Constitution of the Republic of Singapore 1963, as amended to 2015


Citizenship and Nationality

(1) There shall be a status known as citizen of Singapore.
(2) The status of a citizen of Singapore may be acquired —
(a) by birth;
(b) by descent;
(c) by registration or, before the commencement of this Constitution, by enrolment; or
(d) by naturalisation. (Art. 120)

Citizenship and Nationality

(1) Subject to this Article, every person born in Singapore after 16th September 1963 shall be a citizen of Singapore by birth.
(2) A person shall not be a citizen of Singapore by virtue of clause (1) if at the time of his birth —
(a) his father, not being a citizen of Singapore, possessed such immunity from suit and legal process as is accorded to an envoy of a sovereign power accredited to the President;
(b) his father was an enemy alien and the birth occurred in a place then under the occupation of the enemy; or (c) Neither of his parents was a citizen of Singapore.
(3) Notwithstanding clause (2)(c), the Government may, where it considers it just and fair and having regard to all the circumstances prevailing at the time of the application, confer citizenship upon a person born in Singapore. (Art. 121)

Citizenship and Nationality

(1) Subject to clauses (2) and (3), a person born outside Singapore after 16th September 1963 shall be a citizen of Singapore by descent if, at the time of his birth —
(a) where the person is born before the date of commencement of section 7 of the Constitution of the Republic of Singapore (Amendment) Act 2004, his father is a citizen of Singapore, by birth or registration; and
(b) where the person is born on or after the date of commencement of section 7 of the Constitution of the Republic of Singapore (Amendment) Act 2004, either his father or mother is a citizen of Singapore, by birth, registration or descent.
(2) A person born outside Singapore shall not be a citizen of Singapore by descent by virtue of clause (1) unless —
(a) his birth is registered in the prescribed manner at the Registry of Citizens or at a diplomatic or consular mission of Singapore within one year, or such longer period as the Government permits, after its occurrence; and
(b) he would not acquire the citizenship of the country in which he was born by reason of his birth in that country where —
(i) in the case of a person born before the date of commencement of section 7 of the Constitution of the Republic of Singapore (Amendment) Act 2004, his father is a citizen of Singapore by registration at the time of his birth; or
(ii) In the case of a person born on or after the date of commencement of section 7 of the Constitution of the Republic of Singapore (Amendment) Act 2004, either his father or mother is a citizen of Singapore by registration at the time of his birth.
(3) Without prejudice to clause (2), a person born outside Singapore of a father or mother who is a citizen by descent at the time of his birth shall not be a citizen of Singapore by descent by virtue of clause (1) unless the parent who is the citizen by descent has lawfully resided in Singapore —
(a) for a period of, or for periods amounting in the aggregate to, not less than 5 years before that person’s birth; or
(b) for a period of, or for periods amounting in the aggregate to, not less than 2 years during the period of 5 years immediately preceding that person’s birth.
… (Art. 122)

Citizenship and Nationality

(1) Subject to the provisions of this Constitution, any person resident in Singapore of or over the age of 21 years may, on application being made therefor in the prescribed form, be registered as a citizen of Singapore if he satisfies the Government that he —
(a) is of good character;
(b) has resided in Singapore throughout the 12 months immediately preceding the date of his application;
(c) has during the 12 years immediately preceding the date of his application resided in Singapore for periods amounting in the aggregate to not less than 10 years: Provided that the Government may exempt any applicant from compliance with this paragraph —
(i) where such applicant has during the 6 years immediately preceding the date of his application resided in Singapore for periods amounting in the aggregate to not less than 5 years; or
(ii) where in any special case the Government considers fit to confer citizenship upon such applicant;
(d) intends to reside permanently in Singapore; and
(e) has an elementary knowledge of one of the following languages, namely, Malay, English, Mandarin and Tamil: Provided that the Government may exempt an applicant who has attained the age of 45 years or who is deaf or dumb from compliance with this paragraph.
(2) Subject to the provisions of this Constitution, any woman who is married to a citizen of Singapore may, on making application therefor in the prescribed manner, be registered as a citizen of Singapore if she satisfies the Government —
(a) that she has resided continuously in Singapore for a period of not less than 2 years immediately preceding the date of the application;
(b) that she intends to reside permanently in Singapore; and
(c) that she is of good character. (Art. 123)

Citizenship and Nationality

(1) Subject to clause (4), the Government may, upon application made by any person of or over the age of 21 years who is not a citizen of Singapore, grant a certificate of naturalisation to that person if the Government is satisfied —
(a) that he has resided in Singapore for the required periods and intends, if the certificate is granted, to do so permanently;
(b) that he is of good character; and
(c) that he has an adequate knowledge of the national language.
… (Art. 127)

Citizenship and Nationality

(1) Any citizen of Singapore of or over the age of 21 years and of sound mind who is also or is about to become a citizen of another country may renounce his citizenship of Singapore by declaration registered by the Government, and shall upon such registration cease to be a citizen of Singapore.
(2) The Government may withhold the registration of a declaration under this Article —
(a) if the declaration is made during any war in which Singapore is engaged; or
(b) if the declaration is made by a person subject to the Enlistment Act (Cap. 93) unless he has —
(i) discharged his liability for full-time service under section 12 of that Act;
(ii) rendered at least 3 years of operationally ready national service under section 13 of that Act in lieu of such full-time service; or
(iii) complied with such conditions as may be determined by the Government.
(3) This Article applies to a woman under the age of 21 years who has been married as it applies to a person of or over that age. (Art. 128)

Citizenship and Nationality

(1) A citizen of Singapore who is a citizen by registration or by naturalisation shall cease to be such a citizen if he is deprived of his citizenship by an order of the Government made in accordance with this Article.

