Constitution of the Republic of Kenya 2010


Affirmative Action (Broadly)

(1) Every person is equal before the law and has the right to equal protection and equal benefit of the law.
(2) Equality includes the full and equal enjoyment of all rights and fundamental freedoms.
(3) Women and men have the right to equal treatment, including the right to equal opportunities in political, economic, cultural and social spheres.
(4) The State shall not discriminate directly or indirectly against any person on any ground, including race, sex, pregnancy, marital status, health status, ethnic or social origin, colour, age, disability, religion, conscience, belief, culture, dress, language or birth.
(5) A person shall not discriminate directly or indirectly against another person on any of the grounds specified or contemplated in clause (4).
(6) To give full effect to the realisation of the rights guaranteed under this Article, the State shall take legislative and other measures, including affirmative action3 programmes and policies designed to redress any disadvantage suffered by individuals or groups because of past discrimination.
(7) Any measure taken under clause (6) shall adequately provide for any benefits to be on the basis of genuine need.
(8) In addition to the measures contemplated in clause (6), the State shall take legislative and other measures to implement the principle that not more than two-thirds of the members of elective or appointive bodies shall be of the same gender. (Art. 27)

Affirmative Action (Broadly)

Parliament shall enact legislation to promote the representation in Parliament of—
(a) women;
(b) persons with disabilities;
(c) youth;
(d) ethnic and other minorities; and
(e) marginalised communities. (Art. 100)

Affirmative Action (Broadly)

(1) The Judicial Service Commission shall promote and facilitate the independence and accountability of the judiciary and the efficient, effective and transparent administration of justice …
(2) In the performance of its functions, the Commission shall be guided by the following—
...
(b) the promotion of gender equality. (Art. 172)

Affirmative Action (Broadly)


(11) The chairperson and vice-chairperson of a commission4 shall not be of the same gender.
… (Art. 250)

Citizenship and Nationality

(1) Every person who was a citizen immediately before the effective date retains the same citizenship status as of that date.
(2) Citizenship may be acquired by birth or registration.
(3) Citizenship is not lost through marriage or the dissolution of marriage. (Art. 13)

Citizenship and Nationality

(1) A person is a citizen by birth if on the day of the person’s birth, whether or not the person is born in Kenya, either the mother or father of the person is a citizen.
(2) Clause (1) applies equally to a person born before the effective date, whether or not the person was born in Kenya, if either the mother or father of the person is or was a citizen.
(3) Parliament may enact legislation limiting the effect of clauses (1) and (2) on the descendents of Kenyan citizens who are born outside Kenya.
(4) A child found in Kenya who is, or appears to be, less than eight years of age, and whose nationality and parents are not known, is presumed to be a citizen by birth.
(5) A person who is a Kenyan citizen by birth and who has ceased to be a Kenyan citizen because the person acquired citizenship of another country, is entitled on application to regain Kenyan citizenship. (Art. 14)

Citizenship and Nationality

(1) A person who has been married to a citizen for a period of at least seven years is entitled on application to be registered as a citizen.
(2) A person who has been lawfully resident in Kenya for a continuous period of at least seven years, and who satisfies the conditions prescribed by an Act of Parliament, may apply to be registered as a citizen.
(3) A child who is not a citizen, but is adopted by a citizen, is entitled on application to be registered as a citizen.
(4) Parliament shall enact legislation establishing conditions on which citizenship may be granted to individuals who are citizens of other countries.
… (Art. 15)

Citizenship and Nationality

A citizen by birth does not lose citizenship by acquiring the citizenship of another country. (Art. 16)

Citizenship and Nationality

...
(2) The citizenship of a person who was presumed to be a citizen by birth, as contemplated in Article 14(4), may be revoked if—
(a) the citizenship was acquired by fraud, false representation or concealment of any material fact by any person;
(b) the nationality or parentage of the person becomes known, and reveals that the person was a citizen of another country; or
(c) the age of the person becomes known, and reveals that the person was older than eight years when found in Kenya. (Art. 17)

Citizenship and Nationality

Parliament shall enact legislation—
(a) prescribing procedures by which a person may become a citizen;

(e) prescribing procedures for revocation of citizenship;

(g) generally giving effect to the provisions of this Chapter.
… (Art. 18)

Citizenship and Nationality


3. ... citizenship.
… (Fourth Schedule - Distribution of Functions between the National Government and the County Governments, Part 1 – National Government)

Jurisdiction and Access

...
(4) Appeals shall lie from the Court of Appeal to the Supreme Court—
(a) as of right in any case involving the interpretation or application of this Constitution;
(b) in any other case in which the Supreme Court, or the Court of Appeal, certifies that a matter of general public importance is involved, subject to clause (5).
… (Art. 163)

Jurisdiction and Access

...
(3) Subject to clause (5), the High Court shall have—

(d) jurisdiction to hear any question respecting the interpretation of this Constitution including the determination of—
(i) the question whether any law is inconsistent with or in contravention of this Constitution;
(ii) the question whether anything said to be done under the authority of this Constitution or of any law is inconsistent with, or in contravention of, this Constitution;
(iii) any matter relating to constitutional powers of State organs in respect of county governments and any matter relating to the constitutional relationship between the levels of government;
(iv) a question relating to conflict of laws under Article 191;
… (Art. 165)

Jurisdiction and Access

(1) Every person has the right to institute court proceedings, claiming that this Constitution has been contravened, or is threatened with contravention.
(2) In addition to a person acting in their own interest, court proceedings under clause (1) may be instituted by—
(a) a person acting on behalf of another person who cannot act in their own name;
(b) a person acting as a member of, or in the interest of, a group or class of persons;
(c) a person acting in the public interest; or
(d) an association acting in the interest of one or more of its members. (Art. 258)

Education

(1) Every person has the right—

(f) to education.
… (Art. 43)

Education

(1) Every child has the right—

(b) to free and compulsory basic education;
… (Art. 53)

Education

The State shall take measures, including affirmative action programmes, to ensure that the youth—
(a) access relevant education and training;
… (Art. 55)

Education

...
15. Education policy, standards, curricula, examinations and the granting of university charters.
16. Universities, tertiary educational institutions and other institutions of research and higher learning and primary schools, special education, secondary schools and special education institutions.
… (Fourth Schedule - Distribution of Functions between the National Government and the County Governments, Part 1 – National Government)

Employment Rights and Protection

(1) Every person has the right to fair labour practices.
(2) Every worker has the right—
(a) to fair remuneration;
(b) to reasonable working conditions;
… (Art. 41)

Employment Rights and Protection


13. Labour standards.
… (Fourth Schedule - Distribution of Functions between the National Government and the County Governments, Part 1 – National Government)

Equality and Non-Discrimination

We, the people of Kenya - …
RECOGNISING the aspirations of all Kenyans for a government based on the essential values of human rights, equality, freedom, democracy, social justice and the rule of law:
… (Preamble)

Equality and Non-Discrimination

(1) The national values and principles of governance in this Article bind all State organs, State officers, public officers and all persons whenever any of them—
(a) applies or interprets this Constitution;
(b) enacts, applies or interprets any law; or
(c) makes or implements public policy decisions.
(2) The national values and principles of governance include—

(b) human dignity, equity, social justice, inclusiveness, equality, human rights, non-discrimination and protection of the marginalised;
… (Art. 10)

Equality and Non-Discrimination

(1) Every person is equal before the law and has the right to equal protection and equal benefit of the law.
(2) Equality includes the full and equal enjoyment of all rights and fundamental freedoms.
(3) Women and men have the right to equal treatment, including the right to equal opportunities in political, economic, cultural and social spheres.
(4) The State shall not discriminate directly or indirectly against any person on any ground, including race, sex, pregnancy, marital status, health status, ethnic or social origin, colour, age, disability, religion, conscience, belief, culture, dress, language or birth.
(5) A person shall not discriminate directly or indirectly against another person on any of the grounds specified or contemplated in clause (4).
(6) To give full effect to the realisation of the rights guaranteed under this Article, the State shall take legislative and other measures, including affirmative action5 programmes and policies designed to redress any disadvantage suffered by individuals or groups because of past discrimination.
(7) Any measure taken under clause (6) shall adequately provide for any benefits to be on the basis of genuine need.
(8) In addition to the measures contemplated in clause (6), the State shall take legislative and other measures to implement the principle that not more than two-thirds of the members of elective or appointive bodies shall be of the same gender. (Art. 27)

Obligations of the State

We, the people of Kenya - …
RECOGNISING the aspirations of all Kenyans for a government based on the essential values of human rights, equality, freedom, democracy, social justice and the rule of law:
… (Preamble)

Obligations of the State

(1) The national values and principles of governance in this Article bind all State organs, State officers, public officers and all persons whenever any of them—
(a) applies or interprets this Constitution;
(b) enacts, applies or interprets any law; or
(c) makes or implements public policy decisions.
(2) The national values and principles of governance include—

(b) human dignity, equity, social justice, inclusiveness, equality, human rights, non-discrimination and protection of the marginalised;
… (Art. 10)

Obligations of the State

(1) The Bill of Rights is an integral part of Kenya’s democratic state and is the framework for social, economic and cultural policies.
(2) The purpose of recognising and protecting human rights and fundamental freedoms is to preserve the dignity of individuals and communities and to promote social justice and the realisation of the potential of all human beings.
(3) The rights and fundamental freedoms in the Bill of Rights—
(a) belong to each individual and are not granted by the State;
(b) do not exclude other rights and fundamental freedoms not in the Bill of Rights, but recognised or conferred by law, except to the extent that they are inconsistent with this Chapter; and
(c) are subject only to the limitations contemplated in this Constitution. (Art. 19)

Obligations of the State

(1) The Bill of Rights applies to all law and binds all State organs and all persons.
(2) Every person shall enjoy the rights and fundamental freedoms in the Bill of Rights to the greatest extent consistent with the nature of the right or fundamental freedom.
… (Art. 20)

Obligations of the State

(1) It is a fundamental duty of the State and every State organ to observe, respect, protect, promote and fulfil the rights and fundamental freedoms in the Bill of Rights.
(2) The State shall take legislative, policy and other measures, including the setting of standards, to achieve the progressive realisation of the rights guaranteed under Article 43.
(3) All State organs and all public officers have the duty to address the needs of vulnerable groups within society, including women, older members of society, persons with disabilities, children, youth, members of minority or marginalised communities, and members of particular ethnic, religious or cultural communities.
(4) The State shall enact and implement legislation to fulfil its international obligations in respect of human rights and fundamental freedoms. (Art. 21)

Obligations of the State

(1) This Constitution shall be interpreted in a manner that—
...
(b) advances the rule of law, and the human rights and fundamental freedoms in the Bill of Rights;
... (Art. 259)

Obligations of Private Parties

(1) The Bill of Rights applies to all law and binds all State organs and all persons.
… (Art. 20)

Judicial Protection

...
(3) In applying a provision of the Bill of Rights, a court shall—
(a) develop the law to the extent that it does not give effect to a right or fundamental freedom; and
(b) adopt the interpretation that most favours the enforcement of a right or fundamental freedom.
(4) In interpreting the Bill of Rights, a court, tribunal or other authority shall promote—
(a) the values that underlie an open and democratic society based on human dignity, equality, equity and freedom; and
(b) the spirit, purport and objects of the Bill of Rights.
(5) In applying any right under Article 43, if the State claims that it does not have the resources to implement the right, a court, tribunal or other authority shall be guided by the following principles—
(a) it is the responsibility of the State to show that the resources are not available;
(b) in allocating resources, the State shall give priority to ensuring the widest possible enjoyment of the right or fundamental freedom having regard to prevailing circumstances, including the vulnerability of particular groups or individuals; and
(c) the court, tribunal or other authority may not interfere with a decision by a State organ concerning the allocation of available resources, solely on the basis that it would have reached a different conclusion. (Art. 20)

Judicial Protection

(1) Every person has the right to institute court proceedings claiming that a right or fundamental freedom in the Bill of Rights has been denied, violated or infringed, or is threatened.
(2) In addition to a person acting in their own interest, court proceedings under clause (1) may be instituted by—
(a) a person acting on behalf of another person who cannot act in their own name;
(b) a person acting as a member of, or in the interest of, a group or class of persons;
(c) a person acting in the public interest; or
(d) an association acting in the interest of one or more of its members.
… (Art. 22)

Judicial Protection

(1) The High Court has jurisdiction, in accordance with Article 165, to hear and determine applications for redress of a denial, violation or infringement of, or threat to, a right or fundamental freedom in the Bill of Rights.
(2) Parliament shall enact legislation to give original jurisdiction in appropriate cases to subordinate courts to hear and determine applications for redress of a denial, violation or infringement of, or threat to, a right or fundamental freedom in the Bill of Rights.
(3) In any proceedings brought under Article 22, a court may grant appropriate relief, including—
(a) a declaration of rights;
(b) an injunction;
(c) a conservatory order;
(d) a declaration of invalidity of any law that denies, violates, infringes, or threatens a right or fundamental freedom in the Bill of Rights and is not justified under Article 24;
(e) an order for compensation; and
(f) an order of judicial review. (Art. 23)

Judicial Protection


(3) Subject to clause (5), the High Court shall have—

(b) jurisdiction to determine the question whether a right or fundamental freedom in the Bill of Rights has been denied, violated, infringed or threatened;
… (Art. 165)

National Human Rights Bodies

(1) There is established the Kenya National Human Rights and Equality Commission.
(2) The functions of the Commission are—
(a) to promote respect for human rights and develop a culture of human rights in the Republic;
(b) to promote gender equality and equity generally and to coordinate and facilitate gender mainstreaming in national development;
(c) to promote the protection, and observance of human rights in public and private institutions;
(d) to monitor, investigate and report on the observance of human rights in all spheres of life in the Republic, including observance by the national security organs;
(e) to receive and investigate complaints about alleged abuses of human rights and take steps to secure appropriate redress where human rights have been violated;
(f) on its own initiative or on the basis of complaints, to investigate or research a matter in respect of human rights, and make recommendations to improve the functioning of State organs;
(g) to act as the principal organ of the State in ensuring compliance with obligations under treaties and conventions relating to human rights;

(3) Every person has the right to complain to the Commission, alleging that a right or fundamental freedom in the Bill of Rights has been denied, violated or infringed, or is threatened.
(4) Parliament shall enact legislation to give full effect to this Part, and any such legislation may restructure the Commission into two or more separate commissions.
… (Art. 59)

National Human Rights Bodies


(11) The chairperson and vice-chairperson of a commission6 shall not be of the same gender.
… (Art. 250)

Indigenous Peoples


2. The national values and principles of governance include-

b. human dignity, equity, social justice, inclusiveness, equality, human rights, non-discrimination and protection of the marginalised;
… (Art. 10)

Indigenous Peoples

...
(3) All State organs and all public officers have the duty to address the needs of vulnerable groups within society, including women, older members of society, persons with disabilities, children, youth, members of minority or marginalised communities, and members of particular ethnic, religious or cultural communities.
… (Art. 21)

Indigenous Peoples

The State shall put in place affirmative action programmes designed to ensure that minorities and marginalised groups—
(a) participate and are represented in governance and other spheres of life;
(b) are provided special opportunities in educational and economic fields;
(c) are provided special opportunities for access to employment;
(d) develop their cultural values, languages and practices; and
(e) have reasonable access to water, health services and infrastructure. (Art. 56)

Indigenous Peoples

(1) Community land shall vest in and be held by communities identified on the basis of ethnicity, culture or similar community of interest.
(2) Community land consists of—
(a) land lawfully registered in the name of group representatives under the provisions of any law;
(b) land lawfully transferred to a specific community by any process of law;
(c) any other land declared to be community land by an Act of Parliament; and
(d) land that is—
(i) lawfully held, managed or used by specific communities as community forests, grazing areas or shrines;
(ii) ancestral lands and lands traditionally occupied by hunter-gatherer communities; or
(iii) lawfully held as trust land by the county governments, but not including any public land held in trust by the county government under Article 62(2).
… (Art. 63)

Indigenous Peoples

1. Every political party shall-

e. respect the right of all persons to participate in the political process, including minorities and marginalised groups;
… (Art. 91)

Indigenous Peoples

Parliament shall enact legislation to promote the representation in Parliament of—

(d) ethnic and other minorities; and
(e) marginalised communities. (Art. 100)

Indigenous Peoples

The objects of the devolution of government are—
...
(d) to recognise the right of communities to manage their own affairs and to further their development;
(e) to protect and promote the interests and rights of minorities and marginalised communities;
… (Art. 174)

Indigenous Peoples

The following principles shall guide all aspects of public finance in the Republic
...
(b) the public finance system shall promote an equitable society, and in particular—

(iii) expenditure shall promote the equitable development of the country, including by making special provision for marginalised groups and areas;
… (Art. 201)

Indigenous Peoples


(3) The national government may use the Equalisation Fund-

(b) either directly, or indirectly through conditional grants to counties in which marginalised communities exist.
… (Art. 204)

Indigenous Peoples


• “marginalised community” means-
(a) a community that, because of its relatively small population or for any other reason, has been unable to fully participate in the integrated social and economic life of Kenya as a whole;
(b) a traditional community that, out of a need or desire to preserve its unique culture and identity from assimilation, has remained outside the integrated social and economic life of Kenya as a whole;
(c) an indigenous community that has retained and maintained a traditional lifestyle and livelihood based on a hunter or gatherer economy; or
(d) pastoral persons and communities, whether they are-
(i) nomadic; or
(ii) a settled community that, because of its relative geographic isolation, has experienced only marginal participation in the integrated social and economic life of Kenya as a whole;
• “marginalised group” means a group of people who, because of laws or practices before, on, or after the effective date, were or are disadvantaged by discrimination on one or more of the grounds in Article 27 (4);
… (Art. 260)

Limitations and/or Derogations

...
(3) The rights and fundamental freedoms in the Bill of Rights—
(a) belong to each individual and are not granted by the State;
(b) do not exclude other rights and fundamental freedoms not in the Bill of Rights, but recognised or conferred by law, except to the extent that they are inconsistent with this Chapter; and
(c) are subject only to the limitations contemplated in this Constitution. (Art. 19)

Limitations and/or Derogations

(1) A right or fundamental freedom in the Bill of Rights shall not be limited except by law, and then only to the extent that the limitation is reasonable and justifiable in an open and democratic society based on human dignity, equality and freedom, taking into account all relevant factors including—
(a) the nature of the right or fundamental freedom;
(b) the importance of the purpose of the limitation;
(c) the nature and extent of the limitation;
(d) the need to ensure that the enjoyment of rights and fundamental freedoms by any individual does not prejudice the rights and fundamental freedoms of others; and
(e) the relation between the limitation and its purpose and whether there are less restrictive means to achieve the purpose.
(2) Despite clause (1), a provision in legislation limiting a right or fundamental freedom—
(a) in the case of a provision enacted or amended on or after the effective date, is not valid unless the legislation specifically expresses the intention to limit that right or fundamental freedom, and the nature and extent of the limitation;
(b) shall not be construed as limiting the right or fundamental freedom unless the provision is clear and specific about the right or freedom to be limited and the nature and extent of the limitation; and
(c) shall not limit the right or fundamental freedom so far as to derogate from its core or essential content.
(3) The State or a person seeking to justify a particular limitation shall demonstrate to the court, tribunal or other authority that the requirements of this Article have been satisfied.
(4) The provisions of this Chapter on equality shall be qualified to the extent strictly necessary for the application of Muslim law before the Kadhis’ courts, to persons who profess the Muslim religion, in matters relating to personal status, marriage, divorce and inheritance.
… (Art. 24)

Limitations and/or Derogations

Despite any other provision in this Constitution, the following rights and fundamental freedoms shall not be limited—
(a) freedom from torture and cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment;
(b) freedom from slavery or servitude;
(c) the right to a fair trial; and
(d) the right to an order of habeas corpus. (Art. 25)

Limitations and/or Derogations

...
(6) Any legislation enacted in consequence of a declaration of a state of emergency—
(a) may limit a right or fundamental freedom in the Bill of Rights only to the extent that—
(i) the limitation is strictly required by the emergency; and
(ii) the legislation is consistent with the Republic’s obligations under international law applicable to a state of emergency; and
(b) shall not take effect until it is published in the Gazette.
… (Art. 58)

Marriage and Family Life

We, the people of Kenya - …
COMMITTED to nurturing and protecting the well-being of the individual, the family, communities and the nation:
… (Preamble)

Marriage and Family Life

...
(4) The provisions of this Chapter7 on equality shall be qualified to the extent strictly necessary for the application of Muslim law before the Kadhis’ courts, to persons who profess the Muslim religion, in matters relating to personal status, marriage, divorce and inheritance.
… (Art. 24)

Marriage and Family Life

Every person has the right to privacy, which includes the right not to have—

(c) information relating to their family or private affairs unnecessarily required or revealed;
… (Art. 31)

Marriage and Family Life

(1) The family is the natural and fundamental unit of society and the necessary basis of social order, and shall enjoy the recognition and protection of the State.
(2) Every adult has the right to marry a person of the opposite sex, based on the free consent of the parties.
(3) Parties to a marriage are entitled to equal rights at the time of the marriage, during the marriage and at the dissolution of the marriage.
(4) Parliament shall enact legislation that recognises—
(a) marriages concluded under any tradition, or system of religious, personal or family law; and
(b) any system of personal and family law under any tradition, or adhered to by persons professing a particular religion, to the extent that any such marriages or systems of law are consistent with this Constitution. (Art. 45)

Marriage and Family Life

(1) Every child has the right

(e) to parental care and protection, which includes equal responsibility of the mother and father to provide for the child, whether they are married to each other or not;
… (Art. 53)

Marriage and Family Life

Parliament shall—
...
(c) enact legislation—

(iii) to regulate the recognition and protection of matrimonial property and in particular the matrimonial home during and on the termination of marriage;
… (Art. 68)

Marriage and Family Life

...
(5) The jurisdiction of a Kadhis’ court shall be limited to the determination of questions of Muslim law relating to personal status, marriage, divorce or inheritance in proceedings in which all the parties profess the Muslim religion and submit to the jurisdiction of the Kadhi’s courts. (Art. 170)

Minorities

...
(3) All State organs and all public officers have the duty to address the needs of vulnerable groups within society, including women, older members of society, persons with disabilities, children, youth, members of minority or marginalised communities, and members of particular ethnic, religious or cultural communities.
… (Art. 21)

Minorities

The State shall put in place affirmative action programmes designed to ensure that minorities and marginalised groups—
(a) participate and are represented in governance and other spheres of life;
(b) are provided special opportunities in educational and economic fields;
(c) are provided special opportunities for access to employment;
(d) develop their cultural values, languages and practices; and
(e) have reasonable access to water, health services and infrastructure. (Art. 56)

Minorities

(1) Community land shall vest in and be held by communities identified on the basis of ethnicity, culture or similar community of interest.
(2) Community land consists of—
(a) land lawfully registered in the name of group representatives under the provisions of any law;
(b) land lawfully transferred to a specific community by any process of law;
(c) any other land declared to be community land by an Act of Parliament; and
(d) land that is—
(i) lawfully held, managed or used by specific communities as community forests, grazing areas or shrines;
(ii) ancestral lands and lands traditionally occupied by hunter-gatherer communities; or
(iii) lawfully held as trust land by the county governments, but not including any public land held in trust by the county government under Article 62(2).
… (Art. 63)

Minorities

1. Every political party shall-

e. respect the right of all persons to participate in the political process, including minorities and marginalised groups;
… (Art. 91)

Minorities

Parliament shall enact legislation to promote the representation in Parliament of—

(d) ethnic and other minorities; and
(e) marginalised communities. (Art. 100)

Minorities

The objects of the devolution of government are—

(d) to recognise the right of communities to manage their own affairs and to further their development;
(e) to protect and promote the interests and rights of minorities and marginalised communities;
… (Art. 174)

Minorities

The following principles shall guide all aspects of public finance in the Republic-
...
(b) the public finance system shall promote an equitable society, and in particular—

(iii) expenditure shall promote the equitable development of the country, including by making special provision for marginalised groups and areas;
… (Art. 201)

Minorities


(3) The national government may use the Equalisation Fund-

(b) either directly, or indirectly through conditional grants to counties in which marginalised communities exist.
(Art. 204)

Minorities

(1) The values and principles of public service include—

(i) affording adequate and equal opportunities for appointment, training and advancement, at all levels of the public service, of—
...
(ii) the members of all ethnic groups;
… (Art. 232)

Minorities


• “marginalised community” means-
(a) a community that, because of its relatively small population or for any other reason, has been unable to fully participate in the integrated social and economic life of Kenya as a whole;
(b) a traditional community that, out of a need or desire to preserve its unique culture and identity from assimilation, has remained outside the integrated social and economic life of Kenya as a whole;
(c) an indigenous community that has retained and maintained a traditional lifestyle and livelihood based on a hunter or gatherer economy; or
(d) pastoral persons and communities, whether they are-
(i) nomadic; or
(ii) a settled community that, because of its relative geographic isolation, has experienced only marginal participation in the integrated social and economic life of Kenya as a whole;
• “marginalised group” means a group of people who, because of laws or practices before, on, or after the effective date, were or are disadvantaged by discrimination on one or more of the grounds in Article 27 (4); … (Art. 260)

Participation in Public Life and Institutions

...
(3) Women and men have the right to equal treatment, including the right to equal opportunities in political, economic, cultural and social spheres.

(6) To give full effect to the realisation of the rights guaranteed under this Article, the State shall take legislative and other measures, including affirmative action8 programmes and policies designed to redress any disadvantage suffered by individuals or groups because of past discrimination.
(7) Any measure taken under clause (6) shall adequately provide for any benefits to be on the basis of genuine need.
(8) In addition to the measures contemplated in clause (6), the State shall take legislative and other measures to implement the principle that not more than two-thirds of the members of elective or appointive bodies shall be of the same gender. (Art. 27)

Participation in Public Life and Institutions

(1) There is established the Parliamentary Service Commission.
(2) The Commission consists of—
(a) the Speaker of the National Assembly, as chairperson;
(b) a vice-chairperson elected by the Commission from the members appointed under paragraph (c);
(c) seven members appointed by Parliament from among its members of whom—
(i) four shall be nominated equally from both Houses by the party or coalition of parties forming the national government, of whom at least two shall be women; and
(ii) three shall be nominated by the parties not forming the national government, at least one of whom shall be nominated from each House and at least one of whom shall be a woman; and
(d) one man and one woman appointed by Parliament from among persons who are experienced in public affairs, but are not members of Parliament.
… (Art. 127)

Participation in Public Life and Institutions

(1) There is established the Judicial Service Commission.
(2) The Commission shall consist of—
(a) the Chief Justice, who shall be the chairperson of the Commission;
(b) one Supreme Court judge elected by the judges of the Supreme Court;
(c) one Court of Appeal judge elected by the judges of the Court of Appeal;
(d) one High Court judge and one magistrate, one a woman and one a man, elected by the members of the association of judges and magistrates;
(e) the Attorney-General;
(f) two advocates, one a woman and one a man, each of whom has at least fifteen years’ experience, elected by the members of the statutory body responsible for the professional regulation of advocates;
(g) one person nominated by the Public Service Commission; and
(h) one woman and one man to represent the public, not being lawyers, appointed by the President with the approval of the National Assembly.
… (Art. 171)

Participation in Public Life and Institutions

(1) The Judicial Service Commission shall promote and facilitate the independence and accountability of the judiciary and the efficient, effective and transparent administration of justice and shall—
(a) recommend to the President persons for appointment as judges;

(2) In the performance of its functions, the Commission shall be guided by the following—
(a) competitiveness and transparent processes of appointment of judicial officers and other staff of the judiciary; and
(b) the promotion of gender equality. (Art. 172)

Participation in Public Life and Institutions

(1) This Article applies to conflicts between national and county legislation in respect of matters falling within the concurrent jurisdiction of both levels of government.
(2) National legislation prevails over county legislation if—
(a) the national legislation applies uniformly throughout Kenya and any of the conditions specified in clause (3) is satisfied; …
(3) The following are the conditions referred to in clause (2)(a)––

(c) the national legislation is necessary for—

(v) the promotion of equal opportunity or equal access to government services;
... (Art. 191)

Participation in Public Life and Institutions

(1) The values and principles of public service include—

(i) affording adequate and equal opportunities for appointment, training and advancement, at all levels of the public service, of—
(i) men and women;
… (Art. 232)

Participation in Public Life and Institutions


(11) The chairperson and vice-chairperson of a commission9 shall not be of the same gender.
… (Art. 250)

Political Rights and Association


(3) Women and men have the right to equal treatment, including the right to equal opportunities in political, economic, cultural and social spheres.
… (Art. 27)

Political Rights and Association

(1) Every person has the right to freedom of association, which includes the right to form, join or participate in the activities of an association of any kind.
… (Art. 36)

Political Rights and Association

(1) Every citizen is free to make political choices, which includes the right—
(a) to form, or participate in forming, a political party;
(b) to participate in the activities of, or recruit members for, a political party; or
(c) to campaign for a political party or cause.
(2) Every citizen has the right to free, fair and regular elections based on universal suffrage and the free expression of the will of the electors for—
(a) any elective public body or office established under this Constitution; or
(b) any office of any political party of which the citizen is a member.
(3) Every adult citizen has the right, without unreasonable restrictions—
(a) to be registered as a voter;
(b) to vote by secret ballot in any election or referendum; and
(c) to be a candidate for public office, or office within a political party of which the citizen is a member and, if elected, to hold office. (Art. 38)

Political Rights and Association

The electoral system shall comply with the following principles—
(a) freedom of citizens to exercise their political rights under Article 38;
(b) not more than two-thirds of the members of elective public bodies shall be of the same gender;
… (Art. 81)

Political Rights and Association

(1) A person qualifies for registration as a voter at elections or referenda if the person—
(a) is an adult citizen;
(b) is not declared to be of unsound mind; and
(c) has not been convicted of an election offence during the preceding five years.
… (Art. 83)

National level

...
(6) To give full effect to the realisation of the rights guaranteed under this Article, the State shall take legislative and other measures, including affirmative action10 programmes and policies designed to redress any disadvantage suffered by individuals or groups because of past discrimination.
(7) Any measure taken under clause (6) shall adequately provide for any benefits to be on the basis of genuine need.
(8) In addition to the measures contemplated in clause (6), the State shall take legislative and other measures to implement the principle that not more than two-thirds of the members of elective or appointive bodies shall be of the same gender. (Art. 27)

National level

The electoral system shall comply with the following principles

(b) not more than two-thirds of the members of elective public bodies shall be of the same gender;

(d) universal suffrage based on the aspiration for fair representation and equality of vote;
… (Art. 81)

National level

(1) Elections for the seats in Parliament provided for under Articles 97(1)(c) and 98(1)(b), (c) and (d), and for the members of county assemblies under article 177(1)(b) and (c), shall be on the basis of proportional representation by use of party lists.
(2) The Independent Electoral and Boundaries Commission shall be responsible for the conduct and supervision of elections for seats provided for under clause (1) and shall ensure that—

(b) except in the case of the seats provided for under Article 98(1)(b), each party list comprises the appropriate number of qualified candidates and alternates between male and female candidates in the priority in which they are listed;
… (Art. 90)

National level

(1) The National Assembly consists of—

(b) forty-seven women, each elected by the registered voters of the counties, each county constituting a single member constituency;
… (Art. 97)

National level

(1) The Senate consists of—

(b) sixteen women members who shall be nominated by political parties according to their proportion of members of the Senate elected under clause (a) in accordance with Article 90;
(c) two members, being one man and one woman, representing the youth;
(d) two members, being one man and one woman, representing persons with disabilities;
… (Art. 98)

Subnational levels

County governments established under this Constitution shall reflect the following principles

(c) no more than two-thirds of the members of representative bodies in each county government shall be of the same gender. (Art. 175)

Subnational levels

A county assembly consists of—
(a) members elected by the registered voters of the wards, each ward constituting a single member constituency, on the same day as a general election of Members of Parliament, being the second Tuesday in August, in every fifth year;
(b) the number of special seat members necessary to ensure that no more than two-thirds of the membership of the assembly are of the same gender;
… (Art. 177)

Subnational levels

(1) Not more than two-thirds of the members of any county assembly or county executive committee shall be of the same gender.
… (Art. 197)

Political Parties

(1) Elections for the seats in Parliament provided for under Articles 97(1)(c) and 98(1)(b), (c) and (d), and for the members of county assemblies under article 177(1)(b) and (c), shall be on the basis of proportional representation by use of party lists.
(2) The Independent Electoral and Boundaries Commission shall be responsible for the conduct and supervision of elections for seats provided for under clause (1) and shall ensure that—
(a) each political party participating in a general election nominates and submits a list of all the persons who would stand elected if the party were to be entitled to all the seats provided for under clause (1), within the time prescribed by national legislation;
(b) except in the case of the seats provided for under Article 98 (1) (b), each party list comprises the appropriate number of qualified candidates and alternates between male and female candidates in the priority in which they are listed;
(c) except in the case of county assembly seats, each party list reflects the regional and ethnic diversity of the people of Kenya.
… (Art. 90)

Political Parties

(1) Every political party shall—
(a) have a national character as prescribed by an Act of Parliament;
(b) have a democratically elected governing body;
(c) promote and uphold national unity;
(d) abide by the democratic principles of good governance, promote and practise democracy through regular, fair and free elections within the party;
(e) respect the right of all persons to participate in the political process, including minorities and marginalised groups;
(f) respect and promote human rights and fundamental freedoms, and gender equality and equity;
(g) promote the objects and principles of this Constitution and the rule of law; and
(h) subscribe to and observe the code of conduct for political parties.
(2) A political party shall not—
(a) be founded on a religious, linguistic, racial, ethnic, gender or regional basis or seek to engage in advocacy of hatred on any such basis;
(b) engage in or encourage violence by, or intimidation of, its members, supporters, opponents or any other person;
(c) establish or maintain a paramilitary force, militia or similar organisation;
(d) engage in bribery or other forms of corruption; or
(e) except as is provided under this Chapter or by an Act of Parliament, accept or use public resources to promote its interests or its candidates in elections. (Art. 91)

Electoral Bodies

(1) There is established the Independent Electoral and Boundaries Commission.

