfj]zLs/0f ;DaGwL gLltM
===
-@_ hf]lvddf k/]sf, ;fdflhs / kfl/jfl/s alxis/0fdf k/]sf tyf lx+;f kLl8t dlxnfnfO{ k'gM:yfkgf, ;+/If0f, ;zQmLs/0f u/L :jfjnDaL agfpg],
===
-^_ d'Qm sd}of, sDxn/L, x/jf, r/jf, xlnof, e"ldxLg, ;'s'Daf;Lx¿sf] klxrfg u/L a;f]af;sfnflu 3/ 38]/L tyf hLljsf]kfh{gsfnflu s[lifof]Uo hdLg jf /f]huf/Lsf] Joj:yf ub}{ k'gM:yfkgf ug]{,
===
-!@_ ;fdflhs ;'/Iff / ;fdflhs Gofo k|bfg ubf{ ;a} ln+u, If]q / ;d'bfo leqsf cfly{s ¿kn] ljkGgnfO{ k|fyldstf k|bfg ug]{,
-!#_ :j:y, ;Ifd / cg'zfl;t gful/s tof/ ug{ v]ns"b tyf v]nf8Ldf of]hgfa4 nufgL ug]{ / v]ns"bnfO{ /fli6«o Pstf ;'b[9 ug]{ Pj+ cGt/f{li6«o If]qdf /fli6«o ;Ddfg clej[l4 ug{]{ dfWodsf] ¿kdf ljsf; ug]{, === -wf/f %!_

Sexual and Reproductive Rights

English

The State shall pursue the following policies:

(h) Policies regarding the basic needs of citizens:

(10) It shall be the policy of the State to increase general life expectancy by decreasing maternity-infant mortality rate by encouraging family planning population management based on the need and capacity of the country.

(j) Policies regarding social justice and inclusion:

(3) Ensuring the use of necessary services and facilities during the reproductive stage
… (Art. 51)

Nepali

/fHon] b]xfosf gLltx¿ cjnDag ug]{5M–
===
-h_ gful/ssf cfwf/e"t cfjZostf ;DaGwL gLltM
===
-!)_ g]kfnsf] Ifdtf / cfjZostfsf cfwf/df hg;+Vof Joj:yfkgsfnflu kl/jf/ lgof]hgnfO{ k|f]T;flxt ub}{ dft[–lzz' d[To'b/ 36fO{ cf};t cfo' a9fpg],
===
-`_ ;fdflhs Gofo / ;dfj]zLs/0f ;DaGwL gLltM
===
-#_ k|hgg cj:yfdf cfjZos ;]jf ;'ljwf pkef]usf]
;'lglZrttf ug]{,
=== -wf/f %!_

Sexual and Reproductive Rights

English

10. Planning, family planning and population management
… (Schedule 7, List of Concurrent (federal and provincial) Powers/Jurisdiction)

Nepali

-!)_ of]hgf, kl/jf/ lgof]hg / hg;+Vof Joj:yfkg
=== -cg';"rL–&, ;+3 / k|b]zsf] ;femf clwsf/sf] ;"rL_

Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity

English

(3) The state shall not discriminate among citizens on grounds of origin, religion, race, caste, tribe, sex, economic condition, language or geographical region, ideology and such other matters.
Provided that nothing shall be deemed to bar the making of special provisions by law for the protection, empowerment or advancement of the women lagging behind socially and culturally, Dalits, Adibasi, Madhesi, Tharus, Muslims, oppressed class, backward communities, minorities, marginalized groups, peasants, laborers, youths, children, senior citizens, sexual minorities, persons with disability, pregnant, incapacitated and the helpless persons, and of the citizens who belong to backward regions and financially deprived citizens including the Khas Arya.
… (Art. 18)

Nepali

-#_ /fHon] gful/sx¿sf aLr pTklQ, wd{, j0f{, hft, hflt, ln+u, cfly{s cj:yf, efiff, If]q, j}rfl/s cf:yf jf o:t} cGo s'g} cfwf/df e]befj ug]{ 5}g .
t/ ;fdflhs jf ;f+:s[lts b[li6n] lk5l8Psf dlxnf, blnt, cflbjf;L, cflbjf;L hghflt, dw]zL, yf¿, d'l:nd, pTkLl8t ju{, lk58f ju{, cNk;+Vos, ;LdfGtLs[t, ls;fg, >lds, o'jf, afnaflnsf, Ho]i7 gful/s, n}+lus tyf of}lgs cNk;+Vos, ckf+utf ePsf JolQm, uef{j:yfsf JolQm, czQm jf c;xfo, lk5l8Psf] If]q / cfly{s ¿kn] ljkGg v; cfo{ nufot gful/ssf] ;+/If0f, ;zQmLs/0f jf ljsf;sfnflu sfg"g adf]lhd ljz]if Joj:yf ug{ /f]s nufPsf] dflgg] 5}g .
=== -wf/f !*_

Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity

English

(1) Socially backward women, Dalits, Adibasi, Janajati, Adibasi Janajati, Madhesi, Tharu, minority groups, persons with disability, marginalized groups, Muslim, backward classes, gender and sexually minority groups, youths, peasants, laborers, the oppressed and the citizens of backward regions, and economically poor Khas Arya shall have the right to employment in state structures on the basis of the principle of inclusion.
… (Art. 42)

Nepali

-!_ ;fdflhs ¿kn] k5fl8 k/]sf dlxnf, blnt, cflbjf;L, cflbjf;L hghflt, dw]zL, yf¿, cNk;+Vos, ckf+utf ePsf JolQm, ;LdfGtLs[t, d'l:nd, lk58f ju{, n}+lus tyf of}lgs cNk;+Vos, o'jf, ls;fg, >lds, pTkLl8t jf lk5l8Psf] If]qsf gful/s tyf cfly{s¿kn] ljkGg v; cfo{nfO{ ;dfj]zL l;4fGtsf cfwf/df /fHosf] lgsfodf ;xeflutfsf] xs x'g]5 .
=== -wf/f $@_

Status of the Constitution

English

(1) This constitution is the fundamental law of Nepal. All laws inconsistent with this constitution shall, to the extent of such inconsistency, be void.
(2) It shall be the duty of every person to uphold this constitution. (Art. 1)

Nepali

-!_ of] ;+ljwfg g]kfnsf] d"n sfg"g xf] . o; ;+ljwfg;Fu aflemg] sfg"g aflemPsf] xb;Dd cdfGo x'g]5 .
-@_ o; ;+ljwfgsf] kfngf ug'{ k|To]s JolQmsf] st{Jo x'g]5 . -wf/f !_

Status of the Constitution

English

Each person shall the following duties:

(b) Abide by the constitution and law
… (Art. 48)

Nepali

k|To]s gful/ssf st{Jo b]xfo adf]lhd x'g]5g\ M–
===
-v_ ;+ljwfg / sfg"gsf] kfngf ug{',
=== -wf/f $*_

Status of the Constitution

English

(1) All the laws in the force at the time of commencement of this Constitution shall remain in operation until repealed or amended.
Provided that laws inconsistent with this Constitution shall, to the extent of inconsistency, ipso facto, cease to operate, one year after first session of federal legislature, in accordance with this constitution.
(2) The activities under peace process conducted according to the Interim Constitution 2007 shall be considered to be conducted according to this constitution. (Art. 304)

Nepali

-!_ of] ;+ljwfg k|f/De x'Fbfsf avt sfod /x]sf g]kfnL sfg"g vf/]h jf ;+zf]wg geP;Dd nfu" /xg]5g\ . t/ of] ;+ljwfg;Fu aflemPsf] sfg"g of] ;+ljwfg adf]lhdsf] ;+3Lo ;+;bsf] klxnf] clwj]zg a;]sf] ldltn] Ps jif{kl5 aflemPsf] xb;Dd :jtM cdfGo x'g]5 .
-@_ g]kfnsf] cGtl/d ;+ljwfg, @)^# adf]lhdsf zflGt k|lqmof ;DaGwL sfo{x¿ o;} ;+ljwfg adf]lhd eP u/]sf] dflgg]5 . -wf/f #)$_

Status of International Law

English

(2) In order to perform the duty pursuant to Clause (1), the National Human Rights Commission may carry out the following functions:-

(g) recommend with reasons to the Government of Nepal that it become a party to any international treaties and agreements on human rights, if it is desirable to do so, and to monitor the implementation of the international treaties and agreements on human rights to which Nepal is a party and if found not to be implemented, forward recommendations to the Government of Nepal for effective implementation of such agreements,
… (Art. 249)