(6) The Government may, by order, deprive of her citizenship any woman who is a citizen of Singapore by registration under Article 123(2) if the Government is satisfied that the marriage by virtue of which she was registered has been dissolved, otherwise than by death, within the period of 2 years beginning with the date of the marriage.
… (Art. 129)

Citizenship and Nationality

Where a person has —
(a) renounced his citizenship; or
(b) been deprived of his citizenship under Article 129(2)(a) or 134(1)(a),
the Government may, by order, deprive of his citizenship any child of that person under the age of 21 years who has been registered as a citizen of Singapore pursuant to this Constitution and was so registered as being the child of that person or of that person’s wife or husband. (Art. 130)

Citizenship and Nationality

(1) The Government may, by order, deprive a citizen of Singapore of his citizenship if the Government is satisfied that —
(a) he has, while of or over the age of 18 years, at any time after 6th April 1960 acquired by registration, naturalisation or other voluntary and formal act (other than marriage) the citizenship of any country outside Singapore or having so acquired such citizenship before the age of 18 years continues to retain it after that age; or
(b) the citizen, being a woman who is a citizen of Singapore by registration under Article 123(2), has acquired the citizenship of any country outside Singapore by virtue of her marriage to a person who is not a citizen of Singapore.
… (Art. 134)

Citizenship and Nationality

(1) Where a person has been deprived of his citizenship or his enrolment as a citizen has been cancelled under the provisions of this Part, the Government may, by order, deprive of his citizenship or, as the case may be, cancel the enrolment of any child of that person under the age of 21 years who has been registered or enrolled as a citizen under the provisions of this Constitution or the Singapore Citizenship Ordinance 1957 (Ord. 35 of 1957) and was so registered or enrolled as being the child of that person or of that person’s wife or husband.
(2) No person shall be deprived of his citizenship under clause (1) unless the Government is satisfied that it is not conducive to the public good that he should continue to be a citizen; and no person shall be deprived of his citizenship under clause (1) if the Government is satisfied that as a result of such deprivation he would not be a citizen of any country. (Art. 137)

Citizenship and Nationality

6. Any notice to be given by the Minister to any person under Article 133(1) may be sent to that person at his last known address or, in the case of a person under the age of 18 years (not being a married woman) to his parent or guardian at the last known address of the parent or guardian; and if an address at which the notice may be sent to any person under this paragraph is not known and cannot after reasonable inquiry be ascertained, the notice may be given by publication in the Gazette.

15. (1) For the purposes of Part X, references to a person’s father or to his parent or to one of his parents shall, in relation to a person who is illegitimate, be construed as references to his mother.
… (Third Schedule)

Jurisdiction and Access

(1) The President may refer to a tribunal consisting of not less than 3 Judges of the Supreme Court for its opinion any question as to the effect of any provision of this Constitution which has arisen or appears to him likely to arise.
… (Art. 100)

Education

(1) Without prejudice to the generality of Article 12 [Equal Protection], there shall be no discrimination against any citizen of Singapore on the grounds only of religion, race, descent or place of birth —
(a) in the administration of any educational institution maintained by a public authority, and, in particular, the admission of pupils or students or the payment of fees; or
(b) In providing out of the funds of a public authority financial aid for the maintenance or education of pupils or students in any educational institution (whether or not maintained by a public authority and whether within or outside Singapore).
… (Art. 16)

Employment Rights and Protection

(2) Except as expressly authorised by this Constitution, there shall be no discrimination against citizens of Singapore on the ground only of religion, race, descent or place of birth in any law or in the appointment to any office or employment under a public authority or in the administration of any law relating to the acquisition, holding or disposition of property or the establishing or carrying on of any trade, business, profession, vocation or employment.
… (Art. 12)

Equality and Non-Discrimination

(1) All persons are equal before the law and entitled to the equal protection of the law.
(2) Except as expressly authorised by this Constitution, there shall be no discrimination against citizens of Singapore on the ground only of religion, race, descent or place of birth in any law or in the appointment to any office or employment under a public authority or in the administration of any law relating to the acquisition, holding or disposition of property or the establishing or carrying on of any trade, business, profession, vocation or employment.
(3) This Article does not invalidate or prohibit —
(a) any provision regulating personal law; or
(b) any provision or practice restricting office or employment connected with the affairs of any religion, or of an institution managed by a group professing any religion, to persons professing that religion. (Art. 12)

Indigenous Peoples

(1) The Legislature may, in order to ensure the representation in Parliament of Members from the Malay, Indian and other minority communities, by law make provision for —
(a) any constituency to be declared by the President, having regard to the number of electors in that constituency, as a group representation constituency to enable any election in that constituency to be held on a basis of a group of not less than 3 but not more than 6 candidates; and
(b) the qualifications, in addition to those in Article 44, of persons who may be eligible for any election in group representation constituencies, including the requirements referred to in clause (2).