(4) The Commission is responsible for conducting or supervising referenda and elections to any elective body or office established by this Constitution, and any other elections as prescribed by an Act of Parliament … (Art. 88)

Electoral Bodies

(1) Elections for the seats in Parliament provided for under Articles 97(1)(c) and 98(1)(b), (c) and (d), and for the members of county assemblies under article 177(1)(b) and (c), shall be on the basis of proportional representation by use of party lists.
(2) The Independent Electoral and Boundaries Commission shall be responsible for the conduct and supervision of elections for seats provided for under clause (1) and shall ensure that—
(a) each political party participating in a general election nominates and submits a list of all the persons who would stand elected if the party were to be entitled to all the seats provided for under clause (1), within the time prescribed by national legislation;
(b) except in the case of the seats provided for under Article 98 (1) (b), each party list comprises the appropriate number of qualified candidates and alternates between male and female candidates in the priority in which they are listed;
(c) except in the case of county assembly seats, each party list reflects the regional and ethnic diversity of the people of Kenya.
… (Art. 90)

Electoral Bodies


(11) The chairperson and vice-chairperson of a commission11 shall not be of the same gender.
… (Art. 250)

Head of State

(1) The President—
(a) is the Head of State and Government;
(b) exercises the executive authority of the Republic, with the assistance of the Deputy President and Cabinet Secretaries;

(2) The President shall-
(a) respect, uphold and safeguard this Constitution;
...
(e) ensure the protection of human rights and fundamental freedoms and the rule of law.
... (Art. 131)

Head of State

(1) The President shall be elected by registered voters in a national election conducted in accordance with this Constitution and any Act of Parliament regulating presidential elections.
… (Art. 136)

Head of State

(1) A person qualifies for nomination as a presidential candidate if the person—
(a) is a citizen by birth;
(b) is qualified to stand for election as a member of Parliament;
(c) is nominated by a political party, or is an independent candidate; and
(d) is nominated by not fewer than two thousand voters from each of a majority of the counties.
… (Art. 137)

Vice-President

(1) The Deputy President shall be the principal assistant of the President and shall deputise for the President in the execution of the President’s functions.
(2) The Deputy President shall perform the functions conferred by this Constitution and any other functions of the President as the President may assign.
(3) Subject to Article 134, when the President is absent or is temporarily incapacitated, and during any other period that the President decides, the Deputy President shall act as the President.
… (Art. 147)

Vice-President

(1) Each candidate in a presidential election shall nominate a person who is qualified for nomination for election as President, as a candidate for Deputy President.
(2) For the purposes of clause (1), there shall be no separate nomination process for the Deputy President and Article 137 (1) (d) shall not apply to a candidate for Deputy President.
(3) The Independent Electoral and Boundaries Commission shall declare the candidate nominated by the person who is elected as the President to be elected as the Deputy President.
… (Art. 148)

Government

(1) The national executive of the Republic comprises the President, the Deputy President and the rest of the Cabinet.
(2) The composition of the national executive shall reflect the regional and ethnic diversity of the people of Kenya. (Art. 130)

Government

(1) The Cabinet consists of—
(a) the President;
(b) the Deputy President;
(c) the Attorney-General; and
(d) not fewer than fourteen and not more than twenty-two Cabinet Secretaries.
(2) The President shall nominate and, with the approval of the National Assembly, appoint Cabinet Secretaries.
… (Art. 152)

Legislature

(1) Elections for the seats in Parliament provided for under Articles 97(1) (c) and 98 (1) (b), (c) and (d), and for the members of county assemblies under 177 (1) (b) and (c), shall be on the basis of proportional representation by use of party lists.
(2) The Independent Electoral and Boundaries Commission shall be responsible for the conduct and supervision of elections for seats provided for under clause (1) and shall ensure that—

(b) except in the case of the seats provided for under Article 98 (1) (b), each party list comprises the appropriate number of qualified candidates and alternates between male and female candidates in the priority in which they are listed;
… (Art. 90)

Legislature

(1) There is established a Parliament of Kenya, which shall consist of the National Assembly and the Senate.
(2) The National Assembly and the Senate shall perform their respective functions in accordance with this Constitution. (Art. 93)

Legislature

1. The legislative authority of the Republic is derived from the people and, at the national level, is vested in and exercised by Parliament.
… (Art. 94)

Legislature

(1) The National Assembly consists of—
(a) two hundred and ninety members, each elected by the registered voters of single member constituencies;
(b) forty-seven women, each elected by the registered voters of the counties, each county constituting a single member constituency;
(c) twelve members nominated by parliamentary political parties according to their proportion of members of the National Assembly in accordance with Article 90, to represent special interests including the youth, persons with disabilities and workers; and
(d) the Speaker, who is an ex officio member.
(2) Nothing in this Article shall be construed as excluding any person from contesting an election under clause (1) (a). (Art. 97)

Legislature

(1) The Senate consists of—
(a) forty-seven members each elected by the registered voters of the counties, each county constituting a single member constituency;
(b) sixteen women members who shall be nominated by political parties according to their proportion of members of the Senate elected under clause (a) in accordance with Article 90;
(c) two members, being one man and one woman, representing the youth;
(d) two members, being one man and one woman, representing persons with disabilities; and
(e) the Speaker, who shall be an ex officio member.
(2) The members referred to in clause (1) (c) and (d) shall be elected in accordance with Article 90.
(3) Nothing in this Article shall be construed as excluding any person from contesting an election under clause (1) (a). (Art. 98)

Legislature

(1) Unless disqualified under clause (2), a person is eligible for election as a member of Parliament if the person—
(a) is registered as a voter;
(b) satisfies any educational, moral and ethical requirements prescribed by this Constitution or by an Act of Parliament; and
(c) is nominated by a political party, or is an independent candidate who is supported—
(i) in the case of election to the National Assembly, by at least one thousand registered voters in the constituency; or
(ii) in the case of election to the Senate, by at least two thousand registered voters in the county.
… (Art. 99)

Legislature

Parliament shall enact legislation to promote the representation in Parliament of—
(a) women;
(b) persons with disabilities;
(c) youth;
(d) ethnic and other minorities; and
(e) marginalised communities. (Art. 100)

Property, Inheritance and Land Tenure

...
(4) The provisions of this Chapter12 on equality shall be qualified to the extent strictly necessary for the application of Muslim law before the Kadhis’ courts, to persons who profess the Muslim religion, in matters relating to personal status, marriage, divorce and inheritance.
… (Art. 24)

Property, Inheritance and Land Tenure

(1) Subject to Article 65, every person has the right, either individually or in association with others, to acquire and own property—
(a) of any description; and
(b) in any part of Kenya.
… (Art. 40)

Property, Inheritance and Land Tenure

(1) Land in Kenya shall be held, used and managed in a manner that is equitable, efficient, productive and sustainable, and in accordance with the following principles—
(a) equitable access to land;
(b) security of land rights;

(f) elimination of gender discrimination in law, customs and practices related to land and property in land; and
(g) encouragement of communities to settle land disputes through recognised local community initiatives consistent with this Constitution.
(2) These principles shall be implemented through a national land policy developed and reviewed regularly by the national government and through legislation. (Art. 60)

Property, Inheritance and Land Tenure

(1) All land in Kenya belongs to the people of Kenya collectively as a nation, as communities and as individuals.
… (Art. 61)

Property, Inheritance and Land Tenure

(1) Community land shall vest in and be held by communities identified on the basis of ethnicity, culture or similar community of interest.
(2) Community land consists of—
(a) land lawfully registered in the name of group representatives under the provisions of any law;
(b) land lawfully transferred to a specific community by any process of law;
(c) any other land declared to be community land by an Act of Parliament; and
(d) land that is—
(i) lawfully held, managed or used by specific communities as community forests, grazing areas or shrines;
(ii) ancestral lands and lands traditionally occupied by hunter-gatherer communities; or
(iii) lawfully held as trust land by the county governments, but not including any public land held in trust by the county government under Article 62(2).
… (Art. 63)

Property, Inheritance and Land Tenure

Private land consists of —
(a) registered land held by any person under any freehold tenure;
(b) land held by any person under leasehold tenure; and
(c) any other land declared private land under an Act of Parliament. (Art. 64)

Property, Inheritance and Land Tenure

Parliament shall—
(a) revise, consolidate and rationalise existing land laws;
(b) revise sectoral land use laws in accordance with the principles set out in Article 60 (1); and
(c) enact legislation—
(i) to prescribe minimum and maximum land holding acreages in respect of private land;
(ii) to regulate the manner in which any land may be converted from one category to another;
(iii) to regulate the recognition and protection of matrimonial property and in particular the matrimonial home during and on the termination of marriage;
(iv) to protect, conserve and provide access to all public land;
(v) to enable the review of all grants or dispositions of public land to establish their propriety or legality;
(vi) to protect the dependants of deceased persons holding interests in any land, including the interests of spouses in actual occupation of land;
… (Art. 68)

Property, Inheritance and Land Tenure

...
(5) The jurisdiction of a Kadhis’ court shall be limited to the determination of questions of Muslim law relating to personal status, marriage, divorce or inheritance in proceedings in which all the parties profess the Muslim religion and submit to the jurisdiction of the Kadhi’s courts.
… (Art. 170)

Protection from Violence

Despite any other provision in this Constitution, the following rights and fundamental freedoms shall not be limited—
(a) freedom from torture and cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment;
(b) freedom from slavery or servitude;
… (Art. 25)

Protection from Violence

Every person has the right to freedom and security of the person, which includes the right not to be—

(c) subjected to any form of violence from either public or private sources;
(d) subjected to torture in any manner, whether physical or psychological;
(e) subjected to corporal punishment; or
(f) treated or punished in a cruel, inhuman or degrading manner. (Art. 29)

Protection from Violence

(1) A person shall not be held in slavery or servitude.
(2) A person shall not be required to perform forced labour. (Art. 30)

Protection from Violence

...
(2) The right to freedom of expression does not extend to—
(a) propaganda for war;
(b) incitement to violence;
(c) hate speech; or
(d) advocacy of hatred that—
(i) constitutes ethnic incitement, vilification of others or incitement to cause harm; or
(ii) is based on any ground of discrimination specified or contemplated in Article 27(4).
… (Art. 33)

Protection from Violence

(1) Every child has the right—

(d) to be protected from abuse, neglect, harmful cultural practices, all forms of violence, inhuman treatment and punishment, and hazardous or exploitative labour;
… (Art. 53)

Protection from Violence

...
(2) A political party shall not—
(a) be founded on a religious, linguistic, racial, ethnic, gender or regional basis or seek to engage in advocacy of hatred on any such basis;
(b) engage in or encourage violence by, or intimidation of, its members, supporters, opponents or any other person;
… (Art. 91)

Public Institutions and Services

...
(3) All State organs and all public officers have the duty to address the needs of vulnerable groups within society, including women, older members of society, persons with disabilities, children, youth, members of minority or marginalised communities, and members of particular ethnic, religious or cultural communities.
… (Art. 21)

Public Institutions and Services

1. Every person has the right-

e. to social security; ...
3. The State shall provide appropriate social security to persons who are unable to support themselves and their dependants. (Art. 43)

Public Institutions and Services

(1) The family is the natural and fundamental unit of society and the necessary basis of social order, and shall enjoy the recognition and protection of the State.
... (Art. 45)

Public Institutions and Services

The objects of the devolution of government are-

f. to promote social and economic development and the provision of proximate, easily accessible services throughout Kenya;
… (Art. 174)

Public Institutions and Services

The following principles shall guide all aspects of public finance in the Republic—
...
(b) the public finance system shall promote an equitable society, and in particular—

(iii) expenditure shall promote the equitable development of the country, including by making special provision for marginalised groups and areas;
… (Art. 201)

Public Institutions and Services


9. Pre-primary education, village polytechnics, homecraft centres and childcare facilities.
… (Fourth Schedule - Distribution of Functions between the National Government and the County Governments, Part 2 – County Governments)

Sexual and Reproductive Rights

(1) Every person has the right to life.
(2) The life of a person begins at conception.
(3) A person shall not be deprived of life intentionally, except to the extent authorised by this Constitution or other written law.
(4) Abortion is not permitted unless, in the opinion of a trained health professional, there is need for emergency treatment, or the life or health of the mother is in danger, or if permitted by any other written law. (Art. 26)

Sexual and Reproductive Rights

(1) Every person has the right—
(a) to the highest attainable standard of health, which includes the right to health care services, including reproductive health care;
… (Art. 43)

Status of the Constitution

(1) This Constitution is the supreme law of the Republic and binds all persons and all State organs at both levels of government.

(4) Any law, including customary law, that is inconsistent with this Constitution is void to the extent of the inconsistency, and any act or omission in contravention of this Constitution is invalid.
... (Art. 2)

Status of the Constitution

(1) Every person has an obligation to respect, uphold and defend this Constitution.
… (Art. 3)

Status of the Constitution


(3) Traditional dispute resolution mechanisms shall not be used in a way that—
...
(c) is inconsistent with this Constitution or any written law. (Art. 159)

Status of International Law


(5) The general rules of international law shall form part of the law of Kenya.
(6) Any treaty or convention ratified by Kenya shall form part of the law of Kenya under this Constitution. (Art. 2)

Status of International Law


(4) The State shall enact and implement legislation to fulfil its international obligations in respect of human rights and fundamental freedoms. (Art. 21)

Status of International Law

(1) There is established the Kenya National Human Rights and Equality Commission.
(2) The functions of the Commission are—

(g) to act as the principal organ of the State in ensuring compliance with obligations under treaties and conventions relating to human rights;
… (Art. 59)

Religious Law

We, the people of Kenya -
ACKNOWLEDGING the supremacy of the Almighty God of all creation:
… (Preamble)

Religious Law

There shall be no State religion. (Art. 8)

Religious Law

...
(4) The provisions of this Chapter13 on equality shall be qualified to the extent strictly necessary for the application of Muslim law before the Kadhis’ courts, to persons who profess the Muslim religion, in matters relating to personal status, marriage, divorce and inheritance.
… (Art. 24)

Religious Law

...
(4) Parliament shall enact legislation that recognises—
(a) marriages concluded under any tradition, or system of religious, personal or family law; and
(b) any system of personal and family law under any tradition, or adhered to by persons professing a particular religion,
to the extent that any such marriages or systems of law are consistent with this Constitution. (Art. 45)

Religious Law

(1) There shall be a Chief Kadhi and such number, being not fewer than three, of other Kadhis as may be prescribed under an Act of Parliament.
(2) A person shall not be qualified to be appointed to hold or act in the office of Kadhi unless the person—
(a) professes the Muslim religion; and
(b) possesses such knowledge of the Muslim law applicable to any sects of Muslims as qualifies the person, in the opinion of the Judicial Service Commission, to hold a Kadhi’s court.
(3) Parliament shall establish Kadhis’ courts, each of which shall have the jurisdiction and powers conferred on it by legislation, subject to clause (5).
(4) The Chief Kadhi and the other Kadhis, or the Chief Kadhi and such of the other Kadhis (not being fewer than three in number) as may be prescribed under an Act of Parliament, shall each be empowered to hold a Kadhi’s court having jurisdiction within Kenya.
(5) The jurisdiction of a Kadhis’ court shall be limited to the determination of questions of Muslim law relating to personal status, marriage, divorce or inheritance in proceedings in which all the parties profess the Muslim religion and submit to the jurisdiction of the Kadhi’s courts. (Art. 170)

Customary Law


(4) Any law, including customary law, that is inconsistent with this Constitution is void to the extent of the inconsistency, and any act or omission in contravention of this Constitution is invalid.
… (Art. 2)

Customary Law

...
(4) Parliament shall enact legislation that recognises—
(a) marriages concluded under any tradition, or system of religious, personal or family law; and
(b) any system of personal and family law under any tradition, or adhered to by persons professing a particular religion,
to the extent that any such marriages or systems of law are consistent with this Constitution. (Art. 45)

Customary Law

(1) Land in Kenya shall be held, used and managed in a manner that is equitable, efficient, productive and sustainable, and in accordance with the following principles—

(f) elimination of gender discrimination in law, customs and practices related to land and property in land;
… (Art. 60)

Customary Law

...
(2) In exercising judicial authority, the courts and tribunals shall be guided by the following principles—

(c) alternative forms of dispute resolution including reconciliation, mediation, arbitration and traditional dispute resolution mechanisms shall be promoted, subject to clause (3);

(3) Traditional dispute resolution mechanisms shall not be used in a way that—
(a) contravenes the Bill of Rights;
(b) is repugnant to justice and morality or results in outcomes that are repugnant to justice or morality; or
(c) is inconsistent with this Constitution or any written law. (Art. 159)

Affirmative Action (Broadly)

(1) Watu wote ni sawa mbele ya sheria, na wanayo haki, bila ya ubaguzi wowote, kulindwa na kupata haki sawa mbele ya sheria.
(2) Haki sawa ni pamoja na kurufahia kikamilifu na kwa usawa haki zote na uhuru wa msingi.
(3) Wanawake na wanaume wana haki ya kutendewa kwa usawa, ikiwa ni pamoja na haki ya kuwa na fursa sawa katika nyanja za kisiasa, kiuchumi, kiutamaduni na kijamii.
(4) Serikali haitambagua mtu yeyote kwa dhahiri au si kwa dhahiri kwa msingi wowote ikiwa ni pamoja na mbari, jinsi, mimba, hali ya ndoa, hali ya afya, asili ya kikabila au kijamii, rangi, umri, ulemavu, dini, dhamiri, imani, utamaduni, mavazi, lugha au kuzaliwa.
(5) Mtu yeyote hatambagua mtu yeyote kwa dhahiri ama si kwa dhahiri kwa misingi yoyote iliyobaisnishwa katika ibara ya (4).
(6) Ili kutekeleza kikamilifu utekelezaji wa haki zilizohakikishwa chini ya Ibara hii, Serikali itachukua hatua za kisheria na hatua nyinginezo, pamoja na mipango na sera thabiti za utekelezaji zilizoundwa ili kufidia unyimwaji wa haki ambao uliwapata watu au kikundi cha watu kwa sababu ya ubaguzi wa zamani.
(7) Hatua yoyote inayochukuliwa chini ya ibara ya (6) itatoa kikamilifu maslahi kwa msingi wa hitaji la kweli.
(8) Pamoja na hatua zilizobainishwa katika ibara ya (6), Serikali itachukua hatua za kisheria na hatua nyinginezo ili kutekeleza kanuni ambayo itahakikisha kwamba washirika wa bodi wa kuchaguliwa au kuteuliwa wa jinsia moja hawatakuwa zaidi ya theluthi mbili. (Kifungu cha 27)

Affirmative Action (Broadly)

Bunge litatunga sheria ili kuimarisha uwakilishi Bungeni wa—
(a) wanawake;
(b) watu wenye ulemavu;
(c) vijana;
(d) kabila na watu wengine wenye uwakilishi mdogo katika jamii; na
(e) jamii zilizotengwa. (Kifungu cha 100)

Affirmative Action (Broadly)

(1) Tume ya Huduma ya Mahakama itakuza na kuwezesha uhuru na uwajibikaji wa mahakama na usimamizi wa haki wenye ufanisi na wenye matokeo yanayotarajiwa na wa uwazi ...
(2) Katika utekelezaji wa majukumu yake, Tume itaongozwa na mambo yafuatayo—
...
(b) uimarishaji wa usawa wa kijinsia. (Kifungu cha 172)

Affirmative Action (Broadly)


(11) Mwenyekiti na makamu mwenyekiti wa tume hawatakuwa wa jinsia moja.
… (Kifungu cha 250)

Citizenship and Nationality

(1) Kila mtu ambaye alikuwa raia muda mfupi kabla ya tarehe ya utekelezaji anabaki na hadhi iyo hiyo ya uraia hadi kufikia tarehe hiyo.
(2) Uraia unaweza kupatikana kwa kuzaliwa au kujiandikisha.
(3) Uraia haupotei kwa njia ya ndoa au kuvunjika kwa ndoa. (Kifungu cha 13)

Citizenship and Nationality

(1) Mtu ni raia kwa kuzaliwa ikiwa siku ya kuzaliwa mtu huyo, iwe mtu huyo amezaliwa Kenya au la, mama au baba wa mtu huyo ni raia.
(2) Ibara ya (1) inatumika sawa kwa mtu aliyezaliwa kabla ya tarehe ya utekelezaji, iwe mtu huyo alizaliwa Kenya au la, ikiwa mama au baba wa mtu huyo ni raia au alikuwa raia.
(3) Bunge linaweza kutunga sheria ili kuweka mipaka ya taathira ya ibara ya (1) na ya (2) kwa vizazi vya raia wa Kenya ambao wamezaliwa nje ya Kenya.
(4) Mtoto aliyepatikana nchini Kenya ambaye, au anaonekana kuwa na umri chini ya miaka minane, na ambaye utaifa na wazazi hawajulikani, anachukuliwa kuwa ni raia kwa kuzaliwa.
(5) Mtu ambaye ni raia wa Kenya kwa kuzaliwa na ameacha kuwa raia wa Kenya kwa sababu mtu huyo alipata uraia wa nchi nyingine, ana haki ya kutuma maombi ya kupata uraia wa Kenya. (Kifungu cha 14)

Citizenship and Nationality

(1) Mtu ambaye ameolewa na raia kwa muda wa angalau miaka saba ana haki ya kutuma maombi na kuandikishwa kuwa raia.
(2) Mtu ambaye amekaa kihalali nchini Kenya kwa kipindi kisichozidi miaka saba mfululizo, na ambaye anakidhi masharti yaliyowekwa na Sheria ya Bunge, anaweza kutuma maombi ili kuandikishwa kama raia.
(3) Mtoto ambaye si raia, lakini ameasiliwa na raia, ana haki ya kutuma maombi ya kuandikishwa kama raia.
(4) Bunge litatunga sheria ya kuweka masharti ambayo kwayo uraia unaweza kutolewa kwa watu ambao ni raia wa nchi zingine.
… (Kifungu cha 15)

Citizenship and Nationality

Raia kwa kuzaliwa haupotezi uraia kwa kupata uraia wa nchi nyingine. (Kifungu cha 16)

Citizenship and Nationality

...
(2) Uraia wa mtu ambaye alidhaniwa kuwa raia kwa kuzaliwa, kama ilivyobainishwa katika Kifungu cha 14 (4), unaweza kubatilishwa ikiwa—
(a) uraia huo ulipatikana kwa njia ya udanganyifu, utambulisho wa uongo au kuficha ukweli wowote halisi unaofanywa na yeyote
(b) utaifa au wazazi wa mtu huyo kujulikana, na kuonyesha ukweli kuwa mtu huyo alikuwa raia wa nchi nyingine; au
(c) umri wa mtu huyo kujulikana, na kuonyesha kuwa mtu huyo alikuwa na umri zaidi ya miaka minane alipokutwa Kenya. (Kifungu cha 17)

Citizenship and Nationality

Bunge litatunga sheria—
(a) ikielezea taratibu ambazo kwazo mtu anaweza kuwa raia;

(e) ikielezea taratibu za kufuta uraia;

(g) kwa ujumla itakayotekeleza vifungu vya Sura hii.
… (Kifungu cha 18)

Citizenship and Nationality


3. ... uraia.
… (Kiambatisho cha Nne - Mgawanyo wa Majukumu baina ya Serikaili ya Kitaifa na Serikili za Kaunti, Sehemu ya 1 - Serikali ya Kitaifa)

Jurisdiction and Access

...
(4) Rufaa itakatwa kutoka Mahakama ya Rufaa kwenda Mahakama Kuu-
(a) kama ilivyo kwa haki katika kesi yoyote inayohusisha ufafanuzi au matumizi ya Katiba hii;
(b) katika kesi nyingine yoyote ambayo Mahakama Kuu, au Mahakama ya Rufaa, inathibitisha kwamba suala la umuhimu kwa umma linahusika, kwa kuzingatia ibara ya (5).
… (Kifungu cha 163)

Jurisdiction and Access

...
(3) Kwa kuzingatia ibara ya (5), Mahakama Kuu itakuwa-

(d) mamlaka ya kusikiliza shauri lolote kuhusu ufafanuzi wa Katiba hii ikiwa ni pamoja na uamuzi wa-
(i) shauri kwamba iwapo sheria yoyote ipo kinyume au imevunja Katiba hii;
(ii) shauri kwamba iwapo kuna kitu chochote ambacho kimefanywa chini ya mamlaka ya Katiba hii au ya sheria yoyote kipo kinyume au kimevunja Katiba hii;
(iii) jambo lolote linalohusiana na nguvu ya kikatiba ya vyombo vya Serikali kuhusu serikali za kaunti na jambo lolote linalohusiana na uhusiano wa kikatiba kati ya ngazi za serikali;
(iv) shauri linalohusiana na mgongano wa sheria chini ya Kifungu cha 191;
… (Kifungu cha 165)

Jurisdiction and Access

(1) Kila mtu ana haki ya kufungua kesi mahakamani, akidai kwamba Katiba hii imevunjwa, au inatishiwa kuvunjwa.
(2) Pamoja na mtu kufanya kwa maslahi yake binafsi, kesi za mahakamani chini ya ibara ya (1) zinaweza kufunguliwa na-
(a) mtu anayechukua hatua kwa niaba ya mtu mwingine ambaye hawezi kuchukua hatua kwa jina lake;
(b) mtu anayechukua hatua kama mshiriki, au kwa maslahi ya kikundi au tabaka la watu;
(c) mtu anayechukua hatua kwa maslahi ya umma; au
(d) chama kinachochukua hatua kwa maslahi ya mwanachama wake mmoja au zaidi. (Kifungu cha 258)

Education

(1) Kila mtu ana haki—

(f) ya kupata elimu.
… (Kifungu cha 43)

Education

(1) Kila mtoto ana haki—

(b) ya kupata elimu ya msingi kwa lazima na bila malipo;
… (Kifungu cha 53)

Education

Serikali itachukua hatua, ikiwa ni pamoja na mipango thabiti ya utekelezaji, ili kuhakikisha kwamba vijana-
(a) wanapata elimu na mafunzo stahiki;
… (Kifungu cha 55)

Education

...
15. Sera ya elimu, viwango, mitaala, mitihani na usajili wa chuo kikuu.
16. Vyuo vikuu, taasisi za elimu ya juu na taasisi nyinginezo za utafiti na elimu ya juu na shule za msingi, elimu maalumu, shule za upili na taasisi za elimu maalumu.
… (Kiambatisho cha Nne - Mgawanyo wa Majukumu baina ya Serikaili ya Kitaifa na Serikili za Kaunti, Sehemu ya 1 - Serikali ya Kitaifa)

Employment Rights and Protection

(1) Kila mtu ana haki ya kufanya kazi kwa usawa.
(2) Kila mfanyakazi ana haki -
(a) ya kupata mshahara mzuri;
(b) ya kuwa na mazingira mazuri ya kufanya kazi;
… (Kifungu cha 41)

Employment Rights and Protection


13. Viwango vya kazi.
… (Kiambatisho cha Nne - Mgawanyo wa Majukumu baina ya Serikaili ya Kitaifa na Serikili za Kaunti, Sehemu ya 1 - Serikali ya Kitaifa)

Equality and Non-Discrimination

Sisi, wananchi wa Kenya - …
KWA KUTAMBUA matamanio ya Wakenya wote kuwa na serikali iliyojengwa katika tunu muhimu za haki za binadamu, usawa, uhuru, demokrasia, haki ya kijamii na utawala wa sheria:
... (Utangulizi)

Equality and Non-Discrimination

(1) Tunu za kitaifa na kanuni za utawala katika Kifungu hiki huvifunga vyombo vyote vya Serikali, maafisa wa Serikali, watumishi wa umma na watu wote wakati wowote pale ambapo yeyote kati ya hao-
(a) anatumia au kufafanua Katiba hii;
(b) anatunga, anatumia au anafafanua sheria yoyote; au
(c) anafanya au kutekeleza maamuzi ya sera ya umma.
(2) Tunu za kitaifa na kanuni za utawala ni pamoja na—

(b) utu wa binadamu, haki, haki ya kijamii, umoja, usawa, haki za binadamu, kutokuwa na ubaguzi na ulinzi kwa waliotengwa na jamii;
… (Kifungu cha 10)

Equality and Non-Discrimination

(1) Watu wote ni sawa mbele ya sheria, na wanayo haki, bila ya ubaguzi wowote, kulindwa na kupata haki sawa mbele ya sheria.
(2) Haki sawa ni pamoja na kurufahia kikamilifu na kwa usawa haki zote na uhuru wa msingi.
(3) Wanawake na wanaume wana haki ya kutendewa kwa usawa, ikiwa ni pamoja na haki ya kuwa na fursa sawa katika nyanja za kisiasa, kiuchumi, kiutamaduni na kijamii.
(4) Serikali haitambagua mtu yeyote kwa dhahiri au si kwa dhahiri kwa msingi wowote ikiwa ni pamoja na mbari, jinsi, mimba, hali ya ndoa, hali ya afya, asili ya kikabila au kijamii, rangi, umri, ulemavu, dini, dhamiri, imani, utamaduni, mavazi, lugha au kuzaliwa.
(5) Mtu yeyote hatambagua mtu yeyote kwa dhahiri ama si kwa dhahiri kwa misingi yoyote iliyobaisnishwa katika ibara ya (4).
(6) Ili kutekeleza kikamilifu utekelezaji wa haki zilizohakikishwa chini ya Kifungu hiki, Serikali itachukua hatua za kisheria na hatua nyinginezo, pamoja na mipango na sera thabiti za utekelezaji zilizoundwa ili kufidia unyimwaji wa haki ambao uliwapata watu au kikundi cha watu kwa sababu ya ubaguzi wa zamani.
(7) Hatua yoyote inayochukuliwa chini ya ibara ya (6) itatoa kikamilifu maslahi kwa msingi wa hitaji la kweli.
(8) Pamoja na hatua zilizobainishwa katika ibara ya (6), Serikali itachukua hatua za kisheria na hatua nyinginezo ili kutekeleza kanuni ambayo itahakikisha kwamba washirika wa bodi wa kuchaguliwa au kuteuliwa wa jinsia moja hawatakuwa zaidi ya theluthi mbili. (Kifungu cha 27)