Nepali

-@_ pkwf/f -!_ df plNnlvt st{Jo k"/f ug{sfnflu /fli6«o dfgj clwsf/ cfof]un] b]xfo adf]lhdsf sfd ug{]5 M–
===
-5_ dfgj clwsf/;Fu ;DalGwt cGt/f{li6«o ;lGw jf ;Demf}tfsf] g]kfn kIf aGg' kg{] ePdf To;sf] sf/0f ;lxt g]kfn ;/sf/nfO{ l;kmfl/; ug{] / g]kfn kIf alg;s]sf ;lGw jf ;Demf}tfsf] sfof{Gjog eP jf gePsf] cg'udg u/L sfof{Gjog gePsf] kfOPdf To;sf] sfof{Gjog ug{ g]kfn ;/sf/ ;dIf l;kmfl/; ug{],
=== -wf/f @$(_

Status of International Law

English

(1) Functions, duties and powers of the Federal Women Commission shall be as follows:-

(b) To review whether or not statutes related to women’s welfare are executed, and whether the international covenant signed by Nepal, as a signatory, has been executed, and to forward a recommendation to the Government of Nepal in case they are found not to have been executed,

(e) To monitor the government regarding report to be submitted by the Government of Nepal in matters related to international covenant and treaties to which Nepal is a party,
… (Art. 253)

Nepali

-!_ /fli6«o dlxnf cfof]usf] sfd, st{Jo / clwsf/ b]xfo adf]lhd x'g]5 M–
===
-v_ dlxnfsf] xs lxt;Fu ;DalGwt sfg"g jf g]kfn kIf ePsf] cGt/f{li6«o ;lGw jf ;Demf}tf cGtu{tsf] bfloTj sfof{Gjog eP jf gePsf] ljifodf cg'udg u/L To;sf] k|efjsf/L kfng jf sfof{Gjogsf] pkfo ;lxt g]kfn ;/sf/nfO{ ;'emfj lbg],
===
-ª_ dlxnf clwsf/;Fu ;DalGwt g]kfn kIf ePsf] cGt/f{li6«o ;lGw jf ;Demf}tfdf ePsf] Joj:yf adf]lhd g]kfnn] k7fpg' kg]{ k|ltj]bg tof/Lsf ;DaGwdf g]kfn ;/sf/nfO{ ;'emfj lbg],
=== -wf/f @%#_

Status of International Law

English

(1) Functions, duties and powers of National Dalit Commission shall be as follows:-

(d) To review or monitor the Government of Nepal, so as to ensure that the Government of Nepal submits the report as a signatory to the international treaties and agreement, as provisioned by those treaties,
… (Art. 256)

Nepali

-!_ /fli6«o blnt cfof]usf] sfd, st{Jo / clwsf/ b]xfo adf]lhd x'g]5 M–
===
-3_ blnt ;d'bfosf] clwsf/;+u ;DalGwt g]kfn kIf ePsf] cGt/f{li6«o ;lGw jf ;Demf}tfdf ePsf] Joj:yf adf]lhd g]kfnn] k7fpg' kg]{ k|ltj]bg tof/Lsf ;DaGwdf g]kfn ;/sf/nfO{ ;'emfj lbg],
=== -wf/f @%^_

Religious Law

English

(1) Nepal is an independent, indivisible, sovereign, secular, inclusive democratic, socialism-oriented federal democratic republican state.
Explanation: For the purpose of this article, 'secular' means protection of religion and culture being practiced since ancient times and religious and cultural freedom.
… (Art. 4)

Nepali

-!_ g]kfn :jtGq, cljefHo, ;fj{ef}d;Qf ;DkGg, wd{lg/k]If, ;dfj]zL, nf]stGqfTds, ;dfhjfb pGd'v, ;+3Lo nf]stflGqs u0ftGqfTds /fHo xf] .
:ki6Ls/0f M o; wf/fsf] k|of]hgsf]nflu æwd{lg/k]IfÆ eGgfn] ;gftgb]lv rlncfPsf] wd{ ;+:s[ltsf] ;+/If0f nufot wfld{s, ;f+:s[lts :jtGqtf ;Demg' k5{ .
=== -wf/f $_

Religious Law

English

(2) No person shall be subjected to any kind of exploitation on the basis of religion, custom, tradition, culture, practices or any other bases.
… (Art. 29)

Nepali

-@_ wd{, k|yf, k/Dk/f, ;+:sf/, k|rng jf cGo s'g} cfwf/df s'g} klg JolQmnfO{ s'g} lsl;dn] zf]if0f ug{ kfOg] 5}g .
=== -wf/f @(_