(3) No provision of any law made pursuant to this Article shall be invalid on the ground of inconsistency with Article 12 or be considered to be a differentiating measure under Article 78.
(4) In this Article —

“person belonging to the Malay community” means any person, whether of the Malay race or otherwise, who considers himself to be a member of the Malay community and who is generally accepted as a member of the Malay community by that community;
… (Art. 39A)

Indigenous Peoples

(2) The Government shall exercise its functions in such manner as to recognise the special position of the Malays, who are the indigenous people of Singapore, and accordingly it shall be the responsibility of the Government to protect, safeguard, support, foster and promote their political, educational, religious, economic, social and cultural interests and the Malay language. (Art. 152)

Indigenous Peoples

Subject to the provisions of this Constitution, all persons of whatever race in the same grade of the service of the Government shall, subject to the terms and conditions of their employment, be treated impartially. (Art. 154)

Limitations and/or Derogations

(1) If an Act recites that action has been taken or threatened by any substantial body of persons, whether inside or outside Singapore —
(a) to cause, or to cause a substantial number of citizens to fear, organised violence against persons or property;
(b) to excite disaffection against the President or the Government;
(c) to promote feelings of ill-will and hostility between different races or other classes of the population likely to cause violence;
(d) to procure the alteration, otherwise than by lawful means, of anything by law established; or
(e) which is prejudicial to the security of Singapore,
any provision of that law designed to stop or prevent that action or any amendment to that law or any provision in any law enacted under clause (3) is valid notwithstanding that it is inconsistent with Article 9, 11, 12, 13 or 14, or would, apart from this Article, be outside the legislative power of Parliament.
… (Art. 149)

Limitations and/or Derogations

(5) (a) Subject to paragraph (b), no provision of any ordinance promulgated under this Article, and no provision of any Act which is passed while a Proclamation of Emergency is in force and which declares that the law appears to Parliament to be required by reason of the emergency, shall be invalid on the ground of inconsistency with any provision of this Constitution.
(b) Paragraph (a) shall not validate any provision inconsistent with —
(iii) the provisions of this Constitution relating to religion, citizenship or language.
… (Art. 150)

Minorities

(1) The Legislature may, in order to ensure the representation in Parliament of Members from the Malay, Indian and other minority communities, by law make provision for —
(a) any constituency to be declared by the President, having regard to the number of electors in that constituency, as a group representation constituency to enable any election in that constituency to be held on a basis of a group of not less than 3 but not more than 6 candidates; and
(b) the qualifications, in addition to those in Article 44, of persons who may be eligible for any election in group representation constituencies, including the requirements referred to in clause (2).

(3) No provision of any law made pursuant to this Article shall be invalid on the ground of inconsistency with Article 12 or be considered to be a differentiating measure under Article 78.
(4) In this Article —

“person belonging to the Malay community” means any person, whether of the Malay race or otherwise, who considers himself to be a member of the Malay community and who is generally accepted as a member of the Malay community by that community;
“person belonging to the Indian or other minority communities” means any person of Indian origin who considers himself to be a member of the Indian community and who is generally accepted as a member of the Indian community by that community, or any person who belongs to any minority community other than the Malay or Indian community. (Art. 39A)

Minorities

(1) There shall be a Presidential Council for Minority Rights which shall consist of —
(a) Chairman appointed for a period of 3 years; and
(b) not more than 20 members.
… (Art. 69)

Minorities

(1) It shall be the general function of the Councilto consider and report on such matters affecting persons of any racial or religious community in Singapore as may be referred to the Council by Parliament or the Government.
(2) A reference to the Council by Parliament may be made by the Speaker, and a reference to the Council by the Government may be made by a Minister. (Art. 76)

Minorities

(6) No Bill to which this Article applies shall be presented to the President for assent unless it is accompanied by a certificate under the hand of the Speaker stating that —
(a) in the opinion of the Council3 no provision of the Bill would, if enacted, be a differentiating measure4 … (Art. 78)

Minorities

(1) It shall be the responsibility of the Government constantly to care for the interests of the racial and religious minorities in Singapore.
(2) The Government shall exercise its functions in such manner as to recognise the special position of the Malays, who are the indigenous people of Singapore, and accordingly it shall be the responsibility of the Government to protect, safeguard, support, foster and promote their political, educational, religious, economic, social and cultural interests and the Malay language. (Art. 152)

Minorities

The Legislature shall by law make provision for regulating Muslim religious affairs and for constituting a Council to advise the President in matters relating to the Muslim religion. (Art. 153)

Minorities

Subject to the provisions of this Constitution, all persons of whatever race in the same grade of the service of the Government shall, subject to the terms and conditions of their employment, be treated impartially. (Art. 154)

Participation in Public Life and Institutions

(2) Except as expressly authorised by this Constitution, there shall be no discrimination against citizens of Singapore on the ground only of religion, race, descent or place of birth in any law or in the appointment to any office or employment under a public authority or in the administration of any law relating to the acquisition, holding or disposition of property or the establishing or carrying on of any trade, business, profession, vocation or employment.
… (Art. 12)

Political Rights and Association

1. Subject to clauses (2) and (3) –

(c) all citizens of Singapore have the right to form associations.
… (Art. 14)

Electoral Bodies

(1) There shall be a Presidential Elections Committee whose function is to ensure that candidates for the office of President have the qualifications referred to in paragraph (e) or (g)(iv) or both such paragraphs of Article 19(2), as the case may be.
… (Art. 18)

Head of State

(1) There shall be a President of Singapore who shall be the Head of State and shall exercise and perform such powers and functions as are conferred on the President by this Constitution and any other written law.
(2) The President shall be elected by the citizens of Singapore in accordance with any law made by the Legislature.
… (Art. 17)