Obligations of the State

Sisi, wananchi wa Kenya - …
KWA KUTAMBUA matamanio ya Wakenya wote kuwa na serikali iliyojengwa katika tunu muhimu za haki za binadamu, usawa, uhuru, demokrasia, haki ya kijamii na utawala wa sheria:
... (Utangulizi)

Obligations of the State

(1) Tunu za kitaifa na kanuni za utawala katika Kifungu hiki huvifunga vyombo vyote vya Serikali, maafisa wa Serikali, watumishi wa umma na watu wote wakati wowote pale ambapo yeyote kati ya hao-
(a) anatumia au kufafanua Katiba hii;
(b) anatunga, anatumia au anafafanua sheria yoyote; au
(c) anafanya au kutekeleza maamuzi ya sera ya umma.
(2) Tunu za kitaifa na kanuni za utawala ni pamoja na—

(b) utu wa binadamu, haki, haki ya kijamii, umoja, usawa, haki za binadamu, kutokuwa na ubaguzi na ulinzi kwa waliotengwa na jamii;
… (Kifungu cha 10)

Obligations of the State

(1) Sheria ya Haki za Binadamu ni sehemu muhimu ya serikali ya kidemokrasia ya Kenya na ni mwongozo wa sera za kijamii, kiuchumi na kiutamaduni.
(2) Madhumuni ya kutambua na kulinda haki za binadamu na uhuru wa msingi ni kulinda utu wa watu na jamii na kukuza haki ya kijamii na kuthamini umuhimu wa binadamu wote.
(3) Haki na uhuru wa msingi katika Sheria ya Haki za Binadamu-
(a) ni ya kila mtu na haitolewi na Serikali;
(b) haiondoi haki nyinginezo na uhuru wa msingi ambao haupo kwenye Sheria ya Haki za Binadamu, lakini hutambuliwa au hutolewa na sheria, isipokuwa kwa kiwango ambacho zipo kinyume cha Sura hii; na
(c) huzingatia tu mipaka iliyobainishwa katika Katiba hii. (Kifungu cha 19)

Obligations of the State

(1) Sheria ya Haki za Binadamu inahusu sheria zote na huvifunga vyombo vyote vya Serikali na watu wote.
(2) Kila mtu atanufaika na haki na uhuru wa msingi ulipo katika Sheria ya Haki za Binadamu kwa kiwango kikubwa kabisa sawasawa na asili ya haki yenyewe au uhuru wa msingi.
… (Kifungu cha 20)

Obligations of the State

(1) Ni jukumu la msingi la Serikali na kila chombo cha Serikali kuzingatia, kuheshimu, kulinda, kuhamasisha na kutimiza haki na uhuru wa msingi katika Sheria ya Haki za Binadamu.
(2) Serikali itachukua hatua za kisheria, kisera na hatua nyinginezo, ikiwa ni pamoja na kuweka viwango, ili kufikia utekelezaji endelevu wa haki zilizohakikishwa chini ya Kifungu cha 43.
(3) Vyombo vyote vya Serikali na watumishi wa umma wana wajibu wa kushughulikia mahitaji ya makundi yaliyopo katika mazingira hatarishi katika jamii, ikiwa ni pamoja na wanawake, wazee, watu wenye ulemavu, watoto, vijana, wanajamii wenye uwakilishi mdogo katika jamii au watu waliotengwa na jamii, na watu wa jamii ya kabila, dini au utamaduni fulani.
(4) Serikali itatunga na kutekeleza sheria ili itimize majukumu yake ya kimataifa kuhusu haki za binadamu na uhuru wa msingi. (Kifungu cha 21)

Obligations of the State

(1) Katiba hii itafafanuliwa kwa namna ambayo—
...
(b) huimarisha utawala wa sheria, na haki za binadamu na uhuru wa msingi katika Sheria ya Haki za Binadamu;
... (Kifungu cha 259)

Obligations of Private Parties

(1) Sheria ya Haki za Binadamu inahusu sheria zote na huvifunga vyombo vyote vya Serikali na watu wote.
… (Kifungu cha 20)

Judicial Protection

...
(3) Katika kutumia Sheria ya Haki za Binadamu, mahakama—
(a) itaidadafua sheria kwa kiwango ambacho hakitoi taathira kwenye haki au uhuru wa msingi; na
(b) itatumia tafsiri ambayo inaimarisha zaidi haki au uhuru wa msingi.
(4) Katika kufasiri Sheria ya Haki za Binadamu, mahakama, baraza au mamlaka nyingineyo itaimarisha—
(a) tunu ambazo zinajenga jamii ya wazi na ya kidemokrasia kwa msingi wa utu wa binadamu, usawa, haki na uhuru; na
(b) kusudi, dhamira na, malengo ya Sheria ya Haki za Binadamu.
(5) Katika kutumia haki yoyote chini ya Kifungu cha 43, ikiwa Serikali inadai kuwa haina rasilimali ya kutekeleza haki hiyo, mahakama, baraza au mamlaka nyingineyo itaongozwa na kanuni zifuatazo—
(a) ni jukumu la Serikali kuonyesha kwamba hakuna rasilimali;
(b) katika kugawanya rasilimali, Serikali itatoa kipaumbele katika kuhakikisha kuna unufaikaji mkubwa kadri iwezekanavyo wa haki na uhuru wa msingi baada ya kuzingatia mazingira yaliyopo, ikiwa ni pamoja na mazingira hatarishi ya makundi au watu fulani; na
(c) mahakama, baraza au mamlaka nyingineyo haitaweza kuingilia maamuzi yaliyotolewa na chombo cha Serikali kuhusu mgawanyo wa rasilimali zilizopo, kwa msingi tu kwamba kungekuwa na hitimisho tofauti. (Kifungu cha 20)

Judicial Protection

(1) Kila mtu ana haki ya kufungua kesi mahakamani akidai kwamba haki au uhuru wa msingi katika Sheria ya Haki za Binadamu haikutolewa, imekiukwa au imevunjwa, au imetishiwa.
(2) Pamoja na mtu kufanya kwa maslahi yake binafsi, kesi za mahakamani chini ya ibara ya (1) zinaweza kufunguliwa na-
(a) mtu anayechukua hatua kwa niaba ya mtu mwingine ambaye hawezi kuchukua hatua kwa jina lake;
(b) mtu anayechukua hatua kama mshiriki, au kwa maslahi ya kikundi au tabaka la watu;
(c) mtu anayechukua hatua kwa maslahi ya umma; au
(d) chama kinachochukua hatua kwa maslahi ya mwanachama wake mmoja au zaidi.
… (Kifungu cha 22)

Judicial Protection

(1) Mahakama Kuu ina mamlaka, kwa mujibu wa Kifungu cha 165, ya kusikia na kuamua maombi ya kutoa fidia ya kukataliwa, kukiuka au kuvunja, au kutishia, haki au uhuru wa msingi katika Sheria ya Haki za Binadamu.
(2) Bunge litatunga sheria ili kutoa mamlaka ya asili katika kesi stahiki ili kuiamuru mahakama kusikiliza na kuamua maombi ya kutoa fidia ya kukataliwa, kukiuka au kuvunja, au kutishia, haki au uhuru wa msingi katika Sheria ya Haki za Binadamu.
(3) Katika kesi yoyote iliyofunguliwa chini ya Kifungu cha 22, mahakama inaweza kutoa unafuu stahiki, ikiwa ni pamoja na—
(a) kutangaza haki;
(b) kutoa amri ya kisheria;
(c) amri ya kuhifadhi;
(d) tamko la kuharamisha sheria yoyote ambayo inanyima, inakiuka, inavunja, au inatishia haki au uhuru wa msingi katika Sheria ya Haki za Binadamu na haijathibitishwa chini ya kifungu cha 24;
(e) amri ya kutoa fidia; na
(f) amri ya kufanya mapitio ya sheria. (Kifungu cha 23)

Judicial Protection


(3) Kwa kuzingatia ibara ya (5), Mahakama Kuu itakuwa na—

(b) mamlaka ya kuamua shauri iwapo haki au uhuru wa msingi katika Sheria ya Haki za Binadamu haikutolewa, imekiukwa, imevunjwa au imetishiwa;
… (Kifungu cha 165)

National Human Rights Bodies

(1) Kuna Tume ya Kitaifa ya Haki za Binadamu na Usawa ya Kenya.
(2) Kazi za Tume ni—
(a) kuimarisha heshima kwa haki za binadamu na kuendeleza utamaduni wa haki za binadamu katika Jamhuri;
(b) kuimarisha usawa wa kijinsia na haki kwa jumla na kuratibu na kuwezesha ujumuishaji wa masuala ya kijinsia katika maendeleo ya kitaifa;
(c) kuimarisha ulinzi, na uzingatiaji wa haki za binadamu katika taasisi za umma na binafsi;
(d) kufuatilia, kuchunguza na kutoa taarifa juu ya uzingatiaji wa haki za binadamu katika nyanja zote za maisha katika Jamhuri, ikiwa ni pamoja na vyombo vya usalama vya kitaifa kuzingatia;
(e) kupokea na kuchunguza malalamiko kuhusu tuhuma za ukiukaji wa haki za binadamu na kuchukua hatua za kutoa fidia stahiki pale ambapo haki za binadamu zimekiukwa;
(f) kwa jitihada zake yenyewe au kwa msingi wa malalamiko, kuchunguza au kutafiti jambo kuhusu haki za binadamu, na kutoa mapendekezo ya kuboresha utendaji kazi wa vyombo vya Serikali;
(g) kufanya kazi kama chombo kikuu cha Serikali katika kuhakikisha uzingatiaji wa majukumu chini ya makubaliano na mikataba inayohusiana na haki za binadamu;

(3) Kila mtu ana haki ya kulalamika mbele ya Tume, akidai kuwa haki au uhuru wa msingi katika Sheria ya Haki za Binadamu imenyimwa, imekiukwa au kuvunjwa, au imetishiwa.
(4) Bunge litatunga sheria kuwezesha utekelezaji kamili wa Sehemu hii, na sheria yoyote ya namna hiyo inaweza kuiunda upya tume na kuwa tume tofauti mbili au zaidi.
… (Kifungu cha 59)

National Human Rights Bodies


(11) Mwenyeketi na makamu mwenyekiti wa tume hawatakuwa wa jinsia moja.
… (Kifungu cha 250)

Indigenous Peoples


(2) Tunu za kitaifa na kanuni za utawala ni pamoja na-

(b) utu wa binadamu, haki, haki ya kijamii, umoja, usawa, haki za binadamu, kutokuwa na ubaguzi na ulinzi kwa waliotengwa na jamii;
… (Kifungu cha 10)

Indigenous Peoples

...
(3) Vyombo vyote vya Serikali na watumishi wa umma wana wajibu wa kushughulikia mahitaji ya makundi yaliyopo katika mazingira hatarishi katika jamii, ikiwa ni pamoja na wanawake, wazee, watu wenye ulemavu, watoto, vijana, wanajamii wenye uwakilishi mdogo katika jamii au watu waliotengwa na jamii, na watu wa jamii ya kabila, dini au utamaduni fulani.
… (Kifungu cha 21)

Indigenous Peoples

Serikali itaweka mipango thabiti ya utekelezaji iliyowekwa ili kuhakikisha kwamba watu wenye uwakilishi mdogo katika jamii na makundi yaliyotengwa na jamii-
(a) wanashiriki na wanawakilishwa katika utawala na nyanja nyingine za maisha;
(b) wanapewa fursa maalumu katika nyanja za elimu na uchumi;
(c) wanapewa fursa maalumu za kupata ajira;
(d) wanakuza tunu zao za kitamaduni, lugha na desturi; na
(e) wanaweza kupata maji, huduma za afya na miundombinu. (Kifungu cha 56)

Indigenous Peoples

(1) Ardhi ya jamii itakabidhiwa na kushikiliwa na jamii zinazotambuliwa kwa msingi wa kabila, utamaduni au jamii yenye maslahi yanayofanana.
(2) Ardhi ya jumuiya inajumuisha—
(a) ardhi iliyosajiliwa kihalali kwa jina la wawakilishi wa kikundi chini ya masharti ya sheria yoyote;
(b) ardhi ambayo umilikiwa wake umehamishwa kihalali kwenda kwa jamii mahususi kwa mchakato wowote wa sheria;
(c) ardhi nyingine yoyote iliyotangazwa kuwa ardhi ya jamii kwa Sheria ya Bunge; na
(d) ardhi ambayo—
(i) inashikiliwa kihalali, inayosimamiwa au kutumiwa na jamii mahususi kama misitu ya jamii, maeneo ya malisho au shughuli za kiimani;
(ii) ardhi za mababu na ardhi ambazo kiutamaduni zilishikiliwa na jamii za wawindaji na waokotaji; au
(iii) imeshikiliwa kisheria na serikali za kaunti kama ardhi ya amana, lakini haijumuishi ardhi yoyote ya umma inayoshikiliwa na serikali ya kaunti chini ya Kifungu cha 62(2).
... (Kifungu cha 63)

Indigenous Peoples

1. Kila chama cha siasa-

e. kitaheshimu haki ya watu wote kushiriki katika mchakato wa kisiasa, ikiwa ni pamoja na watu wenye uwakilishi mdogo katika jamii na makundi yaliyotengwa na jamii;
… (Kifungu cha 91)

Indigenous Peoples

Bunge litatunga sheria ili kuimarisha uwakilishi Bungeni wa—

(d) kabila na watu wengine wenye uwakilishi mdogo katika jamii; na
(e) jamii za pembezoni. (Kifungu cha 100)

Indigenous Peoples

Malengo ya ugatuzi wa serikali ni-
...
(d) kutambua haki ya jamii kusimamia mambo yao wenyewe na kukuza maendeleo yao;
(e) kulinda na kuimarisha masilahi na haki za watu wenye uwakilishi mdogo katika jamii na jamii za pembezoni;
… (Kifungu cha 174)

Indigenous Peoples

Kanuni zifuatazo zitaongoza nyanja zote za fedha za umma katika Jamhuri
...
(b) mfumo wa fedha za umma utaimarisha jamii yenye usawa, na hususani-

(iii) matumizi yataimarisha maendeleo sawa ya nchi, ikiwa ni pamoja na kutunga sheria maalumu kwa ajili ya makundi na maeneo ya pembezoni;
… (Kifungu cha 201)

Indigenous Peoples


(3) Serikali ya kitaifa inaweza kutumia Mfuko wa Usawa-

(b) ama kwa dhahiri, au si kwa dhahiri kupitia ruzuku zenye masharti kwenda kwenye kaunti ambazo kuna jamii za pembezoni.
… (Kifungu cha 204)

Indigenous Peoples


• “jamii ya pembezoni” humaanisha-
(a) jamii ambayo, kwa sababu ya idadi ndogo ya watu wake au kwa sababu nyingineyo yoyote, imeshindwa kushiriki kikamilifu katika maisha ya kijamii na kiuchumi ya Kenya kwa ujumla;
(b) jamii ya jadi ambayo, kutokana na hitaji au shauku ya kuhifadhi utamaduni na utambulisho wake wa kipekee na kitambulisho ili usipotee, imebaki nje ya maisha ya kawaida ya kijamii na kiuchumi ya Kenya kwa ujumla;
(c) jamii asilia ambayo imeshikilia na kudumisha mtindo wa maisha ya jadi na kujipatia riziki katika uchumi wa uwindaji na uokotaji; au
(d) watu na jamii ya wafugaji, iwe ni-
(i) wa kuhamahama; au
(ii) jamii yenye makazi ya kudumu ambayo, kwa sababu ya kujitenga kwake kijiografia, imeshiriki kidogo sana katika maisha ya pamoja ya kijamii na kiuchumi ya Kenya kwa ujumla;
"Kikundi cha pembezoni" humaanisha kikundi cha watu ambao, kwa sababu ya sheria au desturi za hapo awali, au baada ya tarehe ya utekelezaji walikuwa au wametengwa, kwa kubaguliwa kwa sababu moja au zaidi zilizopo katika Kifungu cha 27 (4);
… (Kifungu cha 260)

Limitations and/or Derogations

...
(3) Haki na uhuru wa msingi katika Sheria ya Haki za Binadamu-
(a) ni ya kila mtu na haitolewi na Serikali;
(b) haiondoi haki nyinginezo na uhuru wa msingi ambao haupo kwenye Sheria ya Haki za Binadamu, lakini hutambuliwa au hutolewa na sheria, isipokuwa kwa kiwango ambacho zipo kinyume na Sura hii; na
(c) huzingatia tu mipaka iliyobainishwa katika Katiba hii. (Kifungu cha 19)

Limitations and/or Derogations

(1) Haki au uhuru wa msingi katika Sheria ya Haki za Binadamu haitakuwa na mpaka isipokuwa kwa sheria, na tena kwa kiwango ambacho mpaka huo una mantiki na unathibitika kwenye jamii ya uwazi na ya kidemokrasia kwa msingi wa utu wa binadamu, usawa na uhuru, kwa kuzingatia mambo yote muhimu ikiwa ni pamoja na—
(a) asili ya uhuru au haki ya msingi;
(b) umuhimu wa madhumuni ya mpaka huo;
(c) asili na kiwango cha mpaka huo;
(d) hitaji la kuhakikisha kuwa unufaikaji wa uhuru wa msingi na haki kwa mtu yeyote hauathiri uhuru wa msingi na haki ya watu wengine; na
(e) uhusiano kati ya mpaka na madhumuni yake na ikiwa kuna njia zenye ugumu kidogo za kufikia kusudi hilo.
(2) Licha ya ibara ya (1), kifungu katika sheria kinachozuia haki au uhuru wa msingi-
(a) ikiwa kuna sheria iliyotungwa au kufanyiwa marekebisho tarehe hiyo au baada ya tarehe ya utekelezaji, si halali isipokuwa sheria hiyo ielezee kwa umahususi kusudi la kuwekea mipaka haki hiyo au uhuru wa msingi na asili na kiwango cha mpaka huo;
(b) haitachukuliwa kuwa inaiwekea mpaka haki au uhuru wa msingi kama sheria hiyo haiko dhahiri na mahususi kuhusu uhuru wa msingi na haki ambayo itawekewa mipaka na asili na kiwango cha mpaka huo; na
(c) haitawekea mipaka haki au uhuru wa msingi hadi kufikia kiwango cha kupunguza kwenye maudhui yake ya msingi au muhimu.
(3) Serikali au mtu anayetafuta kuhalalisha mpaka fulani ataielezea mahakama, baraza au mamlaka nyingineyo kwamba matakwa ya Kifungu hiki yamekamilishwa.
(4) Sheria za Sura hii juu ya usawa zitahalalishwa kwa kiwango ambacho ni lazima kabisa kutumia sharia ya Kiislamu mbele ya mahakama za Kadhi, kwa watu ambao ni waumini wa dini ya Kiisilamu, katika maswala yanayohusu hadhi ya binafsi, ndoa, talaka na urithi.
… (Kifungu cha 24)

Limitations and/or Derogations

Licha ya sheria nyingineyo yoyote katika Katiba hii, uhuru wa msingi na haki zifuatazo hazitawekewa mipaka-
(a) uhuru dhidi ya kuteswa na ukatili, unyanyasaji au udhalilishaji au adhabu;
(b) uhuru dhidi ya utumwa au kutumikishwa;
(c) haki ya kushtakiwa kwa haki; na
(d) haki ya amri ya kumfikisha mfungwa kortini. (Kifungu cha 25)

Limitations and/or Derogations

...
(6) Sheria yoyote iliyotungwa kwa sababu ya tangazo la hali ya dharura-
(a) inaweza kuwekea mpaka haki au uhuru wa msingi katika Sheria ya Haki za Binadamu ni kwa kiwango ambacho tu-
(i) mpaka huo unahitajika kabisa na dharura hiyo; na
(ii) sheria hiyo inaoana na majukumu ya Jamhuri chini ya sheria za kimataifa zinazotumika kwa hali ya dharura; na
(b) haitaanza kutekelezwa hadi itakapochapishwa kwenye gazeti la serikali.
… (Kifungu cha 58)

Marriage and Family Life

Sisi, wananchi wa Kenya -…
TUKIWA TUMEJIZATITI kulea na kulinda maslahi ya mtu, familia, jamii na taifa:
... (Utangulizi)

Marriage and Family Life

...
(4) Vifungu katika Sura hii kwa usawa vitatumika kwa kiwango ambacho ni lazima kabisa kutumia sharia ya Kiislamu mbele ya mahakama za Kadhi, kwa watu ambao ni waumini wa dini ya Kiisilamu, katika maswala yanayohusu hadhi ya binafsi, ndoa, talaka na urithi.
… (Kifungu cha 24)

Marriage and Family Life

Kila mtu ana haki ya faragha, ambayo ni pamoja na haki ya kutokuwa na—

(c) habari zinazohusiana na familia zao au mambo yao binafsi yanayotakiwa au kufichuliwa isivyo lazima;
… (Kifungu cha 31)

Marriage and Family Life

(1) Familia ni kiungo cha asili na cha msingi cha jamii na msingi muhimu wa maadili ya kijamii, na itanufaika na kutambuliwa na kulindwa na Serikali.
(2) Kila mtu mzima ana haki ya kuoa mtu wa jinsia tofauti, kwa kuzingatia ridhaa huru ya pande zote.
(3) Pande zote katika ndoa zina haki sawa siku ya ndoa, wakati wa ndoa na wakati wa kuvunja ndoa.
(4) Bunge litatunga sheria inayotambua-
(a) ndoa zilizofungwa chini ya utamaduni wowote, au mfumo wa sheria za kidini, za binafsi au za familia; na
(b) mfumo wowote wa sheria ya binafsi au familia chini ya utamaduni wowote, au inazingatiwa na watu ambao ni waumini wa dini fulani, kwa kiwango kwamba ndoa yoyote ya namna hiyo au mifumo ya sheria haipingani na Katiba hii. (Kifungu cha 45)

Marriage and Family Life

(1) Kila mtoto ana haki

(e) ya malezi na ulinzi wa wazazi, ambayo hujumuisha jukumu sawa la mama na baba kumhudumia mtoto, iwe wameoana au la;
… (Kifungu cha 53)

Marriage and Family Life

Bunge-

(c) litatunga sheria-
...
(iii) ili kudhibiti utambuzi na ulinzi wa mali ya wana ndoa na hususani nyumba ya wanandoa wakati na siku ya kuvunjika kwa ndoa;
… (Kifungu cha 68)

Marriage and Family Life

...
(5) Mamlaka ya Mahakama ya Kadhi yatakuwa na mipaka itakayoishia katika kuamua shauri la sheria ya Kiisilamu inayohusiana na hadhi binafsi, ndoa, talaka au urithi katika kesi ambazo kwazo pande zote ni waumini wa dini ya Kiislamu na wanaitii mamlaka ya mahakama za Kadhi. (Kifungu cha 170)

Minorities

...
(3) Vyombo vyote vya Serikali na watumishi wa umma wana wajibu wa kushughulikia mahitaji ya makundi yaliyopo katika mazingira hatarishi katika jamii, ikiwa ni pamoja na wanawake, wazee, watu wenye ulemavu, watoto, vijana, wanajamii wenye uwakilishi mdogo katika jamii au watu waliotengwa na jamii, na watu wa jamii ya kabila, dini au utamaduni fulani.
… (Kifungu cha 21)

Minorities

Serikali itaweka mipango thabiti ya utekelezaji iliyowekwa ili kuhakikisha kwamba watu wenye uwakilishi mdogo katika jamii na makundi yaliyotengwa na jamii-
(a) wanashiriki na wanawakilishwa katika utawala na nyanja nyingine za maisha;
(b) wanapewa fursa maalumu katika nyanja za elimu na uchumi;
(c) wanapewa fursa maalumu za kupata ajira;
(d) wanakuza tunu zao za kitamaduni, lugha na desturi; na
(e) wanaweza kupata maji, huduma za afya na miundombinu. (Kifungu cha 56)

Minorities

(1) Ardhi ya jamii itakabidhiwa na kushikiliwa na jamii zinazotambuliwa kwa msingi wa kabila, utamaduni au jamii yenye maslahi yanayofanana.
(2) Ardhi ya jumuiya inajumuisha—
(a) ardhi iliyosajiliwa kihalali kwa jina la wawakilishi wa kikundi chini ya masharti ya sheria yoyote;
(b) ardhi ambayo umilikiwa wake umehamishwa kihalali kwenda kwa jamii mahususi kwa mchakato wowote wa sheria;
(c) ardhi nyingine yoyote iliyotangazwa kuwa ardhi ya jamii kwa Sheria ya Bunge; na
(d) ardhi ambayo—
(i) inashikiliwa kihalali, inayosimamiwa au kutumiwa na jamii mahususi kama misitu ya jamii, maeneo ya malisho au matambiko;
(ii) ardhi za mababu na ardhi ambazo kiutamaduni zilishikiliwa na jamii za wawindaji na waokotaji; au
(iii) imeshikiliwa kisheria na serikali za kaunti kama ardhi ya amana, lakini haijumuishi ardhi yoyote ya umma inayoshikiliwa na serikali ya kaunti chini ya Kifungu cha 62 (2).
... (Kifungu cha 63)

Minorities

1. Kila chama cha siasa-

e. kitaheshimu haki ya watu wote kushiriki katika mchakato wa kisiasa, ikiwa ni pamoja na watu wenye uwakilishi mdogo katika jamii na makundi yaliyotengwa na jamii;
… (Kifungu cha 91)

Minorities

Bunge litatunga sheria ili kuimarisha uwakilishi Bungeni wa—

(d) kabila na watu wengine wenye uwakilishi mdogo katika jamii; na
(e) jamii za pembezoni. (Kifungu cha 100)

Minorities

Malengo ya ugatuzi wa serikali ni-

(d) kutambua haki ya jamii kusimamia mambo yao wenyewe na kukuza maendeleo yao;
(e) kulinda na kuimarisha masilahi na haki za watu wenye uwakilishi mdogo katika jamii na jamii za pembezoni;
… (Kifungu cha 174)

Minorities

Kanuni zifuatazo zitaongoza nyanja zote za fedha za umma katika Jamhuri
...
(b) mfumo wa fedha za umma utaimarisha jamii yenye usawa, na haswa-

(iii) matumizi yataimarisha maendeleo sawa ya nchi, ikiwa ni pamoja na kutunga sheria maalumu kwa ajili ya makundi na maeneo ya pembezoni;
… (Kifungu cha 201)

Minorities


(3) Serikali ya kitaifa inaweza kutumia Mfuko wa Usawa-

(b) ama kwa dhahiri, au si kwa dhahiri kupitia ruzuku zenye masharti kwenda kwenye kaunti ambazo kuna jamii za pembezoni.
… (Kifungu cha 204)

Minorities

(1) Tunu na kanuni za utumishi wa umma ni pamoja na—

(i) kupata fursa sawa na stahiki kwa ajili ya uteuzi, mafunzo na maendeleo, katika ngazi zote za utumishi wa umma, wa-

(ii) watu wa makundi yote ya makabila;
… (Kifungu cha 232)

Minorities


• “jamii ya pembezoni” humaanisha-
(a) jamii ambayo, kwa sababu ya idadi ndogo ya watu wake au kwa sababu nyingineyo yoyote, imeshindwa kushiriki kikamilifu katika maisha ya kijamii na kiuchumi ya Kenya kwa ujumla;
(b) jamii ya jadi ambayo, kutokana na hitaji au shauku ya kuhifadhi utamaduni na utambulisho wake wa kipekee na kitambulisho ili usipotee, imebaki nje ya maisha ya kawaida ya kijamii na kiuchumi ya Kenya kwa ujumla;
(c) jamii asilia ambayo imeshikilia na kudumisha mtindo wa maisha ya jadi na kujipatia riziki katika uchumi wa uwindaji na uokotaji; au
(d) watu na jamii ya wafugaji, iwe ni-
(i) wa kuhamahama; au
(ii) jamii yenye makazi ya kudumu ambayo, kwa sababu ya kujitenga kwake kijiografia, imeshiriki kidogo sana katika maisha ya pamoja ya kijamii na kiuchumi ya Kenya kwa ujumla;
"Kikundi cha pembezoni" humaanisha kikundi cha watu ambao, kwa sababu ya sheria au desturi za hapo awali, au baada ya tarehe ya utekelezaji walikuwa au wametengwa, kwa kubaguliwa kwa sababu moja au zaidi zilizopo katika Kifungu cha 27 (4);
… (Kifungu cha 260)

Participation in Public Life and Institutions

...
(3) Wanawake na wanaume wana haki ya kutendewa kwa usawa, ikiwa ni pamoja na haki ya kuwa na fursa sawa katika nyanja za kisiasa, kiuchumi, kiutamaduni na kijamii.