Religious Law

English

(3) There shall not be any physical, mental, sexual or psychological or any other kind of violence against women, or any kind of oppression based on religious, social and cultural tradition, and other practices. Such an act shall be punishable by law and the victim shall have the right to be compensation as provided for in law.
… (Art. 38)

Nepali

-#_ dlxnf lj?å wfld{s, ;fdflhs, ;f+:s[lts k/Dk/f, k|rng jfcGo s'g} cfwf/df zf/Ll/s, dfgl;s, of}ghGo, dgf]j}1flgs jf cGos'g} lsl;dsf] lx+;fhGo sfo{ jf zf]if0f ul/g] 5}g . To:tf] sfo{ sfg"g adf]lhd b08gLo x'g]5 / kLl8tnfO{ sfg"g adf]lhd Ifltk"lt{ kfpg] xs x'g]5 .
=== -wf/f #*_

Religious Law

English

(6) No child shall be subjected to recruitment or any kind of use in the army, police or armed groups, neglected, or used immorally, or abused physically, mentally, or sexually, or exploited through any other means, in the name of religious or cultural practices.
… (Art. 39)

Nepali

-^_ s'g} klg afnaflnsfnfO{ ;]gf, k|x/L jf ;z:q ;d"xdf egf{ jf k|of]u ug{ jf ;f+:s[lts jf wfld{s k|rngsf gfddf s'g} klg dfWod jf k|sf/n] b'Jo{jxf/, pk]Iff jf zf/Ll/s, dfgl;s, of}ghGo jf cGo s'g} k|sf/sf] zf]if0f ug{ jf cg'lrt k|of]u ug{ kfOg] 5}g .
=== -wf/f #(_

Religious Law

English

(2) It shall be the socio-cultural objective of the State to build a civilized and egalitarian society by ending all forms of discrimination, oppression and injustice based on religion, culture, cultural practices, customs, traditional practices, or on any other grounds; … (Art. 50)

Nepali

-@_ wd{, ;+:s[lt, ;+:sf/, k|yf, k/Dk/f, k|rng jf cGo s'g} klg cfwf/df x'g] ;a} k|sf/sf lje]b, zf]if0f / cGofosf] cGTo u/L ;Eo / ;dtfd"ns ;dfhsf] lgdf{0f ug]{ === /fHosf] ;fdflhs / ;f+:s[lts p2]Zo x'g]5 . === -wf/f %)_

Religious Law

English

The State shall pursue the following policies:

(c) Policies regarding social and cultural transformation:

(5) Put an end to all forms of discrimination, and injustice in the name of religion, culture, tradition, practices and rites.
… (Art. 51)

Nepali

/fHon] b]xfosf gLltx¿ cjnDag ug]{5 M–
===
-u_ ;fdflhs / ;f+:s[lts ¿kfGt/0f ;DaGwL gLltM ===
-%_ ;dfhdf ljBdfg wd{, k|yf, k/Dk/f, /Llt tyf ;+:sf/sf gfddf x'g] ;a} k|sf/sf lje]b, c;dfgtf, zf]if0f / cGofosf] cGt ug]{,
=== -wf/f %!_

Customary Law

English

(2) No person shall be subjected to any kind of exploitation on the basis of religion, custom, tradition, culture, practices or any other bases.
… (Art. 29)

Nepali

-@_ wd{, k|yf, k/Dk/f, ;+:sf/, k|rng jf cGo s'g} cfwf/df s'g}klg JolQmnfO{ s'g} lsl;dn] zf]if0f ug{ kfOg] 5}g .
=== -wf/f @(_

Customary Law

English

(3) There shall not be any physical, mental, sexual or psychological or any other kind of violence against women, or any kind of oppression based on religious, social and cultural tradition, and other practices. Such an act shall be punishable by law and the victim shall have the right to be compensation as provided for in law.
… (Art. 38)

Nepali

-#_ dlxnf lj?å wfld{s, ;fdflhs, ;f+:s[lts k/Dk/f, k|rng jf cGo s'g} cfwf/df zf/Ll/s, dfgl;s, of}ghGo, dgf]j}1flgs jf cGo s'g} lsl;dsf] lx+;fhGo sfo{ jf zf]if0f ul/g] 5}g . To:tf] sfo{ sfg"g adf]lhd b08gLo x'g]5 / kLl8tnfO{ sfg"g adf]lhd Ifltk"lt{ kfpg] xsx'g]5 .
=== -wf/f #*_

Customary Law

English

(6) No child shall be subjected to recruitment or any kind of use in the army, police or armed groups, neglected, or used immorally, or abused physically, mentally, or sexually, or exploited through any other means, in the name of religious or cultural practices.
… (Art. 39)