Head of State

(1) No person shall be elected as President unless he is qualified for election in accordance with the provisions of this Constitution.
(2) A person shall be qualified to be elected as President if he —
(a) is a citizen of Singapore;
(b) is not less than 45 years of age;
(c) possesses the qualifications specified in Article 44 (2) (c) and (d);
(d) is not subject to any of the disqualifications specified in Article 45;
(e) satisfies the Presidential Elections Committee that he is a person of integrity, good character and reputation;
(f) is not a member of any political party on the date of his nomination for election; and
(g) has for a period of not less than 3 years held office —
(i) as Minister, Chief Justice, Speaker, Attorney-General, Chairman of the Public Service Commission, Auditor-General, Accountant-General or Permanent Secretary;
(ii) as chairman or chief executive officer of a statutory board to which Article 22A applies;
(iii) as chairman of the board of directors or chief executive officer of a company incorporated or registered under the Companies Act (Cap. 50) with a paid-up capital of at least $100 million or its equivalent in foreign currency; or
(iv) in any other similar or comparable position of seniority and responsibility in any other organisation or department of equivalent size or complexity in the public or private sector which, in the opinion of the Presidential Elections Committee, has given him such experience and ability in administering and managing financial affairs as to enable him to carry out effectively the functions and duties of the office of President.
… (Art. 19)

Government

(1) The executive authority of Singapore shall be vested in the President and exercisable subject to the provisions of this Constitution by him or by the Cabinet or any Minister authorized by the Cabinet.
… (Art. 23)

Government

(1) There shall be in and for Singapore a Cabinet which shall consist of the Prime Minister and such other Ministers as may be appointed in accordance with Article 25.
… (Art. 24)

Government

(1) The President shall appoint as Prime Minister a Member of Parliament who in his judgment is likely to command the confidence of the majority of the Members of Parliament, and shall, acting in accordance with the advice of the Prime Minister, appoint other Ministers from among the Members of Parliament: … (Art. 25)

Legislature

The legislative power of Singapore shall be vested in the Legislature which shall consist of the President and Parliament. (Art. 38)

Legislature

(1) The Legislature may, in order to ensure the representation in Parliament of Members from the Malay, Indian and other minority communities, by law make provision for —
(a) any constituency to be declared by the President, having regard to the number of electors in that constituency, as a group representation constituency to enable any election in that constituency to be held on a basis of a group of not less than 3 but not more than 6 candidates; and
(b) the qualifications, in addition to those in Article 44, of persons who may be eligible for any election in group representation constituencies, including the requirements referred to in clause (2).

(3) No provision of any law made pursuant to this Article shall be invalid on the ground of inconsistency with Article 12 or be considered to be a differentiating measure under Article 78. (4) In this Article —

“person belonging to the Malay community” means any person, whether of the Malay race or otherwise, who considers himself to be a member of the Malay community and who is generally accepted as a member of the Malay community by that community;
“person belonging to the Indian or other minority communities” means any person of Indian origin who considers himself to be a member of the Indian community and who is generally accepted as a member of the Indian community by that community, or any person who belongs to any minority community other than the Malay or Indian community. (Art. 39A)

Legislature

(1) Members of Parliament shall be persons qualified for election or for appointment in accordance with the provisions of this Constitution and elected in the manner provided by or under any law for the time being in force in Singapore or appointed in accordance with the provisions of the Fourth Schedule.
(2) A person shall be qualified to be elected or appointed as a Member of Parliament if —
(a) he is a citizen of Singapore;
(b) he is of the age of 21 years or above on the day of nomination;
(c) his name appears in a current register of electors;
(d) he is resident in Singapore at the date of his nomination for election and has been so resident for periods amounting in the aggregate to not less than 10 years prior to that date;
(e) he is able, with a degree of proficiency sufficient to enable him to take an active part in the proceedings of Parliament, to speak and, unless incapacitated by blindness or other physical cause, to read and write at least one of the following languages, that is to say, English, Malay, Mandarin and Tamil; and
(f) he is not disqualified from being a Member of Parliament under Article 45.
… (Art. 44)

Property, Inheritance and Land Tenure

(2) Except as expressly authorised by this Constitution, there shall be no discrimination against citizens of Singapore on the ground only of religion, race, descent or place of birth in any law or in the appointment to any office or employment under a public authority or in the administration of any law relating to the acquisition, holding or disposition of property or the establishing or carrying on of any trade, business, profession, vocation or employment.
… (Art. 12)

Protection from Violence

(1) No person shall be held in slavery.
(2) All forms of forced labour are prohibited, but Parliament may by law provide for compulsory service for national purposes.
… (Art. 10)

Public Institutions and Services

(1) The law applicable to any pension, gratuity or other like allowance (referred to in this Article as an award) granted to any public officer or to his widow, children, dependants or personal representatives shall be that in force on the relevant day or any later law not less favourable to the person concerned.
… (Art. 112)

Status of the Constitution

This Constitution is the supreme law of the Republic of Singapore and any law enacted by the Legislature after the commencement of this Constitution which is inconsistent with this Constitution shall, to the extent of the inconsistency, be void. (Art. 4)

Religious Law

The Legislature shall by law make provision for regulating Muslim religious affairs and for constituting a Council to advise the President in matters relating to the Muslim religion. (Art. 153)

Customary Law

(1) In this Constitution, unless it is otherwise provided or the context otherwise requires —

“law” includes written law and any legislation of the United Kingdom or other enactment or instrument whatsoever which is in operation in Singapore and the common law in so far as it is in operation in Singapore and any custom or usage having the force of law in Singapore;
… (Art. 2)

Citizenship and Nationality

English

(1) There shall be a status known as citizen of Singapore.
(2) The status of a citizen of Singapore may be acquired —
(a) by birth;
(b) by descent;
(c) by registration or, before the commencement of this Constitution, by enrolment; or
(d) by naturalisation. (Art. 120)