(6) Ili kutekeleza kikamilifu utekelezaji wa haki zilizohakikishwa chini ya Kifungu hiki, Serikali itachukua hatua za kisheria na hatua nyinginezo, pamoja na mipango na sera thabiti za utekelezaji zilizoundwa ili kufidia unyimwaji wa haki ambao uliwapata watu au kikundi cha watu kwa sababu ya ubaguzi wa zamani.
(7) Hatua yoyote inayochukuliwa chini ya ibara ya (6) itatoa kikamilifu maslahi kwa msingi wa hitaji la kweli.
(8) Pamoja na hatua zilizobainishwa katika ibara ya (6), Serikali itachukua hatua za kisheria na hatua nyinginezo ili kutekeleza kanuni ambayo itahakikisha kwamba washirika wa bodi wa kuchaguliwa au kuteuliwa wa jinsia moja hawatakuwa zaidi ya theluthi mbili. (Kifungu cha27)

Participation in Public Life and Institutions

(1) Kuna Tume ya Huduma ya Bunge.
(2) Tume inaundwa na—
(a) Spika wa Bunge, kama Mwenyekiti;
(b) makamu mwenyekiti aliyechaguliwa na Tume kutoka kwa wajumbe walioteuliwa chini ya kifungu cha (c);
(c) wajumbe saba walioteuliwa na Bunge kutoka miongoni mwa wajumbe wake ambao-
(i) wanne watateuliwa kwa usawa kutoka katika Kambi zote za Chama au muungano wa vyama unaounda serikali ya kitaifa, ambao angalau wawili watakuwa wanawake; na
(ii) watatu watateuliwa na vyama ambavyo haviundi serikali ya kitaifa, angalau mmoja kati yao atateuliwa kutoka katika kila Kambi na angalau mmoja kati yao atakuwa mwanamke; na
(d) mwanaume mmoja na mwanamke mmoja aliyeteuliwa na Bunge kutoka kwa watu wenye uzoefu katika maswala ya umma, lakini si wabunge.
… (Kifungu cha 127)

Participation in Public Life and Institutions

(1) Kuna Tume ya Huduma ya Mahakama.
(2) Tume itaundwa na—
(a) Jaji Mkuu, ambaye atakuwa mwenyekiti wa Tume;
(b) jaji mmoja wa Mahakama Kuu aliyechaguliwa na majaji wa Mahakama Kuu;
(c) jaji mmoja wa Mahakama ya Rufaa aliyechaguliwa na majaji wa Mahakama ya Rufaa;
(d) jaji mmoja wa Mahakama Kuu na hakimu mmoja, mmoja mwanamke na mmoja mwanaume, aliyechaguliwa na wajumbe wa chama cha majaji na mahakimu;
(e) Mwanasheria Mkuu;
(f) mawakili wawili, mmoja mwanamke na mmoja mwanamume, ambaye kila mmoja wao ana uzoefu wa angalau miaka kumi na mitano, aliyechaguliwa na wajumbe wa chombo cha kisheria kinachohusika na usimamizi wa kitaaluma wa mawakili;
(g) mtu mmoja aliyeteuliwa na Tume ya Huduma ya Umma; na
(h) mwanamke mmoja na mwanaume mmoja wawakilishi wa umma, ambao si wanasheria, walioteuliwa na Rais na kuidhinishwa na Bunge.
… (Kifungu cha 171)

Participation in Public Life and Institutions

(1) Tume ya Huduma ya Mahakama itaimarisha na kuwezesha uhuru na uwajibikaji wa mahakama na usimamizi wa haki wenye ufanisi, wenye matokeo yanayotarajiwa na kwa uwazi na-
(a) itawapendekeza watu kwa Rais kwa ajili ya kuteuliwa kuwa majaji;

(2) Katika utekelezaji wa majukumu yake, Tume itaongozwa na yafuatayo—
(a) mchakato shindani na wa wazi wa uteuzi wa maofisa wa mahakama na wafanyakazi wengine wa mahakama; na
(b) uimarishaji wa usawa wa kijinsia. (Kifungu cha 172)

Participation in Public Life and Institutions

(1) Kifungu hiki kinatumika kwenye migogoro kati ya sheria za kitaifa na za kaunti kuhusu masuala yanayoangukia katika mamlaka ya serikali zote mbili.
(2) Sheria za kitaifa ziko juu ya sheria za kaunti ikiwa-
(a) sheria ya kitaifa inatumika kwa namna sawa katika nchi yote ya Kenya na masharti yoyote yaliyoainishwa katika ibara ya (3) yamezingatiwa; …
(3) Yafuatayo ni masharti yaliyotajwa katika kifungu cha (2) (a)––

(c) sheria ya kitaifa ni ya lazima kwa ajili ya-

(v) uimarishaji wa fursa sawa au upatikanaji sawia wa huduma za serikali;
... (Kifungu cha 191)

Participation in Public Life and Institutions

(1) Maadili na kanuni za huduma ya umma hujumuisha—

(i) kupata fursa sawa na stahiki kwa ajili ya kuteuliwa, mafunzo na maendeleo, katika ngazi zote za huduma ya umma, ya—
(i) wanaume na wanawake;
… (Kifungu cha 232)

Participation in Public Life and Institutions


(11) Mwenyeketi na makamu mwenyekiti wa tume hawatakuwa wa jinsia moja.
… (Kifungu cha 250)

Political Rights and Association


(3) Wanawake na wanaume wana haki ya kutendewa kwa usawa, ikiwa ni pamoja na haki ya kuwa na fursa sawa katika nyanja za kisiasa, kiuchumi, kiutamaduni na kijamii.
… (Kifungu cha27)

Political Rights and Association

(1) Kila mtu ana haki ya uhuru wa kujumuika, ambayo hujumuisha haki ya kuunda, kujiunga au kushiriki katika shughuli za chama cha aina yoyote.
… (Kifungu cha 36)

Political Rights and Association

(1) Kila raia yuko huru kufanya chaguzi za kisiasa, ambazo ni pamoja na haki-
(a) ya kuunda, au kushiriki katika kuunda chama cha siasa;
(b) kushiriki katika shughuli za, au kuwaandikisha wanachama wa chama cha siasa; au
(c) kufanyia kampeni chama cha kisiasa au shughuli.
(2) Kila raia ana haki ya kushiriki chaguzi huru, za haki na za mara kwa mara zenye msingi wa haki majumui ya kupiga kura na uhuru wa kuelezea nia ya wachaguliwa kwa—
(a) chombo chochote cha kuchaguliwa au ofisi iliyoanzishwa chini ya Katiba hii; au
(b) ofisi yoyote ya chama chochote cha kisiasa ambacho raia huyo ni mwanachama wake.
(3) Kila raia mtu mzima ana haki, bila vizuizi visivyo vya msingi-
(a) ya kuandikishwa kama mpiga kura;
(b) kupiga kura ya siri katika uchaguzi wowote au kura ya maoni; na
(c) kuwa mtaradhia wa ofisi ya umma, au ofisi ndani ya chama cha siasa ambacho raia huyo ni mwanachama wake na, ikiwa amechaguliwa kushika wadhifa. (Kifungu cha 38)

Political Rights and Association

Mfumo wa uchaguzi utazingatia kanuni zifuatazo-
(a) uhuru wa raia kutumia haki yao ya kisiasa chini ya Kifungu cha 38;
(b) si zaidi ya theluthi mbili ya wajumbe wa vyombo vya umma vya kuchaguliwa watakuwa wa jinsia moja;
… (Kifungu cha 81)

Political Rights and Association

(1) Mtu anastahili kuandikishwa kama mpiga kura katika uchaguzi au kura ya maoni ikiwa mtu huyo—
(a) ni raia mtu mzima;
(b) hajatangazwa kuwa na ugonjwa wa akili; na
(c) hajakutwa kuwa na kosa la uchaguzi katika kipindi cha miaka mitano iliyopita.
… (Kifungu cha 83)

National level

...
(6) Ili kutekeleza kikamilifu utekelezaji wa haki zilizohakikishwa chini ya IKifungu hiki, Serikali itachukua hatua za kisheria na hatua nyinginezo, pamoja na mipango na sera thabiti za utekelezaji zilizoundwa ili kufidia unyimwaji wa haki ambao uliwapata watu au kikundi cha watu kwa sababu ya ubaguzi wa zamani.
(7) Hatua yoyote inayochukuliwa chini ya ibara ya (6) itatoa kikamilifu maslahi kwa msingi wa hitaji la kweli.
(8) Pamoja na hatua zilizobainishwa katika ibara ya (6), Serikali itachukua hatua za kisheria na hatua nyinginezo ili kutekeleza kanuni ambayo itahakikisha kwamba washirika wa bodi wa kuchaguliwa au kuteuliwa wa jinsia moja hawatakuwa zaidi ya theluthi mbili. (Kifungu cha 27)

National level

Mfumo wa uchaguzi utazingatia kanuni zifuatazo

(b) si zaidi ya theluthi mbili ya wajumbe wa vyombo vya umma vya kuchaguliwa watakuwa wa jinsia moja;

(d) haki majumui ya kupiga kura kwa msingi wa matamanio ya uwakilishi wa haki na usawa wa kura;
… (Kifungu cha 81)

National level

(1) Chaguzi wa viti katika Bunge vilivyowekwa chini ya Kifungu cha 97 (1) (c) na 98 (1) (b), (c) na (d), na kwa wajumbe wa mabunge ya kaunti chini ya kifungu cha 177 (1) (b) na (c), zitakuwa kwa msingi wa uwakilishi wa usawa kwa kutumia orodha ya chama.
(2) Tume Huru ya Uchaguzi na Mipaka itakuwa na jukumu la kufanya na kusimamia uchaguzi wa viti vilivyobainishwa chini ya ibara ya (1) na itahakikisha kwamba—

(b) isipokuwa katika viti vilivyobainishwa chini ya Kifungu cha 98 ( 1)(b), orodha ya kila chama inajumuisha idadi inayofaa ya wagombea wenye sifa na wanabadilishana kati ya wagombea wa kiume na wa kike katika kipaumbele ambacho kwacho wameorodheshwa;
… (Kifungu cha 90)

National level

(1) Bunge la Kitaifa linajumuisha—

(b) wanawake arobaini na saba, kila mmoja aliyechaguliwa na wapiga kura wa kaunti, kila kaunti inaunda jimbo moja la uchaguzi;
… (Kifungu cha 97)

National level

(1) Bunge la Seneti linajumuisha—
...
(b) wajumbe wanawake kumi na sita watakaoteuliwa na vyama vya siasa kulingana na idadi yao ya wajumbe wa Seneti waliochaguliwa chini ya ibara ya (a) kwa mujibu wa Kifungu cha 90;
(c) wajumbe wawili, mmoja akiwa mwanaume na mmoja mwanamke, wakiwawakilisha vijana;
(d) wajumbe wawili, mmoja akiwa mwanaume anayewakilisha watu wenye ulemavu;
… (Kifungu cha 98)

Subnational levels

Serikali za kaunti zilizoanzishwa chini ya Katiba hii zitaongozwa na kanuni zifuatazo

(c) hakuna zaidi ya theluthi mbili ya wajumbe wa vyombo vya wawakilishi katika kila serikali ya kaunti watakuwa wa jinsia moja. (Kifungu cha 175)

Subnational levels

Bunge la kaunti linaundwa na -
(a) wajumbe waliochaguliwa na wapiga kura waliosajiliwa wa kata, kila kata inaunda jimbo moja la uchaguzi, katika siku iyo hiyo ya uchaguzi mkuu wa Wabunge, itakuwa Jumanne ya pili ya mwezi Agosti, kila baada ya miaka mitano;
(b) idadi ya wajumbe wa viti maalumu ambayo ni ya lazima ili kuhakikisha kwamba si zaidi ya theluthi mbili ya wajumbe wa bunge hilo wanakuwa wa jinsia moja;
… (Kifungu cha 177)

Subnational levels

(1) Si zaidi ya theluthi mbili ya wajumbe wa bunge lolote la kaunti au kamati kuu ya kaunti watakuwa wa jinsia moja.
… (Kifungu cha 197)

Political Parties

(1) Chaguzi wa viti katika Bunge vilivyowekwa chini ya Kifungu cha 97 (1) (c) na 98 (1) (b), (c) na (d), na kwa wajumbe wa mabunge ya kaunti chini ya kifungu cha 177 (1) (b) na (c), zitakuwa kwa msingi wa uwakilishi wa usawa kwa kutumia orodha ya chama.
(2) Tume Huru ya Uchaguzi na Mipaka itakuwa na jukumu la kufanya na kusimamia uchaguzi wa viti vilivyobainishwa chini ya ibara ya (1) na itahakikisha kwamba—
(a) kila chama cha siasa kinachoshiriki katika uchaguzi mkuu kinateua na kuwasilisha orodha ya watu wote ambao watasimama kuchaguliwa ikiwa chama kitastahili kupewa viti vyote vilivyobainishwa chini ya ibara ya (1), ndani ya muda uliowekwa na sheria ya kitaifa;
(b) isipokuwa kwa viti vilivyobainishwa chini ya Kifungu cha 98 (1) (b), kila orodha ya chama inajumuisha idadi inayofaa ya wagombea wenye sifa na wanabadilishana kati ya wagombea wa kiume na wa kike katika kipaumbele ambacho kwacho wameorodheshwana;
(c) isipokuwa kwa viti vya bunge la kaunti, kila orodha ya chama inaonyesha uanuwai wa kikanda na kikabila wa watu wa Kenya.
… (Kifungu cha 90)

Political Parties

(1) Kila chama cha siasa-
(a) kitakuwa na sifa ya kitaifa kama ilivyoamriwa na Sheria ya Bunge;
(b) kitakuwa na chombo cha uongozi kinachochaguliwa kidemokrasia;
(c) kitaimarisha na kushikilia umoja wa kitaifa;
(d) kitafungwa na kanuni za kidemokrasia za utawala bora, kuimarisha na kutekeleza demokrasia kupitia chaguzi huru na za haki za mara kwa mara ndani ya chama;
(e) kuheshimu haki ya watu wote kushiriki katika mchakato wa kisiasa, pamoja na watu wenye uwakilishi mdogo katika jamii na jamii za pembezoni;
(f) kuheshimu na kuimarisha haki za binadamu na uhuru wa msingi, na usawa wa kijinsia na haki;
(g) kuimarisha malengo na kanuni za Katiba hii na utawala wa sheria; na (h) kufuatilia na kuzingatia kanuni za maadili kwa vyama vya siasa.
(2) Chama cha siasa-
(a) hakitaanzishwa kwa msingi wa kidini, lugha, rangi, kabila, jinsia au kikanda au kutafuta kujihusisha na uenezajii wa chuki kwa msingi wowote wa aina hiyo;
(b) kujihusisha au kuchochea vurugu kwa, ama kwa kuwatisha wanachama wake, wafuasi, wapinzani au mtu mwingine yeyote;
(c) kuanzisha au kuendesha kikundi chenye mwonekano wa kijeshi, mgambo au vyombo kama hivyo;
(d) kujihusisha na rushwa au aina nyingineyo ya ufisadi; au
(e) isipokuwa kama ilivyoonyeshwa chini ya Sura hii au kwa Sheria ya Bunge, kukubali au kutumia rasilimali za umma kuimarisha masilahi yake au ya wagombea wake katika chaguzi. (Kifungu cha 91)

Electoral Bodies

(1) Kuna Tume Huru ya Uchaguzi na Mipaka.

(4) Tume inawajibika katika kufanya au kusimamia kura za maoni na chaguzi kwa chombo chochote kilichochaguliwa au ofisi iliyoanzishwa na Katiba hii, na chaguzi nyingine zozote kama ilivyoainishwa na Sheria ya Bunge … (Kifungu cha 88)

Electoral Bodies

(1) Chaguzi wa viti katika Bunge vilivyowekwa chini ya Kifungu cha 97 (1) (c) na 98 (1) (b), (c) na (d), na kwa wajumbe wa mabunge ya kaunti chini ya kifungu cha 177 (1) (b) na (c), zitakuwa kwa msingi wa uwakilishi wa usawa kwa kutumia orodha ya chama.
(2) Tume Huru ya Uchaguzi na Mipaka itakuwa na jukumu la kufanya na kusimamia uchaguzi wa viti vilivyobainishwa chini ya ibara ya (1) na itahakikisha kwamba—
(a) kila chama cha siasa kinachoshiriki katika uchaguzi mkuu kinateua na kuwasilisha orodha ya watu wote ambao watasimama kuchaguliwa ikiwa chama kitastahili kupewa viti vyote vilivyobainishwa chini ya ibara ya (1), ndani ya muda uliowekwa na sheria ya kitaifa;
(b) isipokuwa kwa viti vilivyobainishwa chini ya Kifungu cha 98 (1) (b), kila orodha ya chama inajumuisha idadi inayofaa ya wagombea wenye sifa na wanaobadilishana kati ya wagombea wa kiume na wa kike katika kipaumbele ambacho kwacho wameorodheshwa;
(c) isipokuwa kwa viti vya bunge la kaunti, kila orodha ya chama inaonyesha uanuwai wa kikanda na kikabila wa watu wa Kenya.
… (Kifungu cha 90)

Electoral Bodies


(11) Mwenyeketi na makamu mwenyekiti wa tume hawatakuwa wa jinsia moja.
… (Kifungu cha 250)

Head of State

(1) Rais-
(a) ni Mkuu wa Nchi na Serikali;
(b) anatekeleza mamlaka ya juu ya Jamhuri, kwa kusaidiwa na Makamu wa Rais na Makatibu wa Baraza la Mawaziri;

(2) Rais-
(a) ataheshimu, kuitetea na kuilinda Katiba hii;
...
(e) atahakikisha ulinzi wa haki za binadamu na uhuru wa msingi na utawala wa sheria.
... (Kifungu cha 131)

Head of State

(1) Rais atachaguliwa na wapiga kura waliosajiliwa katika uchaguzi wa kitaifa unaofanywa kwa mujibu wa Katiba hii na Sheria yoyote ya Bunge inayosimamia uchaguzi wa rais.
… (Kifungu cha 136)

Head of State

(1) Mtu anakuwa na sifa za kuteuliwa kuwa mgombea wa urais ikiwa mtu huyo—
(a) ni raia kwa kuzaliwa;
(b) ana sifa za kusimama kwenye uchaguzi kama mbunge;
(c) ameteuliwa na chama cha siasa, au ni mgombea wa kujitegemea; na
(d) ameteuliwa na si chini ya wapiga kura elfu mbili kutoka kila kaunti yenye watu wengi.
… (Kifungu cha 137)

Vice-President

(1) Makamu wa Rais atakuwa msaidizi mkuu wa Rais na atamwakilisha Rais katika utekelezaji wa shughuli za Rais.
(2) Makamu wa Rais atafanya majukumu yaliyoainishwa na Katiba hii na majukumu mengine yoyote ya Rais kadri Rais atakavyompatia.
(3) Kwa kuzingatia Kifungu cha 134, Rais asipokuwepo au hawezi kufanya kazi kwa muda, na katika kipindi kingine chochote ambacho Rais ataamua, Makamu wa Rais atafanya kazi kama Rais.
… (Kifungu cha 147)

Vice-President

(1) Kila mgombea katika uchaguzi wa rais atamteua mtu mwenye sifa za kuchaguliwa kuwa Rais, kuwa mtaradhia wa Makamu wa Rais.
(2) Kwa madhumuni ya ibara ya (1), hakutakuwa na mchakato tofauti wa uteuzi wa Makamu wa Rais na Kifungu cha 137 (1) (d) hakitatumika kwa mtaradhia wa Makamu wa Rais.
(3) Tume Huru ya Uchaguzi na Mipaka itamtangaza mtaradhia aliyeteuliwa na mtu aliyechaguliwa kuwa Rais kuchaguliwa kama Makamu wa Rais.
… (Kifungu cha 148)

Government

(1) Serikali kuu ya Jamhuri inaundwa na Rais, Makamu wa Rais na Baraza la Mawaziri.
(2) Muundo wa serikali kuu ya kitaifa utaakisi umajumui wa kikanda na kikabila wa watu wa Kenya. (Kifungu cha 130)

Government

(1) Baraza la Mawaziri linaundwa na—
(a) Rais;
(b) Makamu wa Rais;
(c) Mwanasheria Mkuu wa Serikali; na
(d) si chini ya Makatibu wa Baraza la Mawaziri kumi na wanne na si zaidi ya ishirini na wawili.
(2) Rais atapendekeza na, kwa idhini ya Bunge la Kitaifa, atawateua Makatibu wa Baraza la Mawaziri.
… (Kifungu cha 152)

Legislature

(1) Uchaguzi wa viti katika Bunge vilivyobainishwa chini ya Kifungu cha 97 (1) (c) na 98 (1) (b), (c) na (d), na kwa wajumbe wa mabunge ya kaunti chini ya kifungu cha 177 (1) (b) na (c), zitakuwa kwa msingi wa uwakilishi wa usawa kwa kutumia orodha za chama.
(2) Tume Huru ya Uchaguzi na Mipaka itakuwa na jukumu la kufanya na kusimamia uchaguzi wa viti vilivyobainishwa chini ya ibara ya (1) na itahakikisha kwamba—

(b) isipokuwa katika viti vilivyobainishwa chini ya Kifungu cha 98 ( 1)(b), orodha ya kila chama inajumuisha idadi inayofaa ya wagombea wenye sifa na wanabadilishana kati ya wagombea wa kiume na wa kike katika kipaumbele ambacho kwacho wameorodheshwa;
… (Kifungu cha 90)

Legislature

(1) Kuna Bunge la Kenya, ambalo litaundwa na Bunge la Kitaifa na Seneti.
(2) Vyombo vya Bunge la Kitaifa na Seneti vitafanya kazi zao kwa mujibu wa Katiba hii. (Kifungu cha 93)

Legislature

1. Mamlaka ya kisheria ya Jamhuri yanatoka kwa watu na, kwa kiwango cha kitaifa, yanakabidhiwa na kutekelezwa na Bunge.
… (Kifungu cha 94)

Legislature

(1) Bunge la Kitaifa linaundwa na—
(a) wabunge mia mbili na tisini, kila mmoja aliyechaguliwa na wapiga kura waliosajiliwa kutoka katika eneo bunge moja;
(b) wanawake arobaini na saba, kila mmoja aliyechaguliwa na wapiga kura waliosajiliwa wa kaunti, kila kaunti inaunda eneo bunge moja;
(c) wajumbe kumi na wawili walioteuliwa na vyama vya siasa vyenye uwakilishi bungeni kulingana na idadi yao ya wajumbe wa Bunge la Kitaifa kwa mujibu wa Kifungu cha 90, ili kuwakilisha masilahi maalumu ikiwa ni pamoja na vijana, watu wenye ulemavu na wafanyikazi; na
(d) Spika, ambaye ni mjumbe kwa nafasi yake.
(2) Hakuna chochote katika Kifungu hiki kitachukuliwa kama kumwondoa mtu yeyote kugombea kwenye uchaguzi chini ya ibara ya (1) (a). (Kifungu cha 97)

Legislature

(1) Bunge la Seneti linaundwa na -
(a) wajumbe arobaini na saba kila mmoja aliyechaguliwa na wapiga kura waliosajiliwa wa kaunti husika, kila kaunti inaunda eneo bunge moja;
(b) wajumbe wanawake kumi na sita ambao watachaguliwa na vyama vya siasa kulingana na idadi yao ya wajumbe wa Seneti waliochaguliwa chini ya ibara ya (a) kwa mujibu wa Kifungu cha 90;
(c) wajumbe wawili, mmoja akiwa mwanaume na mwingine mwanamke wakiwakilisha vijana;
(d) wajumbe wawili, mmoja akiwa mwanaume na mwingine mwanamke wakiwakilisha watu wenye ulemavu; na
(e) Spika, ambaye atakuwa mjumbe kwa nafasi yake.
(2) Wajumbe waliotajwa katika ibara ya (1) (c) na (d) watachaguliwa kwa mujibu wa Kifungu cha 90.
(3) Hakuna chochote katika Kifungu hiki kitachukuliwa kama kumwondoa mtu yeyote kugombea kwenye uchaguzi chini ya ibara ya (1) (a). (Kifungu cha 98)

Legislature

(1) Isipokuwa kama hana sifa chini ya ibara ya (2), mtu anastahili kuchaguliwa kama mbunge ikiwa mtu huyo—
(a) ameandikishwa kama mpiga kura;
(b) anakidhi matakwa yoyote ya kielimu, ya kiadili na kimaadili yaliyowekwa na Katiba hii au na Sheria ya Bunge; na
(c) ameteuliwa na chama cha siasa, au ni mgombea huru anayeungwa mkono—
(i) katika suala la uchaguzi wa Bunge la Kitaifa na wapiga kura angalau elfu moja walioandikishwa katika jimbo hilo la uchaguzi; au
(ii) katika suala la uchaguzi wa Seneti, na angalau wapiga kura elfu mbili walioandikishwa katika kaunti husika.
… (Kifungu cha 99)

Legislature

Bunge litatunga sheria ili kuimarisha uwakilishi Bungeni wa—
(a) wanawake;
(b) watu wenye ulemavu;
(c) vijana;
(d) kabila na watu wengine wenye uwakilishi mdogo katika jamii; na
(e) jamii zilizotengwa. (Kifungu cha 100)

Property, Inheritance and Land Tenure

...
(4) Vifungu katika Sura hii kwa usawa vitatumika kwa kiwango ambacho ni lazima kabisa kutumia sharia ya Kiislamu mbele ya mahakama za Kadhi, kwa watu ambao ni waumini wa dini ya Kiisilamu, katika maswala yanayohusu hadhi binafsi, ndoa, talaka na urithi.
… (Kifungu cha 24)

Property, Inheritance and Land Tenure

(1) Kwa kuzingatia Kifungu cha 65, kila mtu ana haki, ama mtu mmoja mmoja au ushirika pamoja na wengine, ya kupata na kumiliki mali-
(a) ya namna yoyote; na
(b) katika sehemu yoyote ya Kenya.
… (Kifungu cha 40)

Property, Inheritance and Land Tenure

(1) Ardhi nchini Kenya itashikiliwa, kutumiwa na kusimamiwa kwa namna ambayo ni ya usawa, fanisi, yenye tija na endelevu, na kwa kufuata kanuni zifuatazo-
(a) haki sawa ya kupata ardhi;
(b) amana ya haki za ardhi;

(f) kuondoa ubaguzi wa kijinsia katika sheria, mila na desturi zinazohusiana na ardhi na mali katika ardhi; na
(g) kuwahimiza jamii kumaliza migogoro ya ardhi kupitia hatua zinazochukuliwa na jamii bila kukiuka Katiba hii.
(2) Kanuni hizi zitatekelezwa kupitia sera ya ardhi ya kitaifa iliyoundwa na kupitiwa mara kwa mara na serikali ya kitaifa na kupitia sheria. (Kifungu cha 60)

Property, Inheritance and Land Tenure

(1) Ardhi yote nchini Kenya ni mali ya watu wa Kenya kwa pamoja kama taifa, jamii na kama mtu mmoja mmoja.
… (Kifungu cha 61)

Property, Inheritance and Land Tenure

(1) Ardhi ya jamii itakabidhiwa na kushikiliwa na jamii zinazotambuliwa kwa msingi wa kabila, utamaduni au jamii yenye maslahi yanayofanana.
(2) Ardhi ya jumuiya inajumuisha—
(a) ardhi iliyosajiliwa kihalali kwa jina la wawakilishi wa kikundi chini ya masharti ya sheria yoyote;
(b) ardhi ambayo umilikiwa wake umehamishwa kihalali kwenda kwa jamii mahususi kwa mchakato wowote wa sheria;
(c) ardhi nyingine yoyote iliyotangazwa kuwa ardhi ya jamii kwa Sheria ya Bunge; na
(d) ardhi ambayo—
(i) inashikiliwa kihalali, inayosimamiwa au kutumiwa na jamii mahususi kama misitu ya jamii, maeneo ya malisho au shughuli za kiimani;
(ii) ardhi za mababu na ardhi ambazo kiutamaduni zilishikiliwa na jamii za wawindaji na waokotaji; au
(iii) imeshikiliwa kisheria na serikali za kaunti kama ardhi ya amana, lakini haijumuishi ardhi yoyote ya umma inayoshikiliwa na serikali ya kaunti chini ya Kifungu cha 62(2).
… (Kifungu cha 63)

Property, Inheritance and Land Tenure

Ardhi yenye umiliki binafsi inajumuisha -
(a) ardhi iliyosajiliwa ambayo inamilikiwa na mtu yeyote chini ya umiliki wowote chini ya muda usiokuwa na kikomo;
(b) ardhi inayomilikiwa na mtu yeyote chini ya umiliki wa kukodisha; na
(c) ardhi nyingine yoyote iliyotangazwa kuwa ni ya umiliki binafsi chini ya Sheria ya Bunge. (Kifungu cha 64)

Property, Inheritance and Land Tenure

Bunge-
(a) litapitia, kuunganisha na kurekebisha sheria za ardhi zilizopo;
(b) litapitia sheria za matumizi ya ardhi ya kisekta kwa mujibu wa kanuni zilizowekwa katika Kifungu cha 60 (1); na
(c) litatunga sheria-
(i) ili kuelezea kiwango cha chini na cha juu cha ekari za ardhi zinazoweza kumilikiwa na watu binafsi;
(ii) ili kusimamia namna ambavyo ardhi yoyote inaweza kubadilishwa kutoka kwenye kipengele kimoja kwenda kingine;
(iii) itasimamia utambuzi na ulinzi wa mali ya wanandoa na haswa nyumba ya wanandoa wakati wa ndoa na wakati wa kuvunjika ndoa;
(iv) italinda, kuhifadhi na kutoa idhini ya ufikiaji wa ardhi yote ya umma;
(v) itawezesha uhakiki wa ruzuku zote au matumizi ya ardhi ya umma i li kujua usahihi na uhalali wake;
(vi) itawalinda tegemezi wa marehemu wenye maslahi katika ardhi yoyote, ikiwa ni pamoja na masilahi ya wanandoa katika umiliki halisi wa ardhi;
… (Kifungu cha 68)

Property, Inheritance and Land Tenure

...
(5) Mamlaka ya Mahakama ya Kadhi yatakuwa na mipaka itakayoishia katika kuamua shauri la sheria ya Kiisilamu inayohusiana na hadhi binafsi, ndoa, talaka au urithi katika kesi ambazo kwazo pande zote ni waumini wa dini ya Kiislamu na wanaitii mamlaka ya mahakama za Kadhi.
… (Kifungu cha 170)

Protection from Violence

Licha ya vifungu vingine vyovyote katika Katiba hii, haki zifuatazo na uhuru wa msingi hazitawekewa mipaka-
(a) uhuru dhidi ya kuteswa na ukatili, kitendo au adhabu ya udhalilishaji;
(b) uhuru dhidi ya utumwa na kutumikishwa;
… (Kifungu cha 25)

Protection from Violence

Kila mtu ana haki ya uhuru na usalama wa mtu huyo, ambayo ni pamoja na haki ya-

(c) kutoingizwa kwenye aina yoyote ya vurugu kutoka ama vyanzo vya umma au vya binafsi;
(d) kutoingizwa kwenye mateso kwa njia yoyote ile, iwe ya kimwili au ya kisaikolojia;
(e) kutopewa adhabu ya viboko; au
(f) kutotendewa au kutoadhibiwa kwa njia ya kikatili, au ya kudhalilisha. (Kifungu cha 29)

Protection from Violence

(1) Mtu hatashikiliwa katika utumwa au kutumikishwa.
(2) Mtu hatalazimishwa kufanya kazi ya shuruba. (Kifungu cha 30)

Protection from Violence

...
(2) Haki ya uhuru wa kujieleza haijumuishi-
(a) propaganda za vita;
(b) kuchochea vurugu;
(c) matamshi ya chuki; au
(d) kuhamasisha chuki ambayo -
(i) inajumuisha uchochezi wa kikabila, kuwasingizai wengine au uchochezi wa kusababisha madhara; au
(ii) inatokana na msingi wowote wa ubaguzi ulioainishwa au kufafanuliwa katika Kifungu cha 27 (4).
… (Kifungu cha 33)

Protection from Violence

(1) Kila mtoto ana haki -

(d) ya kulindwa dhidi ya unyanyasaji, kupuuzwa, desturi mbaya za kitamaduni, kila aina ya ukatili, kitendo na adhabu ya udhalilishaji, na kazi mbaya au ya unyonyaji;
… (Kifungu cha 53)

Protection from Violence

...
(2) Chama cha siasa-
(a) hakitaanzishwa kwa msingi wa kidini, lugha, rangi, kabila, jinsia au kikanda au kujihusisha katika uenezi wa chuki kwa msingi wowote kama huo;
(b) kujihusisha au kuchochea vurugu kwa, au kutishia wanachama wake, wafuasi, wapinzani au mtu mwingine yeyote;
… (Kifungu cha 91)

Public Institutions and Services

...
(3) Vyombo vyote vya Serikali na watumishi wa umma wana wajibu wa kushughulikia mahitaji ya makundi yaliyopo katika mazingira hatarishi katika jamii, ikiwa ni pamoja na wanawake, wazee, watu wenye ulemavu, watoto, vijana, wanajamii wenye uwakilishi mdogo katika jamii au watu waliotengwa na jamii, na watu wa jamii ya kabila, dini au utamaduni fulani.
… (Kifungu cha 21)

Public Institutions and Services

1. Kila mtu ana haki-

e. ya ulinzi wa kijamii; ...
3. Serikali itatoa ulinzi stahiki wa kijamii kwa watu ambao hawawezi kujihudumia na kuwahudumia tegemezi wao. (Kifungu cha 43)

Public Institutions and Services

(1) Familia ni kiungo cha asili na cha msingi cha jamii na msingi muhimu wa maadili ya kijamii, na itanufaika na kutambuliwa na kulindwa na Serikali.
... (Kifungu cha 45)

Public Institutions and Services

Malengo ya ugatuzi wa serikali ni-

f. kuimarisha maendeleo ya kijamii na kiuchumi na kutoa huduma karibu na wananchi, zinazopatikana kwa urahisi katika nchi nzima ya Kenya;
… (Kifungu cha 174)

Public Institutions and Services

Kanuni zifuatazo zitaongoza nyanja zote za fedha za umma katika Jamhuri
...
(b) mfumo wa fedha za umma utaimarisha jamii yenye usawa, na haswa-

(iii) matumizi yataimarisha maendeleo sawa ya nchi, ikiwa ni pamoja na kutunga sheria maalumu kwa ajili ya makundi na maeneo ya pembezoni;
… (Kifungu cha 201)

Public Institutions and Services


9. Elimu ya awali, vituo vya mafunzo mbalimbali kijijini, vituo vya ufundi na vituo vya malezi ya watoto.
… (Kiambatisho cha Nne - Mgawanyo wa Kazi kati ya Serikali ya Kitaifa na Serikali za Kaunti, Sehemu ya 2 - Serikali za Kaunti)

Sexual and Reproductive Rights

(1) Kila mtu ana haki ya kuishi.
(2) Maisha ya mtu huanza wakati wa kutungwa mimba.
(3) Mtu hataondolewa maisha kwa kukusudia, isipokuwa kwa kiwango kilichoidhinishwa na Katiba hii au sheria nyingineyo iliyoandikwa.
(4) Utoaji wa mimba haruhusiwi isipokuwa, kwa maoni ya mtaalamu wa afya, kuna haja ya matibabu ya dharura, au maisha au afya ya mama iko hatarini, au ikiwa inaruhusiwa na sheria nyingine yoyote iliyoandikwa. (Kifungu cha 26)

Sexual and Reproductive Rights

(1) Kila mtu ana haki -
(a) ya kuwa na afya ya kiwango cha juu zaidi, ambacho hujumuisha haki ya kupata huduma za afya, ikiwa ni pamoja na huduma ya afya ya uzazi;
… (Kifungu cha 43)

Status of the Constitution

(1) Katiba hii ni sheria kuu ya Jamhuri na inawafunga watu wote na vyombo vyote vya Serikali katika ngazi zote mbili za serikali.