Nepali

-^_ s'g} klg afnaflnsfnfO{ ;]gf, k|x/L jf ;z:q ;d"xdf egf{ jf k|of]u ug{ jf ;f+:s[lts jf wfld{s k|rngsf gfddf s'g} klg dfWod jf k|sf/n] b'Jo{jxf/, pk]Iff jf zf/Ll/s, dfgl;s, of}ghGo jf cGo s'g} k|sf/sf] zf]if0f ug{ jf cg'lrt k|of]u ug{ kfOg] 5}g .
=== -wf/f #(_

Customary Law

English

(2) It shall be the socio-cultural objective of the State to build a civilized and egalitarian society by ending all forms of discrimination, oppression and injustice based on religion, culture, cultural practices, customs, traditional practices, or on any other grounds; … (Art. 50)

Nepali

-@_ wd{, ;+:s[lt, ;+:sf/, k|yf, k/Dk/f, k|rng jf cGo s'g} klg cfwf/df x'g] ;a} k|sf/sf lje]b, zf]if0f / cGofosf] cGTo u/L ;Eo / ;dtfd"ns ;dfhsf] lgdf{0f ug]{ /fHosf] ;fdflhs / ;f+:s[lts p2]Zo x'g]5 .
=== -wf/f %)_

Women’s Rights

English

(1) Every woman shall have equal right to lineage without any gender discriminations.
(2) Every woman shall have the right relating to safe motherhood and reproductive health.
(3) There shall not be any physical, mental, sexual or psychological or any other kind of violence against women, or any kind of oppression based on religious, social and cultural tradition, and other practices. Such an act shall be punishable by law and the victim shall have the right to be compensation as provided for in law.
(4) Women shall have the right to access participate in all state structures and bodies on the basis of the principle of proportional inclusion.
(5) Women shall have the right to special opportunity in the spheres of education, health, employment and social security on the basis of positive discrimination.
(6) Both the spouses shall have equal rights in property and family affairs. (Art. 38)

Nepali

-!_ k|To]s dlxnfnfO{ n}+lus e]befj ljgf ;dfg j+zLo xs x'g]5 .
-@_ k|To]s dlxnfnfO{ ;'/lIft dft[Tj / k|hgg :jf:Yo ;DaGwL xs x'g]5 .
-#_ dlxnf lj?å wfld{s, ;fdflhs, ;f+:s[lts k/Dk/f, k|rng jf cGo s'g} cfwf/df zf/Ll/s, dfgl;s, of}ghGo, dgf]j}1flgs jf cGos'g} lsl;dsf] lx+;fhGo sfo{ jf zf]if0f ul/g] 5}g . To:tf] sfo{ sfg"gadf]lhd b08gLo x'g]5 / kLl8tnfO{ sfg"g adf]lhd Ifltk"lt{ kfpg] xsx'g]5 .
-$_ /fHosf ;a} lgsfodf dlxnfnfO{ ;dfg'kflts ;dfj]zL l;4fGtsf] cfwf/df ;xefuL x'g] xs x'g]5 .
-%_ dlxnfnfO{ lzIff, :jf:Yo, /f]huf/L / ;fdflhs ;'/Iffdf ;sf/fTds lje]bsf cfwf/df ljz]if cj;/ k|fKt ug]{ xs x'g]5 .
-^_ ;DklQ tyf kfl/jfl/s dfldnfdf bDktLsf] ;dfg xs x'g]5 . -wf/f #*_

Women’s Rights

English

The Government of Nepal shall review and revise, along with census of every ten years, the provisions regarding special rights of the women and Dalit community and its implementation and effectiveness based on human development index. (Art. 281)

Nepali

g]kfn ;/sf/n] k|To]s bz jif{df x'g] /fli6«o hgu0fgf;Fu} dlxnf tyf blnt ;d'bfosf] ljz]if clwsf/sf] Joj:yfsf] sfo{fGjog / To;sf] k|efj ;DaGwdf dfgj ljsf; ;"rsf+ssf] cfwf/df ;dLIff tyf k'g/fjnf]sg ug]{5 . -wf/f @*!_

1

Constitution of Nepal 2015 (English). Unofficial translation by Nepal Law Society, International IDEA and UNDP. According to Art. 7(1): (1) "The Nepali language written in Devanagiri script shall be the language of official business in Nepal.”

2

Links to all sites last visited 2 March 2016