Citizenship and Nationality

English

(1) Subject to this Article, every person born in Singapore after 16th September 1963 shall be a citizen of Singapore by birth.
(2) A person shall not be a citizen of Singapore by virtue of clause (1) if at the time of his birth —
(a) his father, not being a citizen of Singapore, possessed such immunity from suit and legal process as is accorded to an envoy of a sovereign power accredited to the President;
(b) his father was an enemy alien and the birth occurred in a place then under the occupation of the enemy; or (c) Neither of his parents was a citizen of Singapore.
(3) Notwithstanding clause (2)(c), the Government may, where it considers it just and fair and having regard to all the circumstances prevailing at the time of the application, confer citizenship upon a person born in Singapore. (Art. 121)

Citizenship and Nationality

English

(1) Subject to clauses (2) and (3), a person born outside Singapore after 16th September 1963 shall be a citizen of Singapore by descent if, at the time of his birth —
(a) where the person is born before the date of commencement of section 7 of the Constitution of the Republic of Singapore (Amendment) Act 2004, his father is a citizen of Singapore, by birth or registration; and
(b) where the person is born on or after the date of commencement of section 7 of the Constitution of the Republic of Singapore (Amendment) Act 2004, either his father or mother is a citizen of Singapore, by birth, registration or descent.
(2) A person born outside Singapore shall not be a citizen of Singapore by descent by virtue of clause (1) unless —
(a) his birth is registered in the prescribed manner at the Registry of Citizens or at a diplomatic or consular mission of Singapore within one year, or such longer period as the Government permits, after its occurrence; and
(b) he would not acquire the citizenship of the country in which he was born by reason of his birth in that country where —
(i) in the case of a person born before the date of commencement of section 7 of the Constitution of the Republic of Singapore (Amendment) Act 2004, his father is a citizen of Singapore by registration at the time of his birth; or
(ii) In the case of a person born on or after the date of commencement of section 7 of the Constitution of the Republic of Singapore (Amendment) Act 2004, either his father or mother is a citizen of Singapore by registration at the time of his birth.
(3) Without prejudice to clause (2), a person born outside Singapore of a father or mother who is a citizen by descent at the time of his birth shall not be a citizen of Singapore by descent by virtue of clause (1) unless the parent who is the citizen by descent has lawfully resided in Singapore —
(a) for a period of, or for periods amounting in the aggregate to, not less than 5 years before that person’s birth; or
(b) for a period of, or for periods amounting in the aggregate to, not less than 2 years during the period of 5 years immediately preceding that person’s birth.
… (Art. 122)

Citizenship and Nationality

English

(1) Subject to the provisions of this Constitution, any person resident in Singapore of or over the age of 21 years may, on application being made therefor in the prescribed form, be registered as a citizen of Singapore if he satisfies the Government that he —
(a) is of good character;
(b) has resided in Singapore throughout the 12 months immediately preceding the date of his application;
(c) has during the 12 years immediately preceding the date of his application resided in Singapore for periods amounting in the aggregate to not less than 10 years: Provided that the Government may exempt any applicant from compliance with this paragraph —
(i) where such applicant has during the 6 years immediately preceding the date of his application resided in Singapore for periods amounting in the aggregate to not less than 5 years; or
(ii) where in any special case the Government considers fit to confer citizenship upon such applicant;
(d) intends to reside permanently in Singapore; and
(e) has an elementary knowledge of one of the following languages, namely, Malay, English, Mandarin and Tamil: Provided that the Government may exempt an applicant who has attained the age of 45 years or who is deaf or dumb from compliance with this paragraph.
(2) Subject to the provisions of this Constitution, any woman who is married to a citizen of Singapore may, on making application therefor in the prescribed manner, be registered as a citizen of Singapore if she satisfies the Government —
(a) that she has resided continuously in Singapore for a period of not less than 2 years immediately preceding the date of the application;
(b) that she intends to reside permanently in Singapore; and
(c) that she is of good character. (Art. 123)

Citizenship and Nationality

English

(1) Subject to clause (4), the Government may, upon application made by any person of or over the age of 21 years who is not a citizen of Singapore, grant a certificate of naturalisation to that person if the Government is satisfied —
(a) that he has resided in Singapore for the required periods and intends, if the certificate is granted, to do so permanently;
(b) that he is of good character; and
(c) that he has an adequate knowledge of the national language.
… (Art. 127)

Citizenship and Nationality

English

(1) Any citizen of Singapore of or over the age of 21 years and of sound mind who is also or is about to become a citizen of another country may renounce his citizenship of Singapore by declaration registered by the Government, and shall upon such registration cease to be a citizen of Singapore.
(2) The Government may withhold the registration of a declaration under this Article —
(a) if the declaration is made during any war in which Singapore is engaged; or
(b) if the declaration is made by a person subject to the Enlistment Act (Cap. 93) unless he has —
(i) discharged his liability for full-time service under section 12 of that Act;
(ii) rendered at least 3 years of operationally ready national service under section 13 of that Act in lieu of such full-time service; or
(iii) complied with such conditions as may be determined by the Government.
(3) This Article applies to a woman under the age of 21 years who has been married as it applies to a person of or over that age. (Art. 128)

Citizenship and Nationality

English

(1) A citizen of Singapore who is a citizen by registration or by naturalisation shall cease to be such a citizen if he is deprived of his citizenship by an order of the Government made in accordance with this Article.