(4) Sheria yoyote, pamoja na sheria ya kijadi, ambayo inapingana na Katiba hii ni batili kwa kiwango cha kupingana, na kitendo chochote au uondoaji unaovunja Katiba hii ni batili.
... (Kifungu cha 2)

Status of the Constitution

(1) Kila mtu ana jukumu la kuheshimu, kulinda na kutetea Katiba hii.
… (Kifungu cha 3)

Status of the Constitution


(3) Njia za kijadi za utatuzi wa migogoro hazitatumika kwa njia ambayo—
...
(c) zinapingana na Katiba hii au sheria yoyote iliyoandikwa. (Kifungu cha 159)

Status of International Law


(5) Kanuni za jumla za sheria za kimataifa zitakuwa sehemu ya sheria ya Kenya.
(6) Makubaliano au mkataba wowote ulioridhiwa na Kenya utakuwa sehemu ya sheria ya Kenya chini ya Katiba hii. (Kifungu cha 2)

Status of International Law


(4) Serikali itatunga na kutekeleza sheria ili itimize majukumu yake ya kimataifa kuhusu haki za binadamu na uhuru wa msingi. (Kifungu cha 21)

Status of International Law

(1) Kuna Tume ya Kitaifa ya Haki za Binadamu na Usawa ya Kenya.
(2) Kazi za Tume ni-

(g) kufanya kazi kama chombo kikuu cha Serikali katika kuhakikisha uzingatiaji wa majukumu chini ya makubaliano na mikataba inayohusu haki za binadamu;
… (Kifungu cha 59)

Religious Law

Sisi, watu wa Kenya -
TUKIKIRI ukuu wa Mungu Mwenyezi muumbaji wa viumbe vyote:
… (Utangulizi)

Religious Law

Hakutakuwa na dini ya serikali. (Kifungu cha 8)

Religious Law

...
(4) Vifungu katika Sura hii kwa usawa vitatumika kwa kiwango ambacho ni lazima kabisa kutumia sharia ya Kiislamu mbele ya mahakama za Kadhi, kwa watu ambao ni waumini wa dini ya Kiisilamu, katika maswala yanayohusu hadhi binafsi, ndoa, talaka na urithi.
… (Kifungu cha 24)

Religious Law

...
(4) Bunge litatunga sheria inayotambua-
(a) ndoa zilizofungwa chini ya utamaduni wowote, au mfumo wa sheria za kidini, za binafsi au za familia; na
(b) mfumo wowote wa sheria binafsi au familia chini ya utamaduni wowote, au inazingatiwa na watu ambao ni waumini wa dini fulani,
kwa kiwango kwamba ndoa yoyote ya namna hiyo au mifumo ya sheria haipingani na Katiba hii. (Kifungu cha 45)

Religious Law

(1) Kutakuwa na Kadhi Mkuu na idadi hiyo, hiatakuwa chini ya Makadhi wengine watatu, kama inavyoweza kuamriwa chini ya Sheria ya Bunge.
(2) Mtu hatakuwa na sifa ya kuteuliwa kushikilia au kufanya kazi katika ofisi ya Kadhi isipokuwa mtu huyo—
(a) ni muumini wa dini ya Kiislamu; na
(b) anayo maarifa ya sheria ya Kiislamu inayotumika kwa madhehebu yoyote ya Waislamu yanayompa sifa mtu huyo, kwa maoni ya Tume ya Huduma ya Mahakama, ya kushikilia mahakama ya Kadhi.
(3) Bunge litaunda mahakama za Kadhi, ambazo kila moja itakuwa na mamlaka na madaraka yatakayotolewa na sheria, kwa mujibu wa ibara ya (5).
(4) Kadhi Mkuu na Makadhi wengineo, au Kadhi Mkuu na baadhi ya Makadhi wengine (hawatakuwa chini ya idadi ya watu watatu) kama inavyoweza kuamriwa chini ya Sheria ya Bunge, kila mmoja atawezeshwa kushikilia mahakama ya Kadhi yenye mamlaka ndani ya Kenya.
(5) Mamlaka ya Mahakama ya Kadhi yatakuwa na mipaka itakayoishia katika kuamua shauri la sheria ya Kiisilamu inayohusiana na hadhi binafsi, ndoa, talaka au urithi katika kesi ambazo kwazo pande zote ni waumini wa dini ya Kiislamu na wanaitii mamlaka ya mahakama za Kadhi. (Kifungu cha 170)

Customary Law


(4) Sheria yoyote, pamoja na sheria ya kijadi, ambayo inapingana na Katiba hii ni batili kwa kiwango cha kupingana, na kitendo chochote au uondoaji unaovunja Katiba hii ni batili.
… (Kifungu cha 2)

Customary Law

...
(4) Bunge litatunga sheria inayotambua-
(a) ndoa zilizofungwa chini ya utamaduni wowote, au mfumo wa sheria za kidini, za binafsi au za familia; na
(b) mfumo wowote wa sheria binafsi au familia chini ya utamaduni wowote, au inazingatiwa na watu ambao ni waumini wa dini fulani,
kwa kiwango kwamba ndoa yoyote ya namna hiyo au mifumo ya sheria haipingani na Katiba hii. (Kifungu cha 45)

Customary Law

(1) Ardhi nchini Kenya itashikiliwa, kutumiwa na kusimamiwa kwa njia ambayo ni yenye usawa, fanisi, yenye tija na endelevu, na kwa kufuata kanuni zifuatazo-

(f) uondoaji wa ubaguzi wa kijinsia katika sheria, mila na desturi zinazohusiana na ardhi na mali katika ardhi;
… (Kifungu cha 60)

Customary Law

...
(2) Katika kutumia mamlaka ya mahakama, mahakama na mabaraza yataongozwa na kanuni zifuatazo-

(c) njia mbadala za utatuzi wa mgogoro ikiwa ni pamoja na maridhiano, upatanishi, usuluhishi na njia za kijadi za utatuzi wa mgogoro zitahamasishwa, kwa kuzingatia ibara ya (3) ;

(3) Njia za kijadi za utatuzi wa mgogoro hazitatumika kwa njia ambayo—
(a) inakiuka Sheria ya Haki za Binadamu;
(b) inakinzana na haki na maadili au husababisha matokeo ambayo yanakinzana na haki au maadili; au
(c) ni kinyume cha Katiba hii au sheria yoyote iliyoandikwa. (Kifungu cha 159)

Affirmative Action (Broadly)

English

(1) Every person is equal before the law and has the right to equal protection and equal benefit of the law.
(2) Equality includes the full and equal enjoyment of all rights and fundamental freedoms.
(3) Women and men have the right to equal treatment, including the right to equal opportunities in political, economic, cultural and social spheres.
(4) The State shall not discriminate directly or indirectly against any person on any ground, including race, sex, pregnancy, marital status, health status, ethnic or social origin, colour, age, disability, religion, conscience, belief, culture, dress, language or birth.
(5) A person shall not discriminate directly or indirectly against another person on any of the grounds specified or contemplated in clause (4).
(6) To give full effect to the realisation of the rights guaranteed under this Article, the State shall take legislative and other measures, including affirmative action3 programmes and policies designed to redress any disadvantage suffered by individuals or groups because of past discrimination.
(7) Any measure taken under clause (6) shall adequately provide for any benefits to be on the basis of genuine need.
(8) In addition to the measures contemplated in clause (6), the State shall take legislative and other measures to implement the principle that not more than two-thirds of the members of elective or appointive bodies shall be of the same gender. (Art. 27)

Swahili

(1) Watu wote ni sawa mbele ya sheria, na wanayo haki, bila ya ubaguzi wowote, kulindwa na kupata haki sawa mbele ya sheria.
(2) Haki sawa ni pamoja na kurufahia kikamilifu na kwa usawa haki zote na uhuru wa msingi.
(3) Wanawake na wanaume wana haki ya kutendewa kwa usawa, ikiwa ni pamoja na haki ya kuwa na fursa sawa katika nyanja za kisiasa, kiuchumi, kiutamaduni na kijamii.
(4) Serikali haitambagua mtu yeyote kwa dhahiri au si kwa dhahiri kwa msingi wowote ikiwa ni pamoja na mbari, jinsi, mimba, hali ya ndoa, hali ya afya, asili ya kikabila au kijamii, rangi, umri, ulemavu, dini, dhamiri, imani, utamaduni, mavazi, lugha au kuzaliwa.
(5) Mtu yeyote hatambagua mtu yeyote kwa dhahiri ama si kwa dhahiri kwa misingi yoyote iliyobaisnishwa katika ibara ya (4).
(6) Ili kutekeleza kikamilifu utekelezaji wa haki zilizohakikishwa chini ya Ibara hii, Serikali itachukua hatua za kisheria na hatua nyinginezo, pamoja na mipango na sera thabiti za utekelezaji zilizoundwa ili kufidia unyimwaji wa haki ambao uliwapata watu au kikundi cha watu kwa sababu ya ubaguzi wa zamani.
(7) Hatua yoyote inayochukuliwa chini ya ibara ya (6) itatoa kikamilifu maslahi kwa msingi wa hitaji la kweli.
(8) Pamoja na hatua zilizobainishwa katika ibara ya (6), Serikali itachukua hatua za kisheria na hatua nyinginezo ili kutekeleza kanuni ambayo itahakikisha kwamba washirika wa bodi wa kuchaguliwa au kuteuliwa wa jinsia moja hawatakuwa zaidi ya theluthi mbili. (Kifungu cha 27)

Affirmative Action (Broadly)

English

Parliament shall enact legislation to promote the representation in Parliament of—
(a) women;
(b) persons with disabilities;
(c) youth;
(d) ethnic and other minorities; and
(e) marginalised communities. (Art. 100)

Swahili

Bunge litatunga sheria ili kuimarisha uwakilishi Bungeni wa—
(a) wanawake;
(b) watu wenye ulemavu;
(c) vijana;
(d) kabila na watu wengine wenye uwakilishi mdogo katika jamii; na
(e) jamii zilizotengwa. (Kifungu cha 100)

Affirmative Action (Broadly)

English

(1) The Judicial Service Commission shall promote and facilitate the independence and accountability of the judiciary and the efficient, effective and transparent administration of justice …
(2) In the performance of its functions, the Commission shall be guided by the following—
...
(b) the promotion of gender equality. (Art. 172)

Swahili

(1) Tume ya Huduma ya Mahakama itakuza na kuwezesha uhuru na uwajibikaji wa mahakama na usimamizi wa haki wenye ufanisi na wenye matokeo yanayotarajiwa na wa uwazi ...
(2) Katika utekelezaji wa majukumu yake, Tume itaongozwa na mambo yafuatayo—
...
(b) uimarishaji wa usawa wa kijinsia. (Kifungu cha 172)

Affirmative Action (Broadly)

English


(11) The chairperson and vice-chairperson of a commission4 shall not be of the same gender.
… (Art. 250)

Swahili


(11) Mwenyekiti na makamu mwenyekiti wa tume hawatakuwa wa jinsia moja.
… (Kifungu cha 250)

Citizenship and Nationality

English

(1) Every person who was a citizen immediately before the effective date retains the same citizenship status as of that date.
(2) Citizenship may be acquired by birth or registration.
(3) Citizenship is not lost through marriage or the dissolution of marriage. (Art. 13)

Swahili

(1) Kila mtu ambaye alikuwa raia muda mfupi kabla ya tarehe ya utekelezaji anabaki na hadhi iyo hiyo ya uraia hadi kufikia tarehe hiyo.
(2) Uraia unaweza kupatikana kwa kuzaliwa au kujiandikisha.
(3) Uraia haupotei kwa njia ya ndoa au kuvunjika kwa ndoa. (Kifungu cha 13)

Citizenship and Nationality

English

(1) A person is a citizen by birth if on the day of the person’s birth, whether or not the person is born in Kenya, either the mother or father of the person is a citizen.
(2) Clause (1) applies equally to a person born before the effective date, whether or not the person was born in Kenya, if either the mother or father of the person is or was a citizen.
(3) Parliament may enact legislation limiting the effect of clauses (1) and (2) on the descendents of Kenyan citizens who are born outside Kenya.
(4) A child found in Kenya who is, or appears to be, less than eight years of age, and whose nationality and parents are not known, is presumed to be a citizen by birth.
(5) A person who is a Kenyan citizen by birth and who has ceased to be a Kenyan citizen because the person acquired citizenship of another country, is entitled on application to regain Kenyan citizenship. (Art. 14)

Swahili

(1) Mtu ni raia kwa kuzaliwa ikiwa siku ya kuzaliwa mtu huyo, iwe mtu huyo amezaliwa Kenya au la, mama au baba wa mtu huyo ni raia.
(2) Ibara ya (1) inatumika sawa kwa mtu aliyezaliwa kabla ya tarehe ya utekelezaji, iwe mtu huyo alizaliwa Kenya au la, ikiwa mama au baba wa mtu huyo ni raia au alikuwa raia.
(3) Bunge linaweza kutunga sheria ili kuweka mipaka ya taathira ya ibara ya (1) na ya (2) kwa vizazi vya raia wa Kenya ambao wamezaliwa nje ya Kenya.
(4) Mtoto aliyepatikana nchini Kenya ambaye, au anaonekana kuwa na umri chini ya miaka minane, na ambaye utaifa na wazazi hawajulikani, anachukuliwa kuwa ni raia kwa kuzaliwa.
(5) Mtu ambaye ni raia wa Kenya kwa kuzaliwa na ameacha kuwa raia wa Kenya kwa sababu mtu huyo alipata uraia wa nchi nyingine, ana haki ya kutuma maombi ya kupata uraia wa Kenya. (Kifungu cha 14)

Citizenship and Nationality

English

(1) A person who has been married to a citizen for a period of at least seven years is entitled on application to be registered as a citizen.
(2) A person who has been lawfully resident in Kenya for a continuous period of at least seven years, and who satisfies the conditions prescribed by an Act of Parliament, may apply to be registered as a citizen.
(3) A child who is not a citizen, but is adopted by a citizen, is entitled on application to be registered as a citizen.
(4) Parliament shall enact legislation establishing conditions on which citizenship may be granted to individuals who are citizens of other countries.
… (Art. 15)

Swahili

(1) Mtu ambaye ameolewa na raia kwa muda wa angalau miaka saba ana haki ya kutuma maombi na kuandikishwa kuwa raia.
(2) Mtu ambaye amekaa kihalali nchini Kenya kwa kipindi kisichozidi miaka saba mfululizo, na ambaye anakidhi masharti yaliyowekwa na Sheria ya Bunge, anaweza kutuma maombi ili kuandikishwa kama raia.
(3) Mtoto ambaye si raia, lakini ameasiliwa na raia, ana haki ya kutuma maombi ya kuandikishwa kama raia.
(4) Bunge litatunga sheria ya kuweka masharti ambayo kwayo uraia unaweza kutolewa kwa watu ambao ni raia wa nchi zingine.
… (Kifungu cha 15)

Citizenship and Nationality

English

A citizen by birth does not lose citizenship by acquiring the citizenship of another country. (Art. 16)

Swahili

Raia kwa kuzaliwa haupotezi uraia kwa kupata uraia wa nchi nyingine. (Kifungu cha 16)

Citizenship and Nationality

English

...
(2) The citizenship of a person who was presumed to be a citizen by birth, as contemplated in Article 14(4), may be revoked if—
(a) the citizenship was acquired by fraud, false representation or concealment of any material fact by any person;
(b) the nationality or parentage of the person becomes known, and reveals that the person was a citizen of another country; or
(c) the age of the person becomes known, and reveals that the person was older than eight years when found in Kenya. (Art. 17)

Swahili

...
(2) Uraia wa mtu ambaye alidhaniwa kuwa raia kwa kuzaliwa, kama ilivyobainishwa katika Kifungu cha 14 (4), unaweza kubatilishwa ikiwa—
(a) uraia huo ulipatikana kwa njia ya udanganyifu, utambulisho wa uongo au kuficha ukweli wowote halisi unaofanywa na yeyote
(b) utaifa au wazazi wa mtu huyo kujulikana, na kuonyesha ukweli kuwa mtu huyo alikuwa raia wa nchi nyingine; au
(c) umri wa mtu huyo kujulikana, na kuonyesha kuwa mtu huyo alikuwa na umri zaidi ya miaka minane alipokutwa Kenya. (Kifungu cha 17)

Citizenship and Nationality

English

Parliament shall enact legislation—
(a) prescribing procedures by which a person may become a citizen;

(e) prescribing procedures for revocation of citizenship;

(g) generally giving effect to the provisions of this Chapter.
… (Art. 18)

Swahili

Bunge litatunga sheria—
(a) ikielezea taratibu ambazo kwazo mtu anaweza kuwa raia;

(e) ikielezea taratibu za kufuta uraia;

(g) kwa ujumla itakayotekeleza vifungu vya Sura hii.
… (Kifungu cha 18)

Citizenship and Nationality

English


3. ... citizenship.
… (Fourth Schedule - Distribution of Functions between the National Government and the County Governments, Part 1 – National Government)

Swahili


3. ... uraia.
… (Kiambatisho cha Nne - Mgawanyo wa Majukumu baina ya Serikaili ya Kitaifa na Serikili za Kaunti, Sehemu ya 1 - Serikali ya Kitaifa)

Jurisdiction and Access

English

...
(4) Appeals shall lie from the Court of Appeal to the Supreme Court—
(a) as of right in any case involving the interpretation or application of this Constitution;
(b) in any other case in which the Supreme Court, or the Court of Appeal, certifies that a matter of general public importance is involved, subject to clause (5).
… (Art. 163)

Swahili

...
(4) Rufaa itakatwa kutoka Mahakama ya Rufaa kwenda Mahakama Kuu-
(a) kama ilivyo kwa haki katika kesi yoyote inayohusisha ufafanuzi au matumizi ya Katiba hii;
(b) katika kesi nyingine yoyote ambayo Mahakama Kuu, au Mahakama ya Rufaa, inathibitisha kwamba suala la umuhimu kwa umma linahusika, kwa kuzingatia ibara ya (5).
… (Kifungu cha 163)

Jurisdiction and Access

English

...
(3) Subject to clause (5), the High Court shall have—

(d) jurisdiction to hear any question respecting the interpretation of this Constitution including the determination of—
(i) the question whether any law is inconsistent with or in contravention of this Constitution;
(ii) the question whether anything said to be done under the authority of this Constitution or of any law is inconsistent with, or in contravention of, this Constitution;
(iii) any matter relating to constitutional powers of State organs in respect of county governments and any matter relating to the constitutional relationship between the levels of government;
(iv) a question relating to conflict of laws under Article 191;
… (Art. 165)

Swahili

...
(3) Kwa kuzingatia ibara ya (5), Mahakama Kuu itakuwa-

(d) mamlaka ya kusikiliza shauri lolote kuhusu ufafanuzi wa Katiba hii ikiwa ni pamoja na uamuzi wa-
(i) shauri kwamba iwapo sheria yoyote ipo kinyume au imevunja Katiba hii;
(ii) shauri kwamba iwapo kuna kitu chochote ambacho kimefanywa chini ya mamlaka ya Katiba hii au ya sheria yoyote kipo kinyume au kimevunja Katiba hii;
(iii) jambo lolote linalohusiana na nguvu ya kikatiba ya vyombo vya Serikali kuhusu serikali za kaunti na jambo lolote linalohusiana na uhusiano wa kikatiba kati ya ngazi za serikali;
(iv) shauri linalohusiana na mgongano wa sheria chini ya Kifungu cha 191;
… (Kifungu cha 165)

Jurisdiction and Access

English

(1) Every person has the right to institute court proceedings, claiming that this Constitution has been contravened, or is threatened with contravention.
(2) In addition to a person acting in their own interest, court proceedings under clause (1) may be instituted by—
(a) a person acting on behalf of another person who cannot act in their own name;
(b) a person acting as a member of, or in the interest of, a group or class of persons;
(c) a person acting in the public interest; or
(d) an association acting in the interest of one or more of its members. (Art. 258)

Swahili

(1) Kila mtu ana haki ya kufungua kesi mahakamani, akidai kwamba Katiba hii imevunjwa, au inatishiwa kuvunjwa.
(2) Pamoja na mtu kufanya kwa maslahi yake binafsi, kesi za mahakamani chini ya ibara ya (1) zinaweza kufunguliwa na-
(a) mtu anayechukua hatua kwa niaba ya mtu mwingine ambaye hawezi kuchukua hatua kwa jina lake;
(b) mtu anayechukua hatua kama mshiriki, au kwa maslahi ya kikundi au tabaka la watu;
(c) mtu anayechukua hatua kwa maslahi ya umma; au
(d) chama kinachochukua hatua kwa maslahi ya mwanachama wake mmoja au zaidi. (Kifungu cha 258)

Education

English

(1) Every person has the right—

(f) to education.
… (Art. 43)

Swahili

(1) Kila mtu ana haki—

(f) ya kupata elimu.
… (Kifungu cha 43)

Education

English

(1) Every child has the right—

(b) to free and compulsory basic education;
… (Art. 53)

Swahili

(1) Kila mtoto ana haki—

(b) ya kupata elimu ya msingi kwa lazima na bila malipo;
… (Kifungu cha 53)

Education

English

The State shall take measures, including affirmative action programmes, to ensure that the youth—
(a) access relevant education and training;
… (Art. 55)

Swahili

Serikali itachukua hatua, ikiwa ni pamoja na mipango thabiti ya utekelezaji, ili kuhakikisha kwamba vijana-
(a) wanapata elimu na mafunzo stahiki;
… (Kifungu cha 55)

Education

English

...
15. Education policy, standards, curricula, examinations and the granting of university charters.
16. Universities, tertiary educational institutions and other institutions of research and higher learning and primary schools, special education, secondary schools and special education institutions.
… (Fourth Schedule - Distribution of Functions between the National Government and the County Governments, Part 1 – National Government)

Swahili

...
15. Sera ya elimu, viwango, mitaala, mitihani na usajili wa chuo kikuu.
16. Vyuo vikuu, taasisi za elimu ya juu na taasisi nyinginezo za utafiti na elimu ya juu na shule za msingi, elimu maalumu, shule za upili na taasisi za elimu maalumu.
… (Kiambatisho cha Nne - Mgawanyo wa Majukumu baina ya Serikaili ya Kitaifa na Serikili za Kaunti, Sehemu ya 1 - Serikali ya Kitaifa)

Employment Rights and Protection

English

(1) Every person has the right to fair labour practices.
(2) Every worker has the right—
(a) to fair remuneration;
(b) to reasonable working conditions;
… (Art. 41)

Swahili

(1) Kila mtu ana haki ya kufanya kazi kwa usawa.
(2) Kila mfanyakazi ana haki -
(a) ya kupata mshahara mzuri;
(b) ya kuwa na mazingira mazuri ya kufanya kazi;
… (Kifungu cha 41)

Employment Rights and Protection

English


13. Labour standards.
… (Fourth Schedule - Distribution of Functions between the National Government and the County Governments, Part 1 – National Government)

Swahili


13. Viwango vya kazi.
… (Kiambatisho cha Nne - Mgawanyo wa Majukumu baina ya Serikaili ya Kitaifa na Serikili za Kaunti, Sehemu ya 1 - Serikali ya Kitaifa)

Equality and Non-Discrimination

English

We, the people of Kenya - …
RECOGNISING the aspirations of all Kenyans for a government based on the essential values of human rights, equality, freedom, democracy, social justice and the rule of law:
… (Preamble)

Swahili

Sisi, wananchi wa Kenya - …
KWA KUTAMBUA matamanio ya Wakenya wote kuwa na serikali iliyojengwa katika tunu muhimu za haki za binadamu, usawa, uhuru, demokrasia, haki ya kijamii na utawala wa sheria:
... (Utangulizi)

Equality and Non-Discrimination

English

(1) The national values and principles of governance in this Article bind all State organs, State officers, public officers and all persons whenever any of them—
(a) applies or interprets this Constitution;
(b) enacts, applies or interprets any law; or
(c) makes or implements public policy decisions.
(2) The national values and principles of governance include—

(b) human dignity, equity, social justice, inclusiveness, equality, human rights, non-discrimination and protection of the marginalised;
… (Art. 10)

Swahili

(1) Tunu za kitaifa na kanuni za utawala katika Kifungu hiki huvifunga vyombo vyote vya Serikali, maafisa wa Serikali, watumishi wa umma na watu wote wakati wowote pale ambapo yeyote kati ya hao-
(a) anatumia au kufafanua Katiba hii;
(b) anatunga, anatumia au anafafanua sheria yoyote; au
(c) anafanya au kutekeleza maamuzi ya sera ya umma.
(2) Tunu za kitaifa na kanuni za utawala ni pamoja na—

(b) utu wa binadamu, haki, haki ya kijamii, umoja, usawa, haki za binadamu, kutokuwa na ubaguzi na ulinzi kwa waliotengwa na jamii;
… (Kifungu cha 10)

Equality and Non-Discrimination

English

(1) Every person is equal before the law and has the right to equal protection and equal benefit of the law.
(2) Equality includes the full and equal enjoyment of all rights and fundamental freedoms.
(3) Women and men have the right to equal treatment, including the right to equal opportunities in political, economic, cultural and social spheres.
(4) The State shall not discriminate directly or indirectly against any person on any ground, including race, sex, pregnancy, marital status, health status, ethnic or social origin, colour, age, disability, religion, conscience, belief, culture, dress, language or birth.
(5) A person shall not discriminate directly or indirectly against another person on any of the grounds specified or contemplated in clause (4).
(6) To give full effect to the realisation of the rights guaranteed under this Article, the State shall take legislative and other measures, including affirmative action5 programmes and policies designed to redress any disadvantage suffered by individuals or groups because of past discrimination.
(7) Any measure taken under clause (6) shall adequately provide for any benefits to be on the basis of genuine need.
(8) In addition to the measures contemplated in clause (6), the State shall take legislative and other measures to implement the principle that not more than two-thirds of the members of elective or appointive bodies shall be of the same gender. (Art. 27)

Swahili

(1) Watu wote ni sawa mbele ya sheria, na wanayo haki, bila ya ubaguzi wowote, kulindwa na kupata haki sawa mbele ya sheria.
(2) Haki sawa ni pamoja na kurufahia kikamilifu na kwa usawa haki zote na uhuru wa msingi.
(3) Wanawake na wanaume wana haki ya kutendewa kwa usawa, ikiwa ni pamoja na haki ya kuwa na fursa sawa katika nyanja za kisiasa, kiuchumi, kiutamaduni na kijamii.
(4) Serikali haitambagua mtu yeyote kwa dhahiri au si kwa dhahiri kwa msingi wowote ikiwa ni pamoja na mbari, jinsi, mimba, hali ya ndoa, hali ya afya, asili ya kikabila au kijamii, rangi, umri, ulemavu, dini, dhamiri, imani, utamaduni, mavazi, lugha au kuzaliwa.
(5) Mtu yeyote hatambagua mtu yeyote kwa dhahiri ama si kwa dhahiri kwa misingi yoyote iliyobaisnishwa katika ibara ya (4).
(6) Ili kutekeleza kikamilifu utekelezaji wa haki zilizohakikishwa chini ya Kifungu hiki, Serikali itachukua hatua za kisheria na hatua nyinginezo, pamoja na mipango na sera thabiti za utekelezaji zilizoundwa ili kufidia unyimwaji wa haki ambao uliwapata watu au kikundi cha watu kwa sababu ya ubaguzi wa zamani.
(7) Hatua yoyote inayochukuliwa chini ya ibara ya (6) itatoa kikamilifu maslahi kwa msingi wa hitaji la kweli.
(8) Pamoja na hatua zilizobainishwa katika ibara ya (6), Serikali itachukua hatua za kisheria na hatua nyinginezo ili kutekeleza kanuni ambayo itahakikisha kwamba washirika wa bodi wa kuchaguliwa au kuteuliwa wa jinsia moja hawatakuwa zaidi ya theluthi mbili. (Kifungu cha 27)

Obligations of the State

English

We, the people of Kenya - …
RECOGNISING the aspirations of all Kenyans for a government based on the essential values of human rights, equality, freedom, democracy, social justice and the rule of law:
… (Preamble)

Swahili

Sisi, wananchi wa Kenya - …
KWA KUTAMBUA matamanio ya Wakenya wote kuwa na serikali iliyojengwa katika tunu muhimu za haki za binadamu, usawa, uhuru, demokrasia, haki ya kijamii na utawala wa sheria:
... (Utangulizi)

Obligations of the State

English

(1) The national values and principles of governance in this Article bind all State organs, State officers, public officers and all persons whenever any of them—
(a) applies or interprets this Constitution;
(b) enacts, applies or interprets any law; or
(c) makes or implements public policy decisions.
(2) The national values and principles of governance include—

(b) human dignity, equity, social justice, inclusiveness, equality, human rights, non-discrimination and protection of the marginalised;
… (Art. 10)

Swahili

(1) Tunu za kitaifa na kanuni za utawala katika Kifungu hiki huvifunga vyombo vyote vya Serikali, maafisa wa Serikali, watumishi wa umma na watu wote wakati wowote pale ambapo yeyote kati ya hao-
(a) anatumia au kufafanua Katiba hii;
(b) anatunga, anatumia au anafafanua sheria yoyote; au
(c) anafanya au kutekeleza maamuzi ya sera ya umma.
(2) Tunu za kitaifa na kanuni za utawala ni pamoja na—