(6) The Government may, by order, deprive of her citizenship any woman who is a citizen of Singapore by registration under Article 123(2) if the Government is satisfied that the marriage by virtue of which she was registered has been dissolved, otherwise than by death, within the period of 2 years beginning with the date of the marriage.
… (Art. 129)

Citizenship and Nationality

English

Where a person has —
(a) renounced his citizenship; or
(b) been deprived of his citizenship under Article 129(2)(a) or 134(1)(a),
the Government may, by order, deprive of his citizenship any child of that person under the age of 21 years who has been registered as a citizen of Singapore pursuant to this Constitution and was so registered as being the child of that person or of that person’s wife or husband. (Art. 130)

Citizenship and Nationality

English

(1) The Government may, by order, deprive a citizen of Singapore of his citizenship if the Government is satisfied that —
(a) he has, while of or over the age of 18 years, at any time after 6th April 1960 acquired by registration, naturalisation or other voluntary and formal act (other than marriage) the citizenship of any country outside Singapore or having so acquired such citizenship before the age of 18 years continues to retain it after that age; or
(b) the citizen, being a woman who is a citizen of Singapore by registration under Article 123(2), has acquired the citizenship of any country outside Singapore by virtue of her marriage to a person who is not a citizen of Singapore.
… (Art. 134)

Citizenship and Nationality

English

(1) Where a person has been deprived of his citizenship or his enrolment as a citizen has been cancelled under the provisions of this Part, the Government may, by order, deprive of his citizenship or, as the case may be, cancel the enrolment of any child of that person under the age of 21 years who has been registered or enrolled as a citizen under the provisions of this Constitution or the Singapore Citizenship Ordinance 1957 (Ord. 35 of 1957) and was so registered or enrolled as being the child of that person or of that person’s wife or husband.
(2) No person shall be deprived of his citizenship under clause (1) unless the Government is satisfied that it is not conducive to the public good that he should continue to be a citizen; and no person shall be deprived of his citizenship under clause (1) if the Government is satisfied that as a result of such deprivation he would not be a citizen of any country. (Art. 137)

Citizenship and Nationality

English

6. Any notice to be given by the Minister to any person under Article 133(1) may be sent to that person at his last known address or, in the case of a person under the age of 18 years (not being a married woman) to his parent or guardian at the last known address of the parent or guardian; and if an address at which the notice may be sent to any person under this paragraph is not known and cannot after reasonable inquiry be ascertained, the notice may be given by publication in the Gazette.

15. (1) For the purposes of Part X, references to a person’s father or to his parent or to one of his parents shall, in relation to a person who is illegitimate, be construed as references to his mother.
… (Third Schedule)

Jurisdiction and Access

English

(1) The President may refer to a tribunal consisting of not less than 3 Judges of the Supreme Court for its opinion any question as to the effect of any provision of this Constitution which has arisen or appears to him likely to arise.
… (Art. 100)

Education

English

(1) Without prejudice to the generality of Article 12 [Equal Protection], there shall be no discrimination against any citizen of Singapore on the grounds only of religion, race, descent or place of birth —
(a) in the administration of any educational institution maintained by a public authority, and, in particular, the admission of pupils or students or the payment of fees; or
(b) In providing out of the funds of a public authority financial aid for the maintenance or education of pupils or students in any educational institution (whether or not maintained by a public authority and whether within or outside Singapore).
… (Art. 16)

Employment Rights and Protection

English

(2) Except as expressly authorised by this Constitution, there shall be no discrimination against citizens of Singapore on the ground only of religion, race, descent or place of birth in any law or in the appointment to any office or employment under a public authority or in the administration of any law relating to the acquisition, holding or disposition of property or the establishing or carrying on of any trade, business, profession, vocation or employment.
… (Art. 12)

Equality and Non-Discrimination

English

(1) All persons are equal before the law and entitled to the equal protection of the law.
(2) Except as expressly authorised by this Constitution, there shall be no discrimination against citizens of Singapore on the ground only of religion, race, descent or place of birth in any law or in the appointment to any office or employment under a public authority or in the administration of any law relating to the acquisition, holding or disposition of property or the establishing or carrying on of any trade, business, profession, vocation or employment.
(3) This Article does not invalidate or prohibit —
(a) any provision regulating personal law; or
(b) any provision or practice restricting office or employment connected with the affairs of any religion, or of an institution managed by a group professing any religion, to persons professing that religion. (Art. 12)

Indigenous Peoples

English

(1) The Legislature may, in order to ensure the representation in Parliament of Members from the Malay, Indian and other minority communities, by law make provision for —
(a) any constituency to be declared by the President, having regard to the number of electors in that constituency, as a group representation constituency to enable any election in that constituency to be held on a basis of a group of not less than 3 but not more than 6 candidates; and
(b) the qualifications, in addition to those in Article 44, of persons who may be eligible for any election in group representation constituencies, including the requirements referred to in clause (2).

(3) No provision of any law made pursuant to this Article shall be invalid on the ground of inconsistency with Article 12 or be considered to be a differentiating measure under Article 78.
(4) In this Article —

“person belonging to the Malay community” means any person, whether of the Malay race or otherwise, who considers himself to be a member of the Malay community and who is generally accepted as a member of the Malay community by that community;
… (Art. 39A)

Indigenous Peoples

English

(2) The Government shall exercise its functions in such manner as to recognise the special position of the Malays, who are the indigenous people of Singapore, and accordingly it shall be the responsibility of the Government to protect, safeguard, support, foster and promote their political, educational, religious, economic, social and cultural interests and the Malay language. (Art. 152)

Indigenous Peoples

English

Subject to the provisions of this Constitution, all persons of whatever race in the same grade of the service of the Government shall, subject to the terms and conditions of their employment, be treated impartially. (Art. 154)

Limitations and/or Derogations

English

(1) If an Act recites that action has been taken or threatened by any substantial body of persons, whether inside or outside Singapore —
(a) to cause, or to cause a substantial number of citizens to fear, organised violence against persons or property;
(b) to excite disaffection against the President or the Government;
(c) to promote feelings of ill-will and hostility between different races or other classes of the population likely to cause violence;
(d) to procure the alteration, otherwise than by lawful means, of anything by law established; or
(e) which is prejudicial to the security of Singapore,
any provision of that law designed to stop or prevent that action or any amendment to that law or any provision in any law enacted under clause (3) is valid notwithstanding that it is inconsistent with Article 9, 11, 12, 13 or 14, or would, apart from this Article, be outside the legislative power of Parliament.
… (Art. 149)

Limitations and/or Derogations

English

(5) (a) Subject to paragraph (b), no provision of any ordinance promulgated under this Article, and no provision of any Act which is passed while a Proclamation of Emergency is in force and which declares that the law appears to Parliament to be required by reason of the emergency, shall be invalid on the ground of inconsistency with any provision of this Constitution.
(b) Paragraph (a) shall not validate any provision inconsistent with —
(iii) the provisions of this Constitution relating to religion, citizenship or language.
… (Art. 150)

Minorities

English

(1) The Legislature may, in order to ensure the representation in Parliament of Members from the Malay, Indian and other minority communities, by law make provision for —
(a) any constituency to be declared by the President, having regard to the number of electors in that constituency, as a group representation constituency to enable any election in that constituency to be held on a basis of a group of not less than 3 but not more than 6 candidates; and
(b) the qualifications, in addition to those in Article 44, of persons who may be eligible for any election in group representation constituencies, including the requirements referred to in clause (2).

(3) No provision of any law made pursuant to this Article shall be invalid on the ground of inconsistency with Article 12 or be considered to be a differentiating measure under Article 78.
(4) In this Article —

“person belonging to the Malay community” means any person, whether of the Malay race or otherwise, who considers himself to be a member of the Malay community and who is generally accepted as a member of the Malay community by that community;
“person belonging to the Indian or other minority communities” means any person of Indian origin who considers himself to be a member of the Indian community and who is generally accepted as a member of the Indian community by that community, or any person who belongs to any minority community other than the Malay or Indian community. (Art. 39A)

Minorities

English

(1) There shall be a Presidential Council for Minority Rights which shall consist of —
(a) Chairman appointed for a period of 3 years; and
(b) not more than 20 members.
… (Art. 69)

Minorities

English

(1) It shall be the general function of the Councilto consider and report on such matters affecting persons of any racial or religious community in Singapore as may be referred to the Council by Parliament or the Government.
(2) A reference to the Council by Parliament may be made by the Speaker, and a reference to the Council by the Government may be made by a Minister. (Art. 76)

Minorities

English

(6) No Bill to which this Article applies shall be presented to the President for assent unless it is accompanied by a certificate under the hand of the Speaker stating that —
(a) in the opinion of the Council3 no provision of the Bill would, if enacted, be a differentiating measure4 … (Art. 78)

Minorities

English

(1) It shall be the responsibility of the Government constantly to care for the interests of the racial and religious minorities in Singapore.
(2) The Government shall exercise its functions in such manner as to recognise the special position of the Malays, who are the indigenous people of Singapore, and accordingly it shall be the responsibility of the Government to protect, safeguard, support, foster and promote their political, educational, religious, economic, social and cultural interests and the Malay language. (Art. 152)

Minorities

English

The Legislature shall by law make provision for regulating Muslim religious affairs and for constituting a Council to advise the President in matters relating to the Muslim religion. (Art. 153)

Minorities

English

Subject to the provisions of this Constitution, all persons of whatever race in the same grade of the service of the Government shall, subject to the terms and conditions of their employment, be treated impartially. (Art. 154)

Participation in Public Life and Institutions

English

(2) Except as expressly authorised by this Constitution, there shall be no discrimination against citizens of Singapore on the ground only of religion, race, descent or place of birth in any law or in the appointment to any office or employment under a public authority or in the administration of any law relating to the acquisition, holding or disposition of property or the establishing or carrying on of any trade, business, profession, vocation or employment.
… (Art. 12)

Political Rights and Association

English

1. Subject to clauses (2) and (3) –

(c) all citizens of Singapore have the right to form associations.
… (Art. 14)

Electoral Bodies

English

(1) There shall be a Presidential Elections Committee whose function is to ensure that candidates for the office of President have the qualifications referred to in paragraph (e) or (g)(iv) or both such paragraphs of Article 19(2), as the case may be.
… (Art. 18)

Head of State

English

(1) There shall be a President of Singapore who shall be the Head of State and shall exercise and perform such powers and functions as are conferred on the President by this Constitution and any other written law.
(2) The President shall be elected by the citizens of Singapore in accordance with any law made by the Legislature.
… (Art. 17)