(b) utu wa binadamu, haki, haki ya kijamii, umoja, usawa, haki za binadamu, kutokuwa na ubaguzi na ulinzi kwa waliotengwa na jamii;
… (Kifungu cha 10)

Obligations of the State

English

(1) The Bill of Rights is an integral part of Kenya’s democratic state and is the framework for social, economic and cultural policies.
(2) The purpose of recognising and protecting human rights and fundamental freedoms is to preserve the dignity of individuals and communities and to promote social justice and the realisation of the potential of all human beings.
(3) The rights and fundamental freedoms in the Bill of Rights—
(a) belong to each individual and are not granted by the State;
(b) do not exclude other rights and fundamental freedoms not in the Bill of Rights, but recognised or conferred by law, except to the extent that they are inconsistent with this Chapter; and
(c) are subject only to the limitations contemplated in this Constitution. (Art. 19)

Swahili

(1) Sheria ya Haki za Binadamu ni sehemu muhimu ya serikali ya kidemokrasia ya Kenya na ni mwongozo wa sera za kijamii, kiuchumi na kiutamaduni.
(2) Madhumuni ya kutambua na kulinda haki za binadamu na uhuru wa msingi ni kulinda utu wa watu na jamii na kukuza haki ya kijamii na kuthamini umuhimu wa binadamu wote.
(3) Haki na uhuru wa msingi katika Sheria ya Haki za Binadamu-
(a) ni ya kila mtu na haitolewi na Serikali;
(b) haiondoi haki nyinginezo na uhuru wa msingi ambao haupo kwenye Sheria ya Haki za Binadamu, lakini hutambuliwa au hutolewa na sheria, isipokuwa kwa kiwango ambacho zipo kinyume cha Sura hii; na
(c) huzingatia tu mipaka iliyobainishwa katika Katiba hii. (Kifungu cha 19)

Obligations of the State

English

(1) The Bill of Rights applies to all law and binds all State organs and all persons.
(2) Every person shall enjoy the rights and fundamental freedoms in the Bill of Rights to the greatest extent consistent with the nature of the right or fundamental freedom.
… (Art. 20)

Swahili

(1) Sheria ya Haki za Binadamu inahusu sheria zote na huvifunga vyombo vyote vya Serikali na watu wote.
(2) Kila mtu atanufaika na haki na uhuru wa msingi ulipo katika Sheria ya Haki za Binadamu kwa kiwango kikubwa kabisa sawasawa na asili ya haki yenyewe au uhuru wa msingi.
… (Kifungu cha 20)

Obligations of the State

English

(1) It is a fundamental duty of the State and every State organ to observe, respect, protect, promote and fulfil the rights and fundamental freedoms in the Bill of Rights.
(2) The State shall take legislative, policy and other measures, including the setting of standards, to achieve the progressive realisation of the rights guaranteed under Article 43.
(3) All State organs and all public officers have the duty to address the needs of vulnerable groups within society, including women, older members of society, persons with disabilities, children, youth, members of minority or marginalised communities, and members of particular ethnic, religious or cultural communities.
(4) The State shall enact and implement legislation to fulfil its international obligations in respect of human rights and fundamental freedoms. (Art. 21)

Swahili

(1) Ni jukumu la msingi la Serikali na kila chombo cha Serikali kuzingatia, kuheshimu, kulinda, kuhamasisha na kutimiza haki na uhuru wa msingi katika Sheria ya Haki za Binadamu.
(2) Serikali itachukua hatua za kisheria, kisera na hatua nyinginezo, ikiwa ni pamoja na kuweka viwango, ili kufikia utekelezaji endelevu wa haki zilizohakikishwa chini ya Kifungu cha 43.
(3) Vyombo vyote vya Serikali na watumishi wa umma wana wajibu wa kushughulikia mahitaji ya makundi yaliyopo katika mazingira hatarishi katika jamii, ikiwa ni pamoja na wanawake, wazee, watu wenye ulemavu, watoto, vijana, wanajamii wenye uwakilishi mdogo katika jamii au watu waliotengwa na jamii, na watu wa jamii ya kabila, dini au utamaduni fulani.
(4) Serikali itatunga na kutekeleza sheria ili itimize majukumu yake ya kimataifa kuhusu haki za binadamu na uhuru wa msingi. (Kifungu cha 21)

Obligations of the State

English

(1) This Constitution shall be interpreted in a manner that—
...
(b) advances the rule of law, and the human rights and fundamental freedoms in the Bill of Rights;
... (Art. 259)

Swahili

(1) Katiba hii itafafanuliwa kwa namna ambayo—
...
(b) huimarisha utawala wa sheria, na haki za binadamu na uhuru wa msingi katika Sheria ya Haki za Binadamu;
... (Kifungu cha 259)

Obligations of Private Parties

English

(1) The Bill of Rights applies to all law and binds all State organs and all persons.
… (Art. 20)

Swahili

(1) Sheria ya Haki za Binadamu inahusu sheria zote na huvifunga vyombo vyote vya Serikali na watu wote.
… (Kifungu cha 20)

Judicial Protection

English

...
(3) In applying a provision of the Bill of Rights, a court shall—
(a) develop the law to the extent that it does not give effect to a right or fundamental freedom; and
(b) adopt the interpretation that most favours the enforcement of a right or fundamental freedom.
(4) In interpreting the Bill of Rights, a court, tribunal or other authority shall promote—
(a) the values that underlie an open and democratic society based on human dignity, equality, equity and freedom; and
(b) the spirit, purport and objects of the Bill of Rights.
(5) In applying any right under Article 43, if the State claims that it does not have the resources to implement the right, a court, tribunal or other authority shall be guided by the following principles—
(a) it is the responsibility of the State to show that the resources are not available;
(b) in allocating resources, the State shall give priority to ensuring the widest possible enjoyment of the right or fundamental freedom having regard to prevailing circumstances, including the vulnerability of particular groups or individuals; and
(c) the court, tribunal or other authority may not interfere with a decision by a State organ concerning the allocation of available resources, solely on the basis that it would have reached a different conclusion. (Art. 20)

Swahili

...
(3) Katika kutumia Sheria ya Haki za Binadamu, mahakama—
(a) itaidadafua sheria kwa kiwango ambacho hakitoi taathira kwenye haki au uhuru wa msingi; na
(b) itatumia tafsiri ambayo inaimarisha zaidi haki au uhuru wa msingi.
(4) Katika kufasiri Sheria ya Haki za Binadamu, mahakama, baraza au mamlaka nyingineyo itaimarisha—
(a) tunu ambazo zinajenga jamii ya wazi na ya kidemokrasia kwa msingi wa utu wa binadamu, usawa, haki na uhuru; na
(b) kusudi, dhamira na, malengo ya Sheria ya Haki za Binadamu.
(5) Katika kutumia haki yoyote chini ya Kifungu cha 43, ikiwa Serikali inadai kuwa haina rasilimali ya kutekeleza haki hiyo, mahakama, baraza au mamlaka nyingineyo itaongozwa na kanuni zifuatazo—
(a) ni jukumu la Serikali kuonyesha kwamba hakuna rasilimali;
(b) katika kugawanya rasilimali, Serikali itatoa kipaumbele katika kuhakikisha kuna unufaikaji mkubwa kadri iwezekanavyo wa haki na uhuru wa msingi baada ya kuzingatia mazingira yaliyopo, ikiwa ni pamoja na mazingira hatarishi ya makundi au watu fulani; na
(c) mahakama, baraza au mamlaka nyingineyo haitaweza kuingilia maamuzi yaliyotolewa na chombo cha Serikali kuhusu mgawanyo wa rasilimali zilizopo, kwa msingi tu kwamba kungekuwa na hitimisho tofauti. (Kifungu cha 20)

Judicial Protection

English

(1) Every person has the right to institute court proceedings claiming that a right or fundamental freedom in the Bill of Rights has been denied, violated or infringed, or is threatened.
(2) In addition to a person acting in their own interest, court proceedings under clause (1) may be instituted by—
(a) a person acting on behalf of another person who cannot act in their own name;
(b) a person acting as a member of, or in the interest of, a group or class of persons;
(c) a person acting in the public interest; or
(d) an association acting in the interest of one or more of its members.
… (Art. 22)

Swahili

(1) Kila mtu ana haki ya kufungua kesi mahakamani akidai kwamba haki au uhuru wa msingi katika Sheria ya Haki za Binadamu haikutolewa, imekiukwa au imevunjwa, au imetishiwa.
(2) Pamoja na mtu kufanya kwa maslahi yake binafsi, kesi za mahakamani chini ya ibara ya (1) zinaweza kufunguliwa na-
(a) mtu anayechukua hatua kwa niaba ya mtu mwingine ambaye hawezi kuchukua hatua kwa jina lake;
(b) mtu anayechukua hatua kama mshiriki, au kwa maslahi ya kikundi au tabaka la watu;
(c) mtu anayechukua hatua kwa maslahi ya umma; au
(d) chama kinachochukua hatua kwa maslahi ya mwanachama wake mmoja au zaidi.
… (Kifungu cha 22)

Judicial Protection

English

(1) The High Court has jurisdiction, in accordance with Article 165, to hear and determine applications for redress of a denial, violation or infringement of, or threat to, a right or fundamental freedom in the Bill of Rights.
(2) Parliament shall enact legislation to give original jurisdiction in appropriate cases to subordinate courts to hear and determine applications for redress of a denial, violation or infringement of, or threat to, a right or fundamental freedom in the Bill of Rights.
(3) In any proceedings brought under Article 22, a court may grant appropriate relief, including—
(a) a declaration of rights;
(b) an injunction;
(c) a conservatory order;
(d) a declaration of invalidity of any law that denies, violates, infringes, or threatens a right or fundamental freedom in the Bill of Rights and is not justified under Article 24;
(e) an order for compensation; and
(f) an order of judicial review. (Art. 23)

Swahili

(1) Mahakama Kuu ina mamlaka, kwa mujibu wa Kifungu cha 165, ya kusikia na kuamua maombi ya kutoa fidia ya kukataliwa, kukiuka au kuvunja, au kutishia, haki au uhuru wa msingi katika Sheria ya Haki za Binadamu.
(2) Bunge litatunga sheria ili kutoa mamlaka ya asili katika kesi stahiki ili kuiamuru mahakama kusikiliza na kuamua maombi ya kutoa fidia ya kukataliwa, kukiuka au kuvunja, au kutishia, haki au uhuru wa msingi katika Sheria ya Haki za Binadamu.
(3) Katika kesi yoyote iliyofunguliwa chini ya Kifungu cha 22, mahakama inaweza kutoa unafuu stahiki, ikiwa ni pamoja na—
(a) kutangaza haki;
(b) kutoa amri ya kisheria;
(c) amri ya kuhifadhi;
(d) tamko la kuharamisha sheria yoyote ambayo inanyima, inakiuka, inavunja, au inatishia haki au uhuru wa msingi katika Sheria ya Haki za Binadamu na haijathibitishwa chini ya kifungu cha 24;
(e) amri ya kutoa fidia; na
(f) amri ya kufanya mapitio ya sheria. (Kifungu cha 23)

Judicial Protection

English


(3) Subject to clause (5), the High Court shall have—

(b) jurisdiction to determine the question whether a right or fundamental freedom in the Bill of Rights has been denied, violated, infringed or threatened;
… (Art. 165)

Swahili


(3) Kwa kuzingatia ibara ya (5), Mahakama Kuu itakuwa na—

(b) mamlaka ya kuamua shauri iwapo haki au uhuru wa msingi katika Sheria ya Haki za Binadamu haikutolewa, imekiukwa, imevunjwa au imetishiwa;
… (Kifungu cha 165)

National Human Rights Bodies

English

(1) There is established the Kenya National Human Rights and Equality Commission.
(2) The functions of the Commission are—
(a) to promote respect for human rights and develop a culture of human rights in the Republic;
(b) to promote gender equality and equity generally and to coordinate and facilitate gender mainstreaming in national development;
(c) to promote the protection, and observance of human rights in public and private institutions;
(d) to monitor, investigate and report on the observance of human rights in all spheres of life in the Republic, including observance by the national security organs;
(e) to receive and investigate complaints about alleged abuses of human rights and take steps to secure appropriate redress where human rights have been violated;
(f) on its own initiative or on the basis of complaints, to investigate or research a matter in respect of human rights, and make recommendations to improve the functioning of State organs;
(g) to act as the principal organ of the State in ensuring compliance with obligations under treaties and conventions relating to human rights;

(3) Every person has the right to complain to the Commission, alleging that a right or fundamental freedom in the Bill of Rights has been denied, violated or infringed, or is threatened.
(4) Parliament shall enact legislation to give full effect to this Part, and any such legislation may restructure the Commission into two or more separate commissions.
… (Art. 59)

Swahili

(1) Kuna Tume ya Kitaifa ya Haki za Binadamu na Usawa ya Kenya.
(2) Kazi za Tume ni—
(a) kuimarisha heshima kwa haki za binadamu na kuendeleza utamaduni wa haki za binadamu katika Jamhuri;
(b) kuimarisha usawa wa kijinsia na haki kwa jumla na kuratibu na kuwezesha ujumuishaji wa masuala ya kijinsia katika maendeleo ya kitaifa;
(c) kuimarisha ulinzi, na uzingatiaji wa haki za binadamu katika taasisi za umma na binafsi;
(d) kufuatilia, kuchunguza na kutoa taarifa juu ya uzingatiaji wa haki za binadamu katika nyanja zote za maisha katika Jamhuri, ikiwa ni pamoja na vyombo vya usalama vya kitaifa kuzingatia;
(e) kupokea na kuchunguza malalamiko kuhusu tuhuma za ukiukaji wa haki za binadamu na kuchukua hatua za kutoa fidia stahiki pale ambapo haki za binadamu zimekiukwa;
(f) kwa jitihada zake yenyewe au kwa msingi wa malalamiko, kuchunguza au kutafiti jambo kuhusu haki za binadamu, na kutoa mapendekezo ya kuboresha utendaji kazi wa vyombo vya Serikali;
(g) kufanya kazi kama chombo kikuu cha Serikali katika kuhakikisha uzingatiaji wa majukumu chini ya makubaliano na mikataba inayohusiana na haki za binadamu;

(3) Kila mtu ana haki ya kulalamika mbele ya Tume, akidai kuwa haki au uhuru wa msingi katika Sheria ya Haki za Binadamu imenyimwa, imekiukwa au kuvunjwa, au imetishiwa.
(4) Bunge litatunga sheria kuwezesha utekelezaji kamili wa Sehemu hii, na sheria yoyote ya namna hiyo inaweza kuiunda upya tume na kuwa tume tofauti mbili au zaidi.
… (Kifungu cha 59)

National Human Rights Bodies

English


(11) The chairperson and vice-chairperson of a commission6 shall not be of the same gender.
… (Art. 250)

Swahili


(11) Mwenyeketi na makamu mwenyekiti wa tume hawatakuwa wa jinsia moja.
… (Kifungu cha 250)

Indigenous Peoples

English


2. The national values and principles of governance include-

b. human dignity, equity, social justice, inclusiveness, equality, human rights, non-discrimination and protection of the marginalised;
… (Art. 10)

Swahili


(2) Tunu za kitaifa na kanuni za utawala ni pamoja na-

(b) utu wa binadamu, haki, haki ya kijamii, umoja, usawa, haki za binadamu, kutokuwa na ubaguzi na ulinzi kwa waliotengwa na jamii;
… (Kifungu cha 10)

Indigenous Peoples

English

...
(3) All State organs and all public officers have the duty to address the needs of vulnerable groups within society, including women, older members of society, persons with disabilities, children, youth, members of minority or marginalised communities, and members of particular ethnic, religious or cultural communities.
… (Art. 21)

Swahili

...
(3) Vyombo vyote vya Serikali na watumishi wa umma wana wajibu wa kushughulikia mahitaji ya makundi yaliyopo katika mazingira hatarishi katika jamii, ikiwa ni pamoja na wanawake, wazee, watu wenye ulemavu, watoto, vijana, wanajamii wenye uwakilishi mdogo katika jamii au watu waliotengwa na jamii, na watu wa jamii ya kabila, dini au utamaduni fulani.
… (Kifungu cha 21)

Indigenous Peoples

English

The State shall put in place affirmative action programmes designed to ensure that minorities and marginalised groups—
(a) participate and are represented in governance and other spheres of life;
(b) are provided special opportunities in educational and economic fields;
(c) are provided special opportunities for access to employment;
(d) develop their cultural values, languages and practices; and
(e) have reasonable access to water, health services and infrastructure. (Art. 56)

Swahili

Serikali itaweka mipango thabiti ya utekelezaji iliyowekwa ili kuhakikisha kwamba watu wenye uwakilishi mdogo katika jamii na makundi yaliyotengwa na jamii-
(a) wanashiriki na wanawakilishwa katika utawala na nyanja nyingine za maisha;
(b) wanapewa fursa maalumu katika nyanja za elimu na uchumi;
(c) wanapewa fursa maalumu za kupata ajira;
(d) wanakuza tunu zao za kitamaduni, lugha na desturi; na
(e) wanaweza kupata maji, huduma za afya na miundombinu. (Kifungu cha 56)

Indigenous Peoples

English

(1) Community land shall vest in and be held by communities identified on the basis of ethnicity, culture or similar community of interest.
(2) Community land consists of—
(a) land lawfully registered in the name of group representatives under the provisions of any law;
(b) land lawfully transferred to a specific community by any process of law;
(c) any other land declared to be community land by an Act of Parliament; and
(d) land that is—
(i) lawfully held, managed or used by specific communities as community forests, grazing areas or shrines;
(ii) ancestral lands and lands traditionally occupied by hunter-gatherer communities; or
(iii) lawfully held as trust land by the county governments, but not including any public land held in trust by the county government under Article 62(2).
… (Art. 63)

Swahili

(1) Ardhi ya jamii itakabidhiwa na kushikiliwa na jamii zinazotambuliwa kwa msingi wa kabila, utamaduni au jamii yenye maslahi yanayofanana.
(2) Ardhi ya jumuiya inajumuisha—
(a) ardhi iliyosajiliwa kihalali kwa jina la wawakilishi wa kikundi chini ya masharti ya sheria yoyote;
(b) ardhi ambayo umilikiwa wake umehamishwa kihalali kwenda kwa jamii mahususi kwa mchakato wowote wa sheria;
(c) ardhi nyingine yoyote iliyotangazwa kuwa ardhi ya jamii kwa Sheria ya Bunge; na
(d) ardhi ambayo—
(i) inashikiliwa kihalali, inayosimamiwa au kutumiwa na jamii mahususi kama misitu ya jamii, maeneo ya malisho au shughuli za kiimani;
(ii) ardhi za mababu na ardhi ambazo kiutamaduni zilishikiliwa na jamii za wawindaji na waokotaji; au
(iii) imeshikiliwa kisheria na serikali za kaunti kama ardhi ya amana, lakini haijumuishi ardhi yoyote ya umma inayoshikiliwa na serikali ya kaunti chini ya Kifungu cha 62(2).
... (Kifungu cha 63)

Indigenous Peoples

English

1. Every political party shall-

e. respect the right of all persons to participate in the political process, including minorities and marginalised groups;
… (Art. 91)

Swahili

1. Kila chama cha siasa-

e. kitaheshimu haki ya watu wote kushiriki katika mchakato wa kisiasa, ikiwa ni pamoja na watu wenye uwakilishi mdogo katika jamii na makundi yaliyotengwa na jamii;
… (Kifungu cha 91)

Indigenous Peoples

English

Parliament shall enact legislation to promote the representation in Parliament of—

(d) ethnic and other minorities; and
(e) marginalised communities. (Art. 100)

Swahili

Bunge litatunga sheria ili kuimarisha uwakilishi Bungeni wa—

(d) kabila na watu wengine wenye uwakilishi mdogo katika jamii; na
(e) jamii za pembezoni. (Kifungu cha 100)

Indigenous Peoples

English

The objects of the devolution of government are—
...
(d) to recognise the right of communities to manage their own affairs and to further their development;
(e) to protect and promote the interests and rights of minorities and marginalised communities;
… (Art. 174)

Swahili

Malengo ya ugatuzi wa serikali ni-
...
(d) kutambua haki ya jamii kusimamia mambo yao wenyewe na kukuza maendeleo yao;
(e) kulinda na kuimarisha masilahi na haki za watu wenye uwakilishi mdogo katika jamii na jamii za pembezoni;
… (Kifungu cha 174)

Indigenous Peoples

English

The following principles shall guide all aspects of public finance in the Republic
...
(b) the public finance system shall promote an equitable society, and in particular—

(iii) expenditure shall promote the equitable development of the country, including by making special provision for marginalised groups and areas;
… (Art. 201)

Swahili

Kanuni zifuatazo zitaongoza nyanja zote za fedha za umma katika Jamhuri
...
(b) mfumo wa fedha za umma utaimarisha jamii yenye usawa, na hususani-

(iii) matumizi yataimarisha maendeleo sawa ya nchi, ikiwa ni pamoja na kutunga sheria maalumu kwa ajili ya makundi na maeneo ya pembezoni;
… (Kifungu cha 201)

Indigenous Peoples

English


(3) The national government may use the Equalisation Fund-

(b) either directly, or indirectly through conditional grants to counties in which marginalised communities exist.
… (Art. 204)

Swahili


(3) Serikali ya kitaifa inaweza kutumia Mfuko wa Usawa-

(b) ama kwa dhahiri, au si kwa dhahiri kupitia ruzuku zenye masharti kwenda kwenye kaunti ambazo kuna jamii za pembezoni.
… (Kifungu cha 204)

Indigenous Peoples

English


• “marginalised community” means-
(a) a community that, because of its relatively small population or for any other reason, has been unable to fully participate in the integrated social and economic life of Kenya as a whole;
(b) a traditional community that, out of a need or desire to preserve its unique culture and identity from assimilation, has remained outside the integrated social and economic life of Kenya as a whole;
(c) an indigenous community that has retained and maintained a traditional lifestyle and livelihood based on a hunter or gatherer economy; or
(d) pastoral persons and communities, whether they are-
(i) nomadic; or
(ii) a settled community that, because of its relative geographic isolation, has experienced only marginal participation in the integrated social and economic life of Kenya as a whole;
• “marginalised group” means a group of people who, because of laws or practices before, on, or after the effective date, were or are disadvantaged by discrimination on one or more of the grounds in Article 27 (4);
… (Art. 260)

Swahili


• “jamii ya pembezoni” humaanisha-
(a) jamii ambayo, kwa sababu ya idadi ndogo ya watu wake au kwa sababu nyingineyo yoyote, imeshindwa kushiriki kikamilifu katika maisha ya kijamii na kiuchumi ya Kenya kwa ujumla;
(b) jamii ya jadi ambayo, kutokana na hitaji au shauku ya kuhifadhi utamaduni na utambulisho wake wa kipekee na kitambulisho ili usipotee, imebaki nje ya maisha ya kawaida ya kijamii na kiuchumi ya Kenya kwa ujumla;
(c) jamii asilia ambayo imeshikilia na kudumisha mtindo wa maisha ya jadi na kujipatia riziki katika uchumi wa uwindaji na uokotaji; au
(d) watu na jamii ya wafugaji, iwe ni-
(i) wa kuhamahama; au
(ii) jamii yenye makazi ya kudumu ambayo, kwa sababu ya kujitenga kwake kijiografia, imeshiriki kidogo sana katika maisha ya pamoja ya kijamii na kiuchumi ya Kenya kwa ujumla;
"Kikundi cha pembezoni" humaanisha kikundi cha watu ambao, kwa sababu ya sheria au desturi za hapo awali, au baada ya tarehe ya utekelezaji walikuwa au wametengwa, kwa kubaguliwa kwa sababu moja au zaidi zilizopo katika Kifungu cha 27 (4);
… (Kifungu cha 260)

Limitations and/or Derogations

English

...
(3) The rights and fundamental freedoms in the Bill of Rights—
(a) belong to each individual and are not granted by the State;
(b) do not exclude other rights and fundamental freedoms not in the Bill of Rights, but recognised or conferred by law, except to the extent that they are inconsistent with this Chapter; and
(c) are subject only to the limitations contemplated in this Constitution. (Art. 19)

Swahili

...
(3) Haki na uhuru wa msingi katika Sheria ya Haki za Binadamu-
(a) ni ya kila mtu na haitolewi na Serikali;
(b) haiondoi haki nyinginezo na uhuru wa msingi ambao haupo kwenye Sheria ya Haki za Binadamu, lakini hutambuliwa au hutolewa na sheria, isipokuwa kwa kiwango ambacho zipo kinyume na Sura hii; na
(c) huzingatia tu mipaka iliyobainishwa katika Katiba hii. (Kifungu cha 19)

Limitations and/or Derogations

English

(1) A right or fundamental freedom in the Bill of Rights shall not be limited except by law, and then only to the extent that the limitation is reasonable and justifiable in an open and democratic society based on human dignity, equality and freedom, taking into account all relevant factors including—
(a) the nature of the right or fundamental freedom;
(b) the importance of the purpose of the limitation;
(c) the nature and extent of the limitation;
(d) the need to ensure that the enjoyment of rights and fundamental freedoms by any individual does not prejudice the rights and fundamental freedoms of others; and
(e) the relation between the limitation and its purpose and whether there are less restrictive means to achieve the purpose.
(2) Despite clause (1), a provision in legislation limiting a right or fundamental freedom—
(a) in the case of a provision enacted or amended on or after the effective date, is not valid unless the legislation specifically expresses the intention to limit that right or fundamental freedom, and the nature and extent of the limitation;
(b) shall not be construed as limiting the right or fundamental freedom unless the provision is clear and specific about the right or freedom to be limited and the nature and extent of the limitation; and
(c) shall not limit the right or fundamental freedom so far as to derogate from its core or essential content.
(3) The State or a person seeking to justify a particular limitation shall demonstrate to the court, tribunal or other authority that the requirements of this Article have been satisfied.
(4) The provisions of this Chapter on equality shall be qualified to the extent strictly necessary for the application of Muslim law before the Kadhis’ courts, to persons who profess the Muslim religion, in matters relating to personal status, marriage, divorce and inheritance.
… (Art. 24)

Swahili

(1) Haki au uhuru wa msingi katika Sheria ya Haki za Binadamu haitakuwa na mpaka isipokuwa kwa sheria, na tena kwa kiwango ambacho mpaka huo una mantiki na unathibitika kwenye jamii ya uwazi na ya kidemokrasia kwa msingi wa utu wa binadamu, usawa na uhuru, kwa kuzingatia mambo yote muhimu ikiwa ni pamoja na—
(a) asili ya uhuru au haki ya msingi;
(b) umuhimu wa madhumuni ya mpaka huo;
(c) asili na kiwango cha mpaka huo;
(d) hitaji la kuhakikisha kuwa unufaikaji wa uhuru wa msingi na haki kwa mtu yeyote hauathiri uhuru wa msingi na haki ya watu wengine; na
(e) uhusiano kati ya mpaka na madhumuni yake na ikiwa kuna njia zenye ugumu kidogo za kufikia kusudi hilo.
(2) Licha ya ibara ya (1), kifungu katika sheria kinachozuia haki au uhuru wa msingi-
(a) ikiwa kuna sheria iliyotungwa au kufanyiwa marekebisho tarehe hiyo au baada ya tarehe ya utekelezaji, si halali isipokuwa sheria hiyo ielezee kwa umahususi kusudi la kuwekea mipaka haki hiyo au uhuru wa msingi na asili na kiwango cha mpaka huo;
(b) haitachukuliwa kuwa inaiwekea mpaka haki au uhuru wa msingi kama sheria hiyo haiko dhahiri na mahususi kuhusu uhuru wa msingi na haki ambayo itawekewa mipaka na asili na kiwango cha mpaka huo; na
(c) haitawekea mipaka haki au uhuru wa msingi hadi kufikia kiwango cha kupunguza kwenye maudhui yake ya msingi au muhimu.
(3) Serikali au mtu anayetafuta kuhalalisha mpaka fulani ataielezea mahakama, baraza au mamlaka nyingineyo kwamba matakwa ya Kifungu hiki yamekamilishwa.
(4) Sheria za Sura hii juu ya usawa zitahalalishwa kwa kiwango ambacho ni lazima kabisa kutumia sharia ya Kiislamu mbele ya mahakama za Kadhi, kwa watu ambao ni waumini wa dini ya Kiisilamu, katika maswala yanayohusu hadhi ya binafsi, ndoa, talaka na urithi.
… (Kifungu cha 24)

Limitations and/or Derogations

English

Despite any other provision in this Constitution, the following rights and fundamental freedoms shall not be limited—
(a) freedom from torture and cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment;
(b) freedom from slavery or servitude;
(c) the right to a fair trial; and
(d) the right to an order of habeas corpus. (Art. 25)

Swahili

Licha ya sheria nyingineyo yoyote katika Katiba hii, uhuru wa msingi na haki zifuatazo hazitawekewa mipaka-
(a) uhuru dhidi ya kuteswa na ukatili, unyanyasaji au udhalilishaji au adhabu;
(b) uhuru dhidi ya utumwa au kutumikishwa;
(c) haki ya kushtakiwa kwa haki; na
(d) haki ya amri ya kumfikisha mfungwa kortini. (Kifungu cha 25)

Limitations and/or Derogations

English

...
(6) Any legislation enacted in consequence of a declaration of a state of emergency—
(a) may limit a right or fundamental freedom in the Bill of Rights only to the extent that—
(i) the limitation is strictly required by the emergency; and
(ii) the legislation is consistent with the Republic’s obligations under international law applicable to a state of emergency; and
(b) shall not take effect until it is published in the Gazette.
… (Art. 58)

Swahili

...
(6) Sheria yoyote iliyotungwa kwa sababu ya tangazo la hali ya dharura-
(a) inaweza kuwekea mpaka haki au uhuru wa msingi katika Sheria ya Haki za Binadamu ni kwa kiwango ambacho tu-
(i) mpaka huo unahitajika kabisa na dharura hiyo; na
(ii) sheria hiyo inaoana na majukumu ya Jamhuri chini ya sheria za kimataifa zinazotumika kwa hali ya dharura; na
(b) haitaanza kutekelezwa hadi itakapochapishwa kwenye gazeti la serikali.
… (Kifungu cha 58)

Marriage and Family Life

English

We, the people of Kenya - …
COMMITTED to nurturing and protecting the well-being of the individual, the family, communities and the nation:
… (Preamble)

Swahili

Sisi, wananchi wa Kenya -…
TUKIWA TUMEJIZATITI kulea na kulinda maslahi ya mtu, familia, jamii na taifa:
... (Utangulizi)

Marriage and Family Life

English

...
(4) The provisions of this Chapter7 on equality shall be qualified to the extent strictly necessary for the application of Muslim law before the Kadhis’ courts, to persons who profess the Muslim religion, in matters relating to personal status, marriage, divorce and inheritance.
… (Art. 24)

Swahili

...
(4) Vifungu katika Sura hii kwa usawa vitatumika kwa kiwango ambacho ni lazima kabisa kutumia sharia ya Kiislamu mbele ya mahakama za Kadhi, kwa watu ambao ni waumini wa dini ya Kiisilamu, katika maswala yanayohusu hadhi ya binafsi, ndoa, talaka na urithi.
… (Kifungu cha 24)

Marriage and Family Life

English

Every person has the right to privacy, which includes the right not to have—

(c) information relating to their family or private affairs unnecessarily required or revealed;
… (Art. 31)

Swahili

Kila mtu ana haki ya faragha, ambayo ni pamoja na haki ya kutokuwa na—

(c) habari zinazohusiana na familia zao au mambo yao binafsi yanayotakiwa au kufichuliwa isivyo lazima;
… (Kifungu cha 31)