Head of State

English

(1) No person shall be elected as President unless he is qualified for election in accordance with the provisions of this Constitution.
(2) A person shall be qualified to be elected as President if he —
(a) is a citizen of Singapore;
(b) is not less than 45 years of age;
(c) possesses the qualifications specified in Article 44 (2) (c) and (d);
(d) is not subject to any of the disqualifications specified in Article 45;
(e) satisfies the Presidential Elections Committee that he is a person of integrity, good character and reputation;
(f) is not a member of any political party on the date of his nomination for election; and
(g) has for a period of not less than 3 years held office —
(i) as Minister, Chief Justice, Speaker, Attorney-General, Chairman of the Public Service Commission, Auditor-General, Accountant-General or Permanent Secretary;
(ii) as chairman or chief executive officer of a statutory board to which Article 22A applies;
(iii) as chairman of the board of directors or chief executive officer of a company incorporated or registered under the Companies Act (Cap. 50) with a paid-up capital of at least $100 million or its equivalent in foreign currency; or
(iv) in any other similar or comparable position of seniority and responsibility in any other organisation or department of equivalent size or complexity in the public or private sector which, in the opinion of the Presidential Elections Committee, has given him such experience and ability in administering and managing financial affairs as to enable him to carry out effectively the functions and duties of the office of President.
… (Art. 19)

Government

English

(1) The executive authority of Singapore shall be vested in the President and exercisable subject to the provisions of this Constitution by him or by the Cabinet or any Minister authorized by the Cabinet.
… (Art. 23)

Government

English

(1) There shall be in and for Singapore a Cabinet which shall consist of the Prime Minister and such other Ministers as may be appointed in accordance with Article 25.
… (Art. 24)

Government

English

(1) The President shall appoint as Prime Minister a Member of Parliament who in his judgment is likely to command the confidence of the majority of the Members of Parliament, and shall, acting in accordance with the advice of the Prime Minister, appoint other Ministers from among the Members of Parliament: … (Art. 25)

Legislature

English

The legislative power of Singapore shall be vested in the Legislature which shall consist of the President and Parliament. (Art. 38)

Legislature

English

(1) The Legislature may, in order to ensure the representation in Parliament of Members from the Malay, Indian and other minority communities, by law make provision for —
(a) any constituency to be declared by the President, having regard to the number of electors in that constituency, as a group representation constituency to enable any election in that constituency to be held on a basis of a group of not less than 3 but not more than 6 candidates; and
(b) the qualifications, in addition to those in Article 44, of persons who may be eligible for any election in group representation constituencies, including the requirements referred to in clause (2).

(3) No provision of any law made pursuant to this Article shall be invalid on the ground of inconsistency with Article 12 or be considered to be a differentiating measure under Article 78. (4) In this Article —

“person belonging to the Malay community” means any person, whether of the Malay race or otherwise, who considers himself to be a member of the Malay community and who is generally accepted as a member of the Malay community by that community;
“person belonging to the Indian or other minority communities” means any person of Indian origin who considers himself to be a member of the Indian community and who is generally accepted as a member of the Indian community by that community, or any person who belongs to any minority community other than the Malay or Indian community. (Art. 39A)

Legislature

English

(1) Members of Parliament shall be persons qualified for election or for appointment in accordance with the provisions of this Constitution and elected in the manner provided by or under any law for the time being in force in Singapore or appointed in accordance with the provisions of the Fourth Schedule.
(2) A person shall be qualified to be elected or appointed as a Member of Parliament if —
(a) he is a citizen of Singapore;
(b) he is of the age of 21 years or above on the day of nomination;
(c) his name appears in a current register of electors;
(d) he is resident in Singapore at the date of his nomination for election and has been so resident for periods amounting in the aggregate to not less than 10 years prior to that date;
(e) he is able, with a degree of proficiency sufficient to enable him to take an active part in the proceedings of Parliament, to speak and, unless incapacitated by blindness or other physical cause, to read and write at least one of the following languages, that is to say, English, Malay, Mandarin and Tamil; and
(f) he is not disqualified from being a Member of Parliament under Article 45.
… (Art. 44)

Property, Inheritance and Land Tenure

English

(2) Except as expressly authorised by this Constitution, there shall be no discrimination against citizens of Singapore on the ground only of religion, race, descent or place of birth in any law or in the appointment to any office or employment under a public authority or in the administration of any law relating to the acquisition, holding or disposition of property or the establishing or carrying on of any trade, business, profession, vocation or employment.
… (Art. 12)

Protection from Violence

English

(1) No person shall be held in slavery.
(2) All forms of forced labour are prohibited, but Parliament may by law provide for compulsory service for national purposes.
… (Art. 10)

Public Institutions and Services

English

(1) The law applicable to any pension, gratuity or other like allowance (referred to in this Article as an award) granted to any public officer or to his widow, children, dependants or personal representatives shall be that in force on the relevant day or any later law not less favourable to the person concerned.
… (Art. 112)

Status of the Constitution

English

This Constitution is the supreme law of the Republic of Singapore and any law enacted by the Legislature after the commencement of this Constitution which is inconsistent with this Constitution shall, to the extent of the inconsistency, be void. (Art. 4)

Religious Law

English

The Legislature shall by law make provision for regulating Muslim religious affairs and for constituting a Council to advise the President in matters relating to the Muslim religion. (Art. 153)

Customary Law

English

(1) In this Constitution, unless it is otherwise provided or the context otherwise requires —

“law” includes written law and any legislation of the United Kingdom or other enactment or instrument whatsoever which is in operation in Singapore and the common law in so far as it is in operation in Singapore and any custom or usage having the force of law in Singapore;
… (Art. 2)

1

Links to all sites last visited 2 March 2016

2

Presidential Council for Minority Rights established under Art. 69. Refer to Art. 68.

3,4

3 - Presidential Council for Minority Rights established under Art. 69.
4 - Refer to Art. 68: “In this Part, unless the context otherwise requires- …“differentiating measure” means any measure which is, or is likely in its practical application to be, disadvantageous to persons of any racial or religious community and not equally disadvantageous to persons of other such communities, either directly by prejudicing persons of that community or indirectly by giving advantage to persons of another community; …”