Marriage and Family Life

English

(1) The family is the natural and fundamental unit of society and the necessary basis of social order, and shall enjoy the recognition and protection of the State.
(2) Every adult has the right to marry a person of the opposite sex, based on the free consent of the parties.
(3) Parties to a marriage are entitled to equal rights at the time of the marriage, during the marriage and at the dissolution of the marriage.
(4) Parliament shall enact legislation that recognises—
(a) marriages concluded under any tradition, or system of religious, personal or family law; and
(b) any system of personal and family law under any tradition, or adhered to by persons professing a particular religion, to the extent that any such marriages or systems of law are consistent with this Constitution. (Art. 45)

Swahili

(1) Familia ni kiungo cha asili na cha msingi cha jamii na msingi muhimu wa maadili ya kijamii, na itanufaika na kutambuliwa na kulindwa na Serikali.
(2) Kila mtu mzima ana haki ya kuoa mtu wa jinsia tofauti, kwa kuzingatia ridhaa huru ya pande zote.
(3) Pande zote katika ndoa zina haki sawa siku ya ndoa, wakati wa ndoa na wakati wa kuvunja ndoa.
(4) Bunge litatunga sheria inayotambua-
(a) ndoa zilizofungwa chini ya utamaduni wowote, au mfumo wa sheria za kidini, za binafsi au za familia; na
(b) mfumo wowote wa sheria ya binafsi au familia chini ya utamaduni wowote, au inazingatiwa na watu ambao ni waumini wa dini fulani, kwa kiwango kwamba ndoa yoyote ya namna hiyo au mifumo ya sheria haipingani na Katiba hii. (Kifungu cha 45)

Marriage and Family Life

English

(1) Every child has the right

(e) to parental care and protection, which includes equal responsibility of the mother and father to provide for the child, whether they are married to each other or not;
… (Art. 53)

Swahili

(1) Kila mtoto ana haki

(e) ya malezi na ulinzi wa wazazi, ambayo hujumuisha jukumu sawa la mama na baba kumhudumia mtoto, iwe wameoana au la;
… (Kifungu cha 53)

Marriage and Family Life

English

Parliament shall—
...
(c) enact legislation—

(iii) to regulate the recognition and protection of matrimonial property and in particular the matrimonial home during and on the termination of marriage;
… (Art. 68)

Swahili

Bunge-

(c) litatunga sheria-
...
(iii) ili kudhibiti utambuzi na ulinzi wa mali ya wana ndoa na hususani nyumba ya wanandoa wakati na siku ya kuvunjika kwa ndoa;
… (Kifungu cha 68)

Marriage and Family Life

English

...
(5) The jurisdiction of a Kadhis’ court shall be limited to the determination of questions of Muslim law relating to personal status, marriage, divorce or inheritance in proceedings in which all the parties profess the Muslim religion and submit to the jurisdiction of the Kadhi’s courts. (Art. 170)

Swahili

...
(5) Mamlaka ya Mahakama ya Kadhi yatakuwa na mipaka itakayoishia katika kuamua shauri la sheria ya Kiisilamu inayohusiana na hadhi binafsi, ndoa, talaka au urithi katika kesi ambazo kwazo pande zote ni waumini wa dini ya Kiislamu na wanaitii mamlaka ya mahakama za Kadhi. (Kifungu cha 170)

Minorities

English

...
(3) All State organs and all public officers have the duty to address the needs of vulnerable groups within society, including women, older members of society, persons with disabilities, children, youth, members of minority or marginalised communities, and members of particular ethnic, religious or cultural communities.
… (Art. 21)

Swahili

...
(3) Vyombo vyote vya Serikali na watumishi wa umma wana wajibu wa kushughulikia mahitaji ya makundi yaliyopo katika mazingira hatarishi katika jamii, ikiwa ni pamoja na wanawake, wazee, watu wenye ulemavu, watoto, vijana, wanajamii wenye uwakilishi mdogo katika jamii au watu waliotengwa na jamii, na watu wa jamii ya kabila, dini au utamaduni fulani.
… (Kifungu cha 21)

Minorities

English

The State shall put in place affirmative action programmes designed to ensure that minorities and marginalised groups—
(a) participate and are represented in governance and other spheres of life;
(b) are provided special opportunities in educational and economic fields;
(c) are provided special opportunities for access to employment;
(d) develop their cultural values, languages and practices; and
(e) have reasonable access to water, health services and infrastructure. (Art. 56)

Swahili

Serikali itaweka mipango thabiti ya utekelezaji iliyowekwa ili kuhakikisha kwamba watu wenye uwakilishi mdogo katika jamii na makundi yaliyotengwa na jamii-
(a) wanashiriki na wanawakilishwa katika utawala na nyanja nyingine za maisha;
(b) wanapewa fursa maalumu katika nyanja za elimu na uchumi;
(c) wanapewa fursa maalumu za kupata ajira;
(d) wanakuza tunu zao za kitamaduni, lugha na desturi; na
(e) wanaweza kupata maji, huduma za afya na miundombinu. (Kifungu cha 56)

Minorities

English

(1) Community land shall vest in and be held by communities identified on the basis of ethnicity, culture or similar community of interest.
(2) Community land consists of—
(a) land lawfully registered in the name of group representatives under the provisions of any law;
(b) land lawfully transferred to a specific community by any process of law;
(c) any other land declared to be community land by an Act of Parliament; and
(d) land that is—
(i) lawfully held, managed or used by specific communities as community forests, grazing areas or shrines;
(ii) ancestral lands and lands traditionally occupied by hunter-gatherer communities; or
(iii) lawfully held as trust land by the county governments, but not including any public land held in trust by the county government under Article 62(2).
… (Art. 63)

Swahili

(1) Ardhi ya jamii itakabidhiwa na kushikiliwa na jamii zinazotambuliwa kwa msingi wa kabila, utamaduni au jamii yenye maslahi yanayofanana.
(2) Ardhi ya jumuiya inajumuisha—
(a) ardhi iliyosajiliwa kihalali kwa jina la wawakilishi wa kikundi chini ya masharti ya sheria yoyote;
(b) ardhi ambayo umilikiwa wake umehamishwa kihalali kwenda kwa jamii mahususi kwa mchakato wowote wa sheria;
(c) ardhi nyingine yoyote iliyotangazwa kuwa ardhi ya jamii kwa Sheria ya Bunge; na
(d) ardhi ambayo—
(i) inashikiliwa kihalali, inayosimamiwa au kutumiwa na jamii mahususi kama misitu ya jamii, maeneo ya malisho au matambiko;
(ii) ardhi za mababu na ardhi ambazo kiutamaduni zilishikiliwa na jamii za wawindaji na waokotaji; au
(iii) imeshikiliwa kisheria na serikali za kaunti kama ardhi ya amana, lakini haijumuishi ardhi yoyote ya umma inayoshikiliwa na serikali ya kaunti chini ya Kifungu cha 62 (2).
... (Kifungu cha 63)

Minorities

English

1. Every political party shall-

e. respect the right of all persons to participate in the political process, including minorities and marginalised groups;
… (Art. 91)

Swahili

1. Kila chama cha siasa-

e. kitaheshimu haki ya watu wote kushiriki katika mchakato wa kisiasa, ikiwa ni pamoja na watu wenye uwakilishi mdogo katika jamii na makundi yaliyotengwa na jamii;
… (Kifungu cha 91)

Minorities

English

Parliament shall enact legislation to promote the representation in Parliament of—

(d) ethnic and other minorities; and
(e) marginalised communities. (Art. 100)

Swahili

Bunge litatunga sheria ili kuimarisha uwakilishi Bungeni wa—

(d) kabila na watu wengine wenye uwakilishi mdogo katika jamii; na
(e) jamii za pembezoni. (Kifungu cha 100)

Minorities

English

The objects of the devolution of government are—

(d) to recognise the right of communities to manage their own affairs and to further their development;
(e) to protect and promote the interests and rights of minorities and marginalised communities;
… (Art. 174)

Swahili

Malengo ya ugatuzi wa serikali ni-

(d) kutambua haki ya jamii kusimamia mambo yao wenyewe na kukuza maendeleo yao;
(e) kulinda na kuimarisha masilahi na haki za watu wenye uwakilishi mdogo katika jamii na jamii za pembezoni;
… (Kifungu cha 174)

Minorities

English

The following principles shall guide all aspects of public finance in the Republic-
...
(b) the public finance system shall promote an equitable society, and in particular—

(iii) expenditure shall promote the equitable development of the country, including by making special provision for marginalised groups and areas;
… (Art. 201)

Swahili

Kanuni zifuatazo zitaongoza nyanja zote za fedha za umma katika Jamhuri
...
(b) mfumo wa fedha za umma utaimarisha jamii yenye usawa, na haswa-

(iii) matumizi yataimarisha maendeleo sawa ya nchi, ikiwa ni pamoja na kutunga sheria maalumu kwa ajili ya makundi na maeneo ya pembezoni;
… (Kifungu cha 201)

Minorities

English


(3) The national government may use the Equalisation Fund-

(b) either directly, or indirectly through conditional grants to counties in which marginalised communities exist.
(Art. 204)

Swahili


(3) Serikali ya kitaifa inaweza kutumia Mfuko wa Usawa-

(b) ama kwa dhahiri, au si kwa dhahiri kupitia ruzuku zenye masharti kwenda kwenye kaunti ambazo kuna jamii za pembezoni.
… (Kifungu cha 204)

Minorities

English

(1) The values and principles of public service include—

(i) affording adequate and equal opportunities for appointment, training and advancement, at all levels of the public service, of—
...
(ii) the members of all ethnic groups;
… (Art. 232)

Swahili

(1) Tunu na kanuni za utumishi wa umma ni pamoja na—

(i) kupata fursa sawa na stahiki kwa ajili ya uteuzi, mafunzo na maendeleo, katika ngazi zote za utumishi wa umma, wa-

(ii) watu wa makundi yote ya makabila;
… (Kifungu cha 232)

Minorities

English


• “marginalised community” means-
(a) a community that, because of its relatively small population or for any other reason, has been unable to fully participate in the integrated social and economic life of Kenya as a whole;
(b) a traditional community that, out of a need or desire to preserve its unique culture and identity from assimilation, has remained outside the integrated social and economic life of Kenya as a whole;
(c) an indigenous community that has retained and maintained a traditional lifestyle and livelihood based on a hunter or gatherer economy; or
(d) pastoral persons and communities, whether they are-
(i) nomadic; or
(ii) a settled community that, because of its relative geographic isolation, has experienced only marginal participation in the integrated social and economic life of Kenya as a whole;
• “marginalised group” means a group of people who, because of laws or practices before, on, or after the effective date, were or are disadvantaged by discrimination on one or more of the grounds in Article 27 (4); … (Art. 260)

Swahili


• “jamii ya pembezoni” humaanisha-
(a) jamii ambayo, kwa sababu ya idadi ndogo ya watu wake au kwa sababu nyingineyo yoyote, imeshindwa kushiriki kikamilifu katika maisha ya kijamii na kiuchumi ya Kenya kwa ujumla;
(b) jamii ya jadi ambayo, kutokana na hitaji au shauku ya kuhifadhi utamaduni na utambulisho wake wa kipekee na kitambulisho ili usipotee, imebaki nje ya maisha ya kawaida ya kijamii na kiuchumi ya Kenya kwa ujumla;
(c) jamii asilia ambayo imeshikilia na kudumisha mtindo wa maisha ya jadi na kujipatia riziki katika uchumi wa uwindaji na uokotaji; au
(d) watu na jamii ya wafugaji, iwe ni-
(i) wa kuhamahama; au
(ii) jamii yenye makazi ya kudumu ambayo, kwa sababu ya kujitenga kwake kijiografia, imeshiriki kidogo sana katika maisha ya pamoja ya kijamii na kiuchumi ya Kenya kwa ujumla;
"Kikundi cha pembezoni" humaanisha kikundi cha watu ambao, kwa sababu ya sheria au desturi za hapo awali, au baada ya tarehe ya utekelezaji walikuwa au wametengwa, kwa kubaguliwa kwa sababu moja au zaidi zilizopo katika Kifungu cha 27 (4);
… (Kifungu cha 260)

Participation in Public Life and Institutions

English

...
(3) Women and men have the right to equal treatment, including the right to equal opportunities in political, economic, cultural and social spheres.

(6) To give full effect to the realisation of the rights guaranteed under this Article, the State shall take legislative and other measures, including affirmative action8 programmes and policies designed to redress any disadvantage suffered by individuals or groups because of past discrimination.
(7) Any measure taken under clause (6) shall adequately provide for any benefits to be on the basis of genuine need.
(8) In addition to the measures contemplated in clause (6), the State shall take legislative and other measures to implement the principle that not more than two-thirds of the members of elective or appointive bodies shall be of the same gender. (Art. 27)

Swahili

...
(3) Wanawake na wanaume wana haki ya kutendewa kwa usawa, ikiwa ni pamoja na haki ya kuwa na fursa sawa katika nyanja za kisiasa, kiuchumi, kiutamaduni na kijamii.

(6) Ili kutekeleza kikamilifu utekelezaji wa haki zilizohakikishwa chini ya Kifungu hiki, Serikali itachukua hatua za kisheria na hatua nyinginezo, pamoja na mipango na sera thabiti za utekelezaji zilizoundwa ili kufidia unyimwaji wa haki ambao uliwapata watu au kikundi cha watu kwa sababu ya ubaguzi wa zamani.
(7) Hatua yoyote inayochukuliwa chini ya ibara ya (6) itatoa kikamilifu maslahi kwa msingi wa hitaji la kweli.
(8) Pamoja na hatua zilizobainishwa katika ibara ya (6), Serikali itachukua hatua za kisheria na hatua nyinginezo ili kutekeleza kanuni ambayo itahakikisha kwamba washirika wa bodi wa kuchaguliwa au kuteuliwa wa jinsia moja hawatakuwa zaidi ya theluthi mbili. (Kifungu cha27)

Participation in Public Life and Institutions

English

(1) There is established the Parliamentary Service Commission.
(2) The Commission consists of—
(a) the Speaker of the National Assembly, as chairperson;
(b) a vice-chairperson elected by the Commission from the members appointed under paragraph (c);
(c) seven members appointed by Parliament from among its members of whom—
(i) four shall be nominated equally from both Houses by the party or coalition of parties forming the national government, of whom at least two shall be women; and
(ii) three shall be nominated by the parties not forming the national government, at least one of whom shall be nominated from each House and at least one of whom shall be a woman; and
(d) one man and one woman appointed by Parliament from among persons who are experienced in public affairs, but are not members of Parliament.
… (Art. 127)

Swahili

(1) Kuna Tume ya Huduma ya Bunge.
(2) Tume inaundwa na—
(a) Spika wa Bunge, kama Mwenyekiti;
(b) makamu mwenyekiti aliyechaguliwa na Tume kutoka kwa wajumbe walioteuliwa chini ya kifungu cha (c);
(c) wajumbe saba walioteuliwa na Bunge kutoka miongoni mwa wajumbe wake ambao-
(i) wanne watateuliwa kwa usawa kutoka katika Kambi zote za Chama au muungano wa vyama unaounda serikali ya kitaifa, ambao angalau wawili watakuwa wanawake; na
(ii) watatu watateuliwa na vyama ambavyo haviundi serikali ya kitaifa, angalau mmoja kati yao atateuliwa kutoka katika kila Kambi na angalau mmoja kati yao atakuwa mwanamke; na
(d) mwanaume mmoja na mwanamke mmoja aliyeteuliwa na Bunge kutoka kwa watu wenye uzoefu katika maswala ya umma, lakini si wabunge.
… (Kifungu cha 127)

Participation in Public Life and Institutions

English

(1) There is established the Judicial Service Commission.
(2) The Commission shall consist of—
(a) the Chief Justice, who shall be the chairperson of the Commission;
(b) one Supreme Court judge elected by the judges of the Supreme Court;
(c) one Court of Appeal judge elected by the judges of the Court of Appeal;
(d) one High Court judge and one magistrate, one a woman and one a man, elected by the members of the association of judges and magistrates;
(e) the Attorney-General;
(f) two advocates, one a woman and one a man, each of whom has at least fifteen years’ experience, elected by the members of the statutory body responsible for the professional regulation of advocates;
(g) one person nominated by the Public Service Commission; and
(h) one woman and one man to represent the public, not being lawyers, appointed by the President with the approval of the National Assembly.
… (Art. 171)

Swahili

(1) Kuna Tume ya Huduma ya Mahakama.
(2) Tume itaundwa na—
(a) Jaji Mkuu, ambaye atakuwa mwenyekiti wa Tume;
(b) jaji mmoja wa Mahakama Kuu aliyechaguliwa na majaji wa Mahakama Kuu;
(c) jaji mmoja wa Mahakama ya Rufaa aliyechaguliwa na majaji wa Mahakama ya Rufaa;
(d) jaji mmoja wa Mahakama Kuu na hakimu mmoja, mmoja mwanamke na mmoja mwanaume, aliyechaguliwa na wajumbe wa chama cha majaji na mahakimu;
(e) Mwanasheria Mkuu;
(f) mawakili wawili, mmoja mwanamke na mmoja mwanamume, ambaye kila mmoja wao ana uzoefu wa angalau miaka kumi na mitano, aliyechaguliwa na wajumbe wa chombo cha kisheria kinachohusika na usimamizi wa kitaaluma wa mawakili;
(g) mtu mmoja aliyeteuliwa na Tume ya Huduma ya Umma; na
(h) mwanamke mmoja na mwanaume mmoja wawakilishi wa umma, ambao si wanasheria, walioteuliwa na Rais na kuidhinishwa na Bunge.
… (Kifungu cha 171)

Participation in Public Life and Institutions

English

(1) The Judicial Service Commission shall promote and facilitate the independence and accountability of the judiciary and the efficient, effective and transparent administration of justice and shall—
(a) recommend to the President persons for appointment as judges;

(2) In the performance of its functions, the Commission shall be guided by the following—
(a) competitiveness and transparent processes of appointment of judicial officers and other staff of the judiciary; and
(b) the promotion of gender equality. (Art. 172)

Swahili

(1) Tume ya Huduma ya Mahakama itaimarisha na kuwezesha uhuru na uwajibikaji wa mahakama na usimamizi wa haki wenye ufanisi, wenye matokeo yanayotarajiwa na kwa uwazi na-
(a) itawapendekeza watu kwa Rais kwa ajili ya kuteuliwa kuwa majaji;

(2) Katika utekelezaji wa majukumu yake, Tume itaongozwa na yafuatayo—
(a) mchakato shindani na wa wazi wa uteuzi wa maofisa wa mahakama na wafanyakazi wengine wa mahakama; na
(b) uimarishaji wa usawa wa kijinsia. (Kifungu cha 172)

Participation in Public Life and Institutions

English

(1) This Article applies to conflicts between national and county legislation in respect of matters falling within the concurrent jurisdiction of both levels of government.
(2) National legislation prevails over county legislation if—
(a) the national legislation applies uniformly throughout Kenya and any of the conditions specified in clause (3) is satisfied; …
(3) The following are the conditions referred to in clause (2)(a)––

(c) the national legislation is necessary for—

(v) the promotion of equal opportunity or equal access to government services;
... (Art. 191)

Swahili

(1) Kifungu hiki kinatumika kwenye migogoro kati ya sheria za kitaifa na za kaunti kuhusu masuala yanayoangukia katika mamlaka ya serikali zote mbili.
(2) Sheria za kitaifa ziko juu ya sheria za kaunti ikiwa-
(a) sheria ya kitaifa inatumika kwa namna sawa katika nchi yote ya Kenya na masharti yoyote yaliyoainishwa katika ibara ya (3) yamezingatiwa; …
(3) Yafuatayo ni masharti yaliyotajwa katika kifungu cha (2) (a)––

(c) sheria ya kitaifa ni ya lazima kwa ajili ya-

(v) uimarishaji wa fursa sawa au upatikanaji sawia wa huduma za serikali;
... (Kifungu cha 191)

Participation in Public Life and Institutions

English

(1) The values and principles of public service include—

(i) affording adequate and equal opportunities for appointment, training and advancement, at all levels of the public service, of—
(i) men and women;
… (Art. 232)

Swahili

(1) Maadili na kanuni za huduma ya umma hujumuisha—

(i) kupata fursa sawa na stahiki kwa ajili ya kuteuliwa, mafunzo na maendeleo, katika ngazi zote za huduma ya umma, ya—
(i) wanaume na wanawake;
… (Kifungu cha 232)

Participation in Public Life and Institutions

English


(11) The chairperson and vice-chairperson of a commission9 shall not be of the same gender.
… (Art. 250)

Swahili


(11) Mwenyeketi na makamu mwenyekiti wa tume hawatakuwa wa jinsia moja.
… (Kifungu cha 250)

Political Rights and Association

English


(3) Women and men have the right to equal treatment, including the right to equal opportunities in political, economic, cultural and social spheres.
… (Art. 27)

Swahili


(3) Wanawake na wanaume wana haki ya kutendewa kwa usawa, ikiwa ni pamoja na haki ya kuwa na fursa sawa katika nyanja za kisiasa, kiuchumi, kiutamaduni na kijamii.
… (Kifungu cha27)

Political Rights and Association

English

(1) Every person has the right to freedom of association, which includes the right to form, join or participate in the activities of an association of any kind.
… (Art. 36)

Swahili

(1) Kila mtu ana haki ya uhuru wa kujumuika, ambayo hujumuisha haki ya kuunda, kujiunga au kushiriki katika shughuli za chama cha aina yoyote.
… (Kifungu cha 36)

Political Rights and Association

English

(1) Every citizen is free to make political choices, which includes the right—
(a) to form, or participate in forming, a political party;
(b) to participate in the activities of, or recruit members for, a political party; or
(c) to campaign for a political party or cause.
(2) Every citizen has the right to free, fair and regular elections based on universal suffrage and the free expression of the will of the electors for—
(a) any elective public body or office established under this Constitution; or
(b) any office of any political party of which the citizen is a member.
(3) Every adult citizen has the right, without unreasonable restrictions—
(a) to be registered as a voter;
(b) to vote by secret ballot in any election or referendum; and
(c) to be a candidate for public office, or office within a political party of which the citizen is a member and, if elected, to hold office. (Art. 38)

Swahili

(1) Kila raia yuko huru kufanya chaguzi za kisiasa, ambazo ni pamoja na haki-
(a) ya kuunda, au kushiriki katika kuunda chama cha siasa;
(b) kushiriki katika shughuli za, au kuwaandikisha wanachama wa chama cha siasa; au
(c) kufanyia kampeni chama cha kisiasa au shughuli.
(2) Kila raia ana haki ya kushiriki chaguzi huru, za haki na za mara kwa mara zenye msingi wa haki majumui ya kupiga kura na uhuru wa kuelezea nia ya wachaguliwa kwa—
(a) chombo chochote cha kuchaguliwa au ofisi iliyoanzishwa chini ya Katiba hii; au
(b) ofisi yoyote ya chama chochote cha kisiasa ambacho raia huyo ni mwanachama wake.
(3) Kila raia mtu mzima ana haki, bila vizuizi visivyo vya msingi-
(a) ya kuandikishwa kama mpiga kura;
(b) kupiga kura ya siri katika uchaguzi wowote au kura ya maoni; na
(c) kuwa mtaradhia wa ofisi ya umma, au ofisi ndani ya chama cha siasa ambacho raia huyo ni mwanachama wake na, ikiwa amechaguliwa kushika wadhifa. (Kifungu cha 38)

Political Rights and Association

English

The electoral system shall comply with the following principles—
(a) freedom of citizens to exercise their political rights under Article 38;
(b) not more than two-thirds of the members of elective public bodies shall be of the same gender;
… (Art. 81)

Swahili

Mfumo wa uchaguzi utazingatia kanuni zifuatazo-
(a) uhuru wa raia kutumia haki yao ya kisiasa chini ya Kifungu cha 38;
(b) si zaidi ya theluthi mbili ya wajumbe wa vyombo vya umma vya kuchaguliwa watakuwa wa jinsia moja;
… (Kifungu cha 81)

Political Rights and Association

English

(1) A person qualifies for registration as a voter at elections or referenda if the person—
(a) is an adult citizen;
(b) is not declared to be of unsound mind; and
(c) has not been convicted of an election offence during the preceding five years.
… (Art. 83)

Swahili

(1) Mtu anastahili kuandikishwa kama mpiga kura katika uchaguzi au kura ya maoni ikiwa mtu huyo—
(a) ni raia mtu mzima;
(b) hajatangazwa kuwa na ugonjwa wa akili; na
(c) hajakutwa kuwa na kosa la uchaguzi katika kipindi cha miaka mitano iliyopita.
… (Kifungu cha 83)

National level

English

...
(6) To give full effect to the realisation of the rights guaranteed under this Article, the State shall take legislative and other measures, including affirmative action10 programmes and policies designed to redress any disadvantage suffered by individuals or groups because of past discrimination.
(7) Any measure taken under clause (6) shall adequately provide for any benefits to be on the basis of genuine need.
(8) In addition to the measures contemplated in clause (6), the State shall take legislative and other measures to implement the principle that not more than two-thirds of the members of elective or appointive bodies shall be of the same gender. (Art. 27)

Swahili

...
(6) Ili kutekeleza kikamilifu utekelezaji wa haki zilizohakikishwa chini ya IKifungu hiki, Serikali itachukua hatua za kisheria na hatua nyinginezo, pamoja na mipango na sera thabiti za utekelezaji zilizoundwa ili kufidia unyimwaji wa haki ambao uliwapata watu au kikundi cha watu kwa sababu ya ubaguzi wa zamani.
(7) Hatua yoyote inayochukuliwa chini ya ibara ya (6) itatoa kikamilifu maslahi kwa msingi wa hitaji la kweli.
(8) Pamoja na hatua zilizobainishwa katika ibara ya (6), Serikali itachukua hatua za kisheria na hatua nyinginezo ili kutekeleza kanuni ambayo itahakikisha kwamba washirika wa bodi wa kuchaguliwa au kuteuliwa wa jinsia moja hawatakuwa zaidi ya theluthi mbili. (Kifungu cha 27)

National level

English

The electoral system shall comply with the following principles

(b) not more than two-thirds of the members of elective public bodies shall be of the same gender;

(d) universal suffrage based on the aspiration for fair representation and equality of vote;
… (Art. 81)

Swahili

Mfumo wa uchaguzi utazingatia kanuni zifuatazo

(b) si zaidi ya theluthi mbili ya wajumbe wa vyombo vya umma vya kuchaguliwa watakuwa wa jinsia moja;

(d) haki majumui ya kupiga kura kwa msingi wa matamanio ya uwakilishi wa haki na usawa wa kura;
… (Kifungu cha 81)

National level

English

(1) Elections for the seats in Parliament provided for under Articles 97(1)(c) and 98(1)(b), (c) and (d), and for the members of county assemblies under article 177(1)(b) and (c), shall be on the basis of proportional representation by use of party lists.
(2) The Independent Electoral and Boundaries Commission shall be responsible for the conduct and supervision of elections for seats provided for under clause (1) and shall ensure that—

(b) except in the case of the seats provided for under Article 98(1)(b), each party list comprises the appropriate number of qualified candidates and alternates between male and female candidates in the priority in which they are listed;
… (Art. 90)

Swahili

(1) Chaguzi wa viti katika Bunge vilivyowekwa chini ya Kifungu cha 97 (1) (c) na 98 (1) (b), (c) na (d), na kwa wajumbe wa mabunge ya kaunti chini ya kifungu cha 177 (1) (b) na (c), zitakuwa kwa msingi wa uwakilishi wa usawa kwa kutumia orodha ya chama.
(2) Tume Huru ya Uchaguzi na Mipaka itakuwa na jukumu la kufanya na kusimamia uchaguzi wa viti vilivyobainishwa chini ya ibara ya (1) na itahakikisha kwamba—

(b) isipokuwa katika viti vilivyobainishwa chini ya Kifungu cha 98 ( 1)(b), orodha ya kila chama inajumuisha idadi inayofaa ya wagombea wenye sifa na wanabadilishana kati ya wagombea wa kiume na wa kike katika kipaumbele ambacho kwacho wameorodheshwa;
… (Kifungu cha 90)

National level

English

(1) The National Assembly consists of—

(b) forty-seven women, each elected by the registered voters of the counties, each county constituting a single member constituency;
… (Art. 97)

Swahili

(1) Bunge la Kitaifa linajumuisha—

(b) wanawake arobaini na saba, kila mmoja aliyechaguliwa na wapiga kura wa kaunti, kila kaunti inaunda jimbo moja la uchaguzi;
… (Kifungu cha 97)

National level

English

(1) The Senate consists of—

(b) sixteen women members who shall be nominated by political parties according to their proportion of members of the Senate elected under clause (a) in accordance with Article 90;
(c) two members, being one man and one woman, representing the youth;
(d) two members, being one man and one woman, representing persons with disabilities;
… (Art. 98)

Swahili

(1) Bunge la Seneti linajumuisha—
...
(b) wajumbe wanawake kumi na sita watakaoteuliwa na vyama vya siasa kulingana na idadi yao ya wajumbe wa Seneti waliochaguliwa chini ya ibara ya (a) kwa mujibu wa Kifungu cha 90;
(c) wajumbe wawili, mmoja akiwa mwanaume na mmoja mwanamke, wakiwawakilisha vijana;
(d) wajumbe wawili, mmoja akiwa mwanaume anayewakilisha watu wenye ulemavu;
… (Kifungu cha 98)

Subnational levels

English

County governments established under this Constitution shall reflect the following principles

(c) no more than two-thirds of the members of representative bodies in each county government shall be of the same gender. (Art. 175)

Swahili

Serikali za kaunti zilizoanzishwa chini ya Katiba hii zitaongozwa na kanuni zifuatazo

(c) hakuna zaidi ya theluthi mbili ya wajumbe wa vyombo vya wawakilishi katika kila serikali ya kaunti watakuwa wa jinsia moja. (Kifungu cha 175)

Subnational levels

English

A county assembly consists of—
(a) members elected by the registered voters of the wards, each ward constituting a single member constituency, on the same day as a general election of Members of Parliament, being the second Tuesday in August, in every fifth year;
(b) the number of special seat members necessary to ensure that no more than two-thirds of the membership of the assembly are of the same gender;
… (Art. 177)

Swahili

Bunge la kaunti linaundwa na -
(a) wajumbe waliochaguliwa na wapiga kura waliosajiliwa wa kata, kila kata inaunda jimbo moja la uchaguzi, katika siku iyo hiyo ya uchaguzi mkuu wa Wabunge, itakuwa Jumanne ya pili ya mwezi Agosti, kila baada ya miaka mitano;
(b) idadi ya wajumbe wa viti maalumu ambayo ni ya lazima ili kuhakikisha kwamba si zaidi ya theluthi mbili ya wajumbe wa bunge hilo wanakuwa wa jinsia moja;
… (Kifungu cha 177)

Subnational levels

English

(1) Not more than two-thirds of the members of any county assembly or county executive committee shall be of the same gender.
… (Art. 197)

Swahili

(1) Si zaidi ya theluthi mbili ya wajumbe wa bunge lolote la kaunti au kamati kuu ya kaunti watakuwa wa jinsia moja.
… (Kifungu cha 197)

Political Parties

English

(1) Elections for the seats in Parliament provided for under Articles 97(1)(c) and 98(1)(b), (c) and (d), and for the members of county assemblies under article 177(1)(b) and (c), shall be on the basis of proportional representation by use of party lists.
(2) The Independent Electoral and Boundaries Commission shall be responsible for the conduct and supervision of elections for seats provided for under clause (1) and shall ensure that—
(a) each political party participating in a general election nominates and submits a list of all the persons who would stand elected if the party were to be entitled to all the seats provided for under clause (1), within the time prescribed by national legislation;
(b) except in the case of the seats provided for under Article 98 (1) (b), each party list comprises the appropriate number of qualified candidates and alternates between male and female candidates in the priority in which they are listed;
(c) except in the case of county assembly seats, each party list reflects the regional and ethnic diversity of the people of Kenya.
… (Art. 90)

Swahili

(1) Chaguzi wa viti katika Bunge vilivyowekwa chini ya Kifungu cha 97 (1) (c) na 98 (1) (b), (c) na (d), na kwa wajumbe wa mabunge ya kaunti chini ya kifungu cha 177 (1) (b) na (c), zitakuwa kwa msingi wa uwakilishi wa usawa kwa kutumia orodha ya chama.
(2) Tume Huru ya Uchaguzi na Mipaka itakuwa na jukumu la kufanya na kusimamia uchaguzi wa viti vilivyobainishwa chini ya ibara ya (1) na itahakikisha kwamba—
(a) kila chama cha siasa kinachoshiriki katika uchaguzi mkuu kinateua na kuwasilisha orodha ya watu wote ambao watasimama kuchaguliwa ikiwa chama kitastahili kupewa viti vyote vilivyobainishwa chini ya ibara ya (1), ndani ya muda uliowekwa na sheria ya kitaifa;
(b) isipokuwa kwa viti vilivyobainishwa chini ya Kifungu cha 98 (1) (b), kila orodha ya chama inajumuisha idadi inayofaa ya wagombea wenye sifa na wanabadilishana kati ya wagombea wa kiume na wa kike katika kipaumbele ambacho kwacho wameorodheshwana;
(c) isipokuwa kwa viti vya bunge la kaunti, kila orodha ya chama inaonyesha uanuwai wa kikanda na kikabila wa watu wa Kenya.
… (Kifungu cha 90)

Political Parties

English

(1) Every political party shall—
(a) have a national character as prescribed by an Act of Parliament;
(b) have a democratically elected governing body;
(c) promote and uphold national unity;
(d) abide by the democratic principles of good governance, promote and practise democracy through regular, fair and free elections within the party;
(e) respect the right of all persons to participate in the political process, including minorities and marginalised groups;
(f) respect and promote human rights and fundamental freedoms, and gender equality and equity;
(g) promote the objects and principles of this Constitution and the rule of law; and
(h) subscribe to and observe the code of conduct for political parties.
(2) A political party shall not—
(a) be founded on a religious, linguistic, racial, ethnic, gender or regional basis or seek to engage in advocacy of hatred on any such basis;
(b) engage in or encourage violence by, or intimidation of, its members, supporters, opponents or any other person;
(c) establish or maintain a paramilitary force, militia or similar organisation;
(d) engage in bribery or other forms of corruption; or
(e) except as is provided under this Chapter or by an Act of Parliament, accept or use public resources to promote its interests or its candidates in elections. (Art. 91)

Swahili

(1) Kila chama cha siasa-
(a) kitakuwa na sifa ya kitaifa kama ilivyoamriwa na Sheria ya Bunge;
(b) kitakuwa na chombo cha uongozi kinachochaguliwa kidemokrasia;
(c) kitaimarisha na kushikilia umoja wa kitaifa;
(d) kitafungwa na kanuni za kidemokrasia za utawala bora, kuimarisha na kutekeleza demokrasia kupitia chaguzi huru na za haki za mara kwa mara ndani ya chama;
(e) kuheshimu haki ya watu wote kushiriki katika mchakato wa kisiasa, pamoja na watu wenye uwakilishi mdogo katika jamii na jamii za pembezoni;
(f) kuheshimu na kuimarisha haki za binadamu na uhuru wa msingi, na usawa wa kijinsia na haki;
(g) kuimarisha malengo na kanuni za Katiba hii na utawala wa sheria; na (h) kufuatilia na kuzingatia kanuni za maadili kwa vyama vya siasa.
(2) Chama cha siasa-
(a) hakitaanzishwa kwa msingi wa kidini, lugha, rangi, kabila, jinsia au kikanda au kutafuta kujihusisha na uenezajii wa chuki kwa msingi wowote wa aina hiyo;
(b) kujihusisha au kuchochea vurugu kwa, ama kwa kuwatisha wanachama wake, wafuasi, wapinzani au mtu mwingine yeyote;
(c) kuanzisha au kuendesha kikundi chenye mwonekano wa kijeshi, mgambo au vyombo kama hivyo;
(d) kujihusisha na rushwa au aina nyingineyo ya ufisadi; au
(e) isipokuwa kama ilivyoonyeshwa chini ya Sura hii au kwa Sheria ya Bunge, kukubali au kutumia rasilimali za umma kuimarisha masilahi yake au ya wagombea wake katika chaguzi. (Kifungu cha 91)

Electoral Bodies

English

(1) There is established the Independent Electoral and Boundaries Commission.

(4) The Commission is responsible for conducting or supervising referenda and elections to any elective body or office established by this Constitution, and any other elections as prescribed by an Act of Parliament … (Art. 88)

Swahili

(1) Kuna Tume Huru ya Uchaguzi na Mipaka.

(4) Tume inawajibika katika kufanya au kusimamia kura za maoni na chaguzi kwa chombo chochote kilichochaguliwa au ofisi iliyoanzishwa na Katiba hii, na chaguzi nyingine zozote kama ilivyoainishwa na Sheria ya Bunge … (Kifungu cha 88)

Electoral Bodies

English

(1) Elections for the seats in Parliament provided for under Articles 97(1)(c) and 98(1)(b), (c) and (d), and for the members of county assemblies under article 177(1)(b) and (c), shall be on the basis of proportional representation by use of party lists.
(2) The Independent Electoral and Boundaries Commission shall be responsible for the conduct and supervision of elections for seats provided for under clause (1) and shall ensure that—
(a) each political party participating in a general election nominates and submits a list of all the persons who would stand elected if the party were to be entitled to all the seats provided for under clause (1), within the time prescribed by national legislation;
(b) except in the case of the seats provided for under Article 98 (1) (b), each party list comprises the appropriate number of qualified candidates and alternates between male and female candidates in the priority in which they are listed;
(c) except in the case of county assembly seats, each party list reflects the regional and ethnic diversity of the people of Kenya.
… (Art. 90)

Swahili

(1) Chaguzi wa viti katika Bunge vilivyowekwa chini ya Kifungu cha 97 (1) (c) na 98 (1) (b), (c) na (d), na kwa wajumbe wa mabunge ya kaunti chini ya kifungu cha 177 (1) (b) na (c), zitakuwa kwa msingi wa uwakilishi wa usawa kwa kutumia orodha ya chama.
(2) Tume Huru ya Uchaguzi na Mipaka itakuwa na jukumu la kufanya na kusimamia uchaguzi wa viti vilivyobainishwa chini ya ibara ya (1) na itahakikisha kwamba—
(a) kila chama cha siasa kinachoshiriki katika uchaguzi mkuu kinateua na kuwasilisha orodha ya watu wote ambao watasimama kuchaguliwa ikiwa chama kitastahili kupewa viti vyote vilivyobainishwa chini ya ibara ya (1), ndani ya muda uliowekwa na sheria ya kitaifa;
(b) isipokuwa kwa viti vilivyobainishwa chini ya Kifungu cha 98 (1) (b), kila orodha ya chama inajumuisha idadi inayofaa ya wagombea wenye sifa na wanaobadilishana kati ya wagombea wa kiume na wa kike katika kipaumbele ambacho kwacho wameorodheshwa;
(c) isipokuwa kwa viti vya bunge la kaunti, kila orodha ya chama inaonyesha uanuwai wa kikanda na kikabila wa watu wa Kenya.
… (Kifungu cha 90)

Electoral Bodies

English


(11) The chairperson and vice-chairperson of a commission11 shall not be of the same gender.
… (Art. 250)

Swahili


(11) Mwenyeketi na makamu mwenyekiti wa tume hawatakuwa wa jinsia moja.
… (Kifungu cha 250)

Head of State

English

(1) The President—
(a) is the Head of State and Government;
(b) exercises the executive authority of the Republic, with the assistance of the Deputy President and Cabinet Secretaries;

(2) The President shall-
(a) respect, uphold and safeguard this Constitution;
...
(e) ensure the protection of human rights and fundamental freedoms and the rule of law.
... (Art. 131)

Swahili

(1) Rais-
(a) ni Mkuu wa Nchi na Serikali;
(b) anatekeleza mamlaka ya juu ya Jamhuri, kwa kusaidiwa na Makamu wa Rais na Makatibu wa Baraza la Mawaziri;

(2) Rais-
(a) ataheshimu, kuitetea na kuilinda Katiba hii;
...
(e) atahakikisha ulinzi wa haki za binadamu na uhuru wa msingi na utawala wa sheria.
... (Kifungu cha 131)

Head of State

English

(1) The President shall be elected by registered voters in a national election conducted in accordance with this Constitution and any Act of Parliament regulating presidential elections.
… (Art. 136)

Swahili

(1) Rais atachaguliwa na wapiga kura waliosajiliwa katika uchaguzi wa kitaifa unaofanywa kwa mujibu wa Katiba hii na Sheria yoyote ya Bunge inayosimamia uchaguzi wa rais.
… (Kifungu cha 136)

Head of State

English

(1) A person qualifies for nomination as a presidential candidate if the person—
(a) is a citizen by birth;
(b) is qualified to stand for election as a member of Parliament;
(c) is nominated by a political party, or is an independent candidate; and
(d) is nominated by not fewer than two thousand voters from each of a majority of the counties.
… (Art. 137)

Swahili

(1) Mtu anakuwa na sifa za kuteuliwa kuwa mgombea wa urais ikiwa mtu huyo—
(a) ni raia kwa kuzaliwa;
(b) ana sifa za kusimama kwenye uchaguzi kama mbunge;
(c) ameteuliwa na chama cha siasa, au ni mgombea wa kujitegemea; na
(d) ameteuliwa na si chini ya wapiga kura elfu mbili kutoka kila kaunti yenye watu wengi.
… (Kifungu cha 137)

Vice-President

English

(1) The Deputy President shall be the principal assistant of the President and shall deputise for the President in the execution of the President’s functions.
(2) The Deputy President shall perform the functions conferred by this Constitution and any other functions of the President as the President may assign.
(3) Subject to Article 134, when the President is absent or is temporarily incapacitated, and during any other period that the President decides, the Deputy President shall act as the President.
… (Art. 147)

Swahili

(1) Makamu wa Rais atakuwa msaidizi mkuu wa Rais na atamwakilisha Rais katika utekelezaji wa shughuli za Rais.
(2) Makamu wa Rais atafanya majukumu yaliyoainishwa na Katiba hii na majukumu mengine yoyote ya Rais kadri Rais atakavyompatia.
(3) Kwa kuzingatia Kifungu cha 134, Rais asipokuwepo au hawezi kufanya kazi kwa muda, na katika kipindi kingine chochote ambacho Rais ataamua, Makamu wa Rais atafanya kazi kama Rais.
… (Kifungu cha 147)

Vice-President

English

(1) Each candidate in a presidential election shall nominate a person who is qualified for nomination for election as President, as a candidate for Deputy President.
(2) For the purposes of clause (1), there shall be no separate nomination process for the Deputy President and Article 137 (1) (d) shall not apply to a candidate for Deputy President.
(3) The Independent Electoral and Boundaries Commission shall declare the candidate nominated by the person who is elected as the President to be elected as the Deputy President.
… (Art. 148)

Swahili

(1) Kila mgombea katika uchaguzi wa rais atamteua mtu mwenye sifa za kuchaguliwa kuwa Rais, kuwa mtaradhia wa Makamu wa Rais.
(2) Kwa madhumuni ya ibara ya (1), hakutakuwa na mchakato tofauti wa uteuzi wa Makamu wa Rais na Kifungu cha 137 (1) (d) hakitatumika kwa mtaradhia wa Makamu wa Rais.
(3) Tume Huru ya Uchaguzi na Mipaka itamtangaza mtaradhia aliyeteuliwa na mtu aliyechaguliwa kuwa Rais kuchaguliwa kama Makamu wa Rais.
… (Kifungu cha 148)

Government

English

(1) The national executive of the Republic comprises the President, the Deputy President and the rest of the Cabinet.
(2) The composition of the national executive shall reflect the regional and ethnic diversity of the people of Kenya. (Art. 130)

Swahili

(1) Serikali kuu ya Jamhuri inaundwa na Rais, Makamu wa Rais na Baraza la Mawaziri.
(2) Muundo wa serikali kuu ya kitaifa utaakisi umajumui wa kikanda na kikabila wa watu wa Kenya. (Kifungu cha 130)

Government

English

(1) The Cabinet consists of—
(a) the President;
(b) the Deputy President;
(c) the Attorney-General; and
(d) not fewer than fourteen and not more than twenty-two Cabinet Secretaries.
(2) The President shall nominate and, with the approval of the National Assembly, appoint Cabinet Secretaries.
… (Art. 152)

Swahili

(1) Baraza la Mawaziri linaundwa na—
(a) Rais;
(b) Makamu wa Rais;
(c) Mwanasheria Mkuu wa Serikali; na
(d) si chini ya Makatibu wa Baraza la Mawaziri kumi na wanne na si zaidi ya ishirini na wawili.
(2) Rais atapendekeza na, kwa idhini ya Bunge la Kitaifa, atawateua Makatibu wa Baraza la Mawaziri.
… (Kifungu cha 152)

Legislature

English

(1) Elections for the seats in Parliament provided for under Articles 97(1) (c) and 98 (1) (b), (c) and (d), and for the members of county assemblies under 177 (1) (b) and (c), shall be on the basis of proportional representation by use of party lists.
(2) The Independent Electoral and Boundaries Commission shall be responsible for the conduct and supervision of elections for seats provided for under clause (1) and shall ensure that—

(b) except in the case of the seats provided for under Article 98 (1) (b), each party list comprises the appropriate number of qualified candidates and alternates between male and female candidates in the priority in which they are listed;
… (Art. 90)

Swahili

(1) Uchaguzi wa viti katika Bunge vilivyobainishwa chini ya Kifungu cha 97 (1) (c) na 98 (1) (b), (c) na (d), na kwa wajumbe wa mabunge ya kaunti chini ya kifungu cha 177 (1) (b) na (c), zitakuwa kwa msingi wa uwakilishi wa usawa kwa kutumia orodha za chama.
(2) Tume Huru ya Uchaguzi na Mipaka itakuwa na jukumu la kufanya na kusimamia uchaguzi wa viti vilivyobainishwa chini ya ibara ya (1) na itahakikisha kwamba—

(b) isipokuwa katika viti vilivyobainishwa chini ya Kifungu cha 98 ( 1)(b), orodha ya kila chama inajumuisha idadi inayofaa ya wagombea wenye sifa na wanabadilishana kati ya wagombea wa kiume na wa kike katika kipaumbele ambacho kwacho wameorodheshwa;
… (Kifungu cha 90)

Legislature

English

(1) There is established a Parliament of Kenya, which shall consist of the National Assembly and the Senate.
(2) The National Assembly and the Senate shall perform their respective functions in accordance with this Constitution. (Art. 93)

Swahili

(1) Kuna Bunge la Kenya, ambalo litaundwa na Bunge la Kitaifa na Seneti.
(2) Vyombo vya Bunge la Kitaifa na Seneti vitafanya kazi zao kwa mujibu wa Katiba hii. (Kifungu cha 93)

Legislature

English

1. The legislative authority of the Republic is derived from the people and, at the national level, is vested in and exercised by Parliament.
… (Art. 94)

Swahili

1. Mamlaka ya kisheria ya Jamhuri yanatoka kwa watu na, kwa kiwango cha kitaifa, yanakabidhiwa na kutekelezwa na Bunge.
… (Kifungu cha 94)

Legislature

English

(1) The National Assembly consists of—
(a) two hundred and ninety members, each elected by the registered voters of single member constituencies;
(b) forty-seven women, each elected by the registered voters of the counties, each county constituting a single member constituency;
(c) twelve members nominated by parliamentary political parties according to their proportion of members of the National Assembly in accordance with Article 90, to represent special interests including the youth, persons with disabilities and workers; and
(d) the Speaker, who is an ex officio member.
(2) Nothing in this Article shall be construed as excluding any person from contesting an election under clause (1) (a). (Art. 97)

Swahili

(1) Bunge la Kitaifa linaundwa na—
(a) wabunge mia mbili na tisini, kila mmoja aliyechaguliwa na wapiga kura waliosajiliwa kutoka katika eneo bunge moja;
(b) wanawake arobaini na saba, kila mmoja aliyechaguliwa na wapiga kura waliosajiliwa wa kaunti, kila kaunti inaunda eneo bunge moja;
(c) wajumbe kumi na wawili walioteuliwa na vyama vya siasa vyenye uwakilishi bungeni kulingana na idadi yao ya wajumbe wa Bunge la Kitaifa kwa mujibu wa Kifungu cha 90, ili kuwakilisha masilahi maalumu ikiwa ni pamoja na vijana, watu wenye ulemavu na wafanyikazi; na
(d) Spika, ambaye ni mjumbe kwa nafasi yake.
(2) Hakuna chochote katika Kifungu hiki kitachukuliwa kama kumwondoa mtu yeyote kugombea kwenye uchaguzi chini ya ibara ya (1) (a). (Kifungu cha 97)

Legislature

English

(1) The Senate consists of—
(a) forty-seven members each elected by the registered voters of the counties, each county constituting a single member constituency;
(b) sixteen women members who shall be nominated by political parties according to their proportion of members of the Senate elected under clause (a) in accordance with Article 90;
(c) two members, being one man and one woman, representing the youth;
(d) two members, being one man and one woman, representing persons with disabilities; and
(e) the Speaker, who shall be an ex officio member.
(2) The members referred to in clause (1) (c) and (d) shall be elected in accordance with Article 90.
(3) Nothing in this Article shall be construed as excluding any person from contesting an election under clause (1) (a). (Art. 98)

Swahili

(1) Bunge la Seneti linaundwa na -
(a) wajumbe arobaini na saba kila mmoja aliyechaguliwa na wapiga kura waliosajiliwa wa kaunti husika, kila kaunti inaunda eneo bunge moja;
(b) wajumbe wanawake kumi na sita ambao watachaguliwa na vyama vya siasa kulingana na idadi yao ya wajumbe wa Seneti waliochaguliwa chini ya ibara ya (a) kwa mujibu wa Kifungu cha 90;
(c) wajumbe wawili, mmoja akiwa mwanaume na mwingine mwanamke wakiwakilisha vijana;
(d) wajumbe wawili, mmoja akiwa mwanaume na mwingine mwanamke wakiwakilisha watu wenye ulemavu; na
(e) Spika, ambaye atakuwa mjumbe kwa nafasi yake.
(2) Wajumbe waliotajwa katika ibara ya (1) (c) na (d) watachaguliwa kwa mujibu wa Kifungu cha 90.
(3) Hakuna chochote katika Kifungu hiki kitachukuliwa kama kumwondoa mtu yeyote kugombea kwenye uchaguzi chini ya ibara ya (1) (a). (Kifungu cha 98)

Legislature

English

(1) Unless disqualified under clause (2), a person is eligible for election as a member of Parliament if the person—
(a) is registered as a voter;
(b) satisfies any educational, moral and ethical requirements prescribed by this Constitution or by an Act of Parliament; and
(c) is nominated by a political party, or is an independent candidate who is supported—
(i) in the case of election to the National Assembly, by at least one thousand registered voters in the constituency; or
(ii) in the case of election to the Senate, by at least two thousand registered voters in the county.
… (Art. 99)

Swahili

(1) Isipokuwa kama hana sifa chini ya ibara ya (2), mtu anastahili kuchaguliwa kama mbunge ikiwa mtu huyo—
(a) ameandikishwa kama mpiga kura;
(b) anakidhi matakwa yoyote ya kielimu, ya kiadili na kimaadili yaliyowekwa na Katiba hii au na Sheria ya Bunge; na
(c) ameteuliwa na chama cha siasa, au ni mgombea huru anayeungwa mkono—
(i) katika suala la uchaguzi wa Bunge la Kitaifa na wapiga kura angalau elfu moja walioandikishwa katika jimbo hilo la uchaguzi; au
(ii) katika suala la uchaguzi wa Seneti, na angalau wapiga kura elfu mbili walioandikishwa katika kaunti husika.
… (Kifungu cha 99)

Legislature

English

Parliament shall enact legislation to promote the representation in Parliament of—
(a) women;
(b) persons with disabilities;
(c) youth;
(d) ethnic and other minorities; and
(e) marginalised communities. (Art. 100)

Swahili

Bunge litatunga sheria ili kuimarisha uwakilishi Bungeni wa—
(a) wanawake;
(b) watu wenye ulemavu;
(c) vijana;
(d) kabila na watu wengine wenye uwakilishi mdogo katika jamii; na
(e) jamii zilizotengwa. (Kifungu cha 100)

Property, Inheritance and Land Tenure

English

...
(4) The provisions of this Chapter12 on equality shall be qualified to the extent strictly necessary for the application of Muslim law before the Kadhis’ courts, to persons who profess the Muslim religion, in matters relating to personal status, marriage, divorce and inheritance.
… (Art. 24)

Swahili

...
(4) Vifungu katika Sura hii kwa usawa vitatumika kwa kiwango ambacho ni lazima kabisa kutumia sharia ya Kiislamu mbele ya mahakama za Kadhi, kwa watu ambao ni waumini wa dini ya Kiisilamu, katika maswala yanayohusu hadhi binafsi, ndoa, talaka na urithi.
… (Kifungu cha 24)

Property, Inheritance and Land Tenure

English

(1) Subject to Article 65, every person has the right, either individually or in association with others, to acquire and own property—
(a) of any description; and
(b) in any part of Kenya.
… (Art. 40)

Swahili

(1) Kwa kuzingatia Kifungu cha 65, kila mtu ana haki, ama mtu mmoja mmoja au ushirika pamoja na wengine, ya kupata na kumiliki mali-
(a) ya namna yoyote; na
(b) katika sehemu yoyote ya Kenya.
… (Kifungu cha 40)

Property, Inheritance and Land Tenure

English

(1) Land in Kenya shall be held, used and managed in a manner that is equitable, efficient, productive and sustainable, and in accordance with the following principles—
(a) equitable access to land;
(b) security of land rights;

(f) elimination of gender discrimination in law, customs and practices related to land and property in land; and
(g) encouragement of communities to settle land disputes through recognised local community initiatives consistent with this Constitution.
(2) These principles shall be implemented through a national land policy developed and reviewed regularly by the national government and through legislation. (Art. 60)

Swahili

(1) Ardhi nchini Kenya itashikiliwa, kutumiwa na kusimamiwa kwa namna ambayo ni ya usawa, fanisi, yenye tija na endelevu, na kwa kufuata kanuni zifuatazo-
(a) haki sawa ya kupata ardhi;
(b) amana ya haki za ardhi;

(f) kuondoa ubaguzi wa kijinsia katika sheria, mila na desturi zinazohusiana na ardhi na mali katika ardhi; na
(g) kuwahimiza jamii kumaliza migogoro ya ardhi kupitia hatua zinazochukuliwa na jamii bila kukiuka Katiba hii.
(2) Kanuni hizi zitatekelezwa kupitia sera ya ardhi ya kitaifa iliyoundwa na kupitiwa mara kwa mara na serikali ya kitaifa na kupitia sheria. (Kifungu cha 60)

Property, Inheritance and Land Tenure

English

(1) All land in Kenya belongs to the people of Kenya collectively as a nation, as communities and as individuals.
… (Art. 61)

Swahili

(1) Ardhi yote nchini Kenya ni mali ya watu wa Kenya kwa pamoja kama taifa, jamii na kama mtu mmoja mmoja.
… (Kifungu cha 61)

Property, Inheritance and Land Tenure

English

(1) Community land shall vest in and be held by communities identified on the basis of ethnicity, culture or similar community of interest.
(2) Community land consists of—
(a) land lawfully registered in the name of group representatives under the provisions of any law;
(b) land lawfully transferred to a specific community by any process of law;
(c) any other land declared to be community land by an Act of Parliament; and
(d) land that is—
(i) lawfully held, managed or used by specific communities as community forests, grazing areas or shrines;
(ii) ancestral lands and lands traditionally occupied by hunter-gatherer communities; or
(iii) lawfully held as trust land by the county governments, but not including any public land held in trust by the county government under Article 62(2).
… (Art. 63)

Swahili

(1) Ardhi ya jamii itakabidhiwa na kushikiliwa na jamii zinazotambuliwa kwa msingi wa kabila, utamaduni au jamii yenye maslahi yanayofanana.
(2) Ardhi ya jumuiya inajumuisha—
(a) ardhi iliyosajiliwa kihalali kwa jina la wawakilishi wa kikundi chini ya masharti ya sheria yoyote;
(b) ardhi ambayo umilikiwa wake umehamishwa kihalali kwenda kwa jamii mahususi kwa mchakato wowote wa sheria;
(c) ardhi nyingine yoyote iliyotangazwa kuwa ardhi ya jamii kwa Sheria ya Bunge; na
(d) ardhi ambayo—
(i) inashikiliwa kihalali, inayosimamiwa au kutumiwa na jamii mahususi kama misitu ya jamii, maeneo ya malisho au shughuli za kiimani;
(ii) ardhi za mababu na ardhi ambazo kiutamaduni zilishikiliwa na jamii za wawindaji na waokotaji; au
(iii) imeshikiliwa kisheria na serikali za kaunti kama ardhi ya amana, lakini haijumuishi ardhi yoyote ya umma inayoshikiliwa na serikali ya kaunti chini ya Kifungu cha 62(2).
… (Kifungu cha 63)

Property, Inheritance and Land Tenure

English

Private land consists of —
(a) registered land held by any person under any freehold tenure;
(b) land held by any person under leasehold tenure; and
(c) any other land declared private land under an Act of Parliament. (Art. 64)

Swahili

Ardhi yenye umiliki binafsi inajumuisha -
(a) ardhi iliyosajiliwa ambayo inamilikiwa na mtu yeyote chini ya umiliki wowote chini ya muda usiokuwa na kikomo;
(b) ardhi inayomilikiwa na mtu yeyote chini ya umiliki wa kukodisha; na
(c) ardhi nyingine yoyote iliyotangazwa kuwa ni ya umiliki binafsi chini ya Sheria ya Bunge. (Kifungu cha 64)

Property, Inheritance and Land Tenure

English

Parliament shall—
(a) revise, consolidate and rationalise existing land laws;
(b) revise sectoral land use laws in accordance with the principles set out in Article 60 (1); and
(c) enact legislation—
(i) to prescribe minimum and maximum land holding acreages in respect of private land;
(ii) to regulate the manner in which any land may be converted from one category to another;
(iii) to regulate the recognition and protection of matrimonial property and in particular the matrimonial home during and on the termination of marriage;
(iv) to protect, conserve and provide access to all public land;
(v) to enable the review of all grants or dispositions of public land to establish their propriety or legality;
(vi) to protect the dependants of deceased persons holding interests in any land, including the interests of spouses in actual occupation of land;
… (Art. 68)

Swahili

Bunge-
(a) litapitia, kuunganisha na kurekebisha sheria za ardhi zilizopo;
(b) litapitia sheria za matumizi ya ardhi ya kisekta kwa mujibu wa kanuni zilizowekwa katika Kifungu cha 60 (1); na
(c) litatunga sheria-
(i) ili kuelezea kiwango cha chini na cha juu cha ekari za ardhi zinazoweza kumilikiwa na watu binafsi;
(ii) ili kusimamia namna ambavyo ardhi yoyote inaweza kubadilishwa kutoka kwenye kipengele kimoja kwenda kingine;
(iii) itasimamia utambuzi na ulinzi wa mali ya wanandoa na haswa nyumba ya wanandoa wakati wa ndoa na wakati wa kuvunjika ndoa;
(iv) italinda, kuhifadhi na kutoa idhini ya ufikiaji wa ardhi yote ya umma;
(v) itawezesha uhakiki wa ruzuku zote au matumizi ya ardhi ya umma i li kujua usahihi na uhalali wake;
(vi) itawalinda tegemezi wa marehemu wenye maslahi katika ardhi yoyote, ikiwa ni pamoja na masilahi ya wanandoa katika umiliki halisi wa ardhi;
… (Kifungu cha 68)

Property, Inheritance and Land Tenure

English

...
(5) The jurisdiction of a Kadhis’ court shall be limited to the determination of questions of Muslim law relating to personal status, marriage, divorce or inheritance in proceedings in which all the parties profess the Muslim religion and submit to the jurisdiction of the Kadhi’s courts.
… (Art. 170)

Swahili

...
(5) Mamlaka ya Mahakama ya Kadhi yatakuwa na mipaka itakayoishia katika kuamua shauri la sheria ya Kiisilamu inayohusiana na hadhi binafsi, ndoa, talaka au urithi katika kesi ambazo kwazo pande zote ni waumini wa dini ya Kiislamu na wanaitii mamlaka ya mahakama za Kadhi.
… (Kifungu cha 170)

Protection from Violence

English

Despite any other provision in this Constitution, the following rights and fundamental freedoms shall not be limited—
(a) freedom from torture and cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment;
(b) freedom from slavery or servitude;
… (Art. 25)

Swahili

Licha ya vifungu vingine vyovyote katika Katiba hii, haki zifuatazo na uhuru wa msingi hazitawekewa mipaka-
(a) uhuru dhidi ya kuteswa na ukatili, kitendo au adhabu ya udhalilishaji;
(b) uhuru dhidi ya utumwa na kutumikishwa;
… (Kifungu cha 25)

Protection from Violence

English

Every person has the right to freedom and security of the person, which includes the right not to be—

(c) subjected to any form of violence from either public or private sources;
(d) subjected to torture in any manner, whether physical or psychological;
(e) subjected to corporal punishment; or
(f) treated or punished in a cruel, inhuman or degrading manner. (Art. 29)

Swahili

Kila mtu ana haki ya uhuru na usalama wa mtu huyo, ambayo ni pamoja na haki ya-

(c) kutoingizwa kwenye aina yoyote ya vurugu kutoka ama vyanzo vya umma au vya binafsi;
(d) kutoingizwa kwenye mateso kwa njia yoyote ile, iwe ya kimwili au ya kisaikolojia;
(e) kutopewa adhabu ya viboko; au
(f) kutotendewa au kutoadhibiwa kwa njia ya kikatili, au ya kudhalilisha. (Kifungu cha 29)

Protection from Violence

English

(1) A person shall not be held in slavery or servitude.
(2) A person shall not be required to perform forced labour. (Art. 30)

Swahili

(1) Mtu hatashikiliwa katika utumwa au kutumikishwa.
(2) Mtu hatalazimishwa kufanya kazi ya shuruba. (Kifungu cha 30)

Protection from Violence

English

...
(2) The right to freedom of expression does not extend to—
(a) propaganda for war;
(b) incitement to violence;
(c) hate speech; or
(d) advocacy of hatred that—
(i) constitutes ethnic incitement, vilification of others or incitement to cause harm; or
(ii) is based on any ground of discrimination specified or contemplated in Article 27(4).
… (Art. 33)

Swahili

...
(2) Haki ya uhuru wa kujieleza haijumuishi-
(a) propaganda za vita;
(b) kuchochea vurugu;
(c) matamshi ya chuki; au
(d) kuhamasisha chuki ambayo -
(i) inajumuisha uchochezi wa kikabila, kuwasingizai wengine au uchochezi wa kusababisha madhara; au
(ii) inatokana na msingi wowote wa ubaguzi ulioainishwa au kufafanuliwa katika Kifungu cha 27 (4).
… (Kifungu cha 33)

Protection from Violence

English

(1) Every child has the right—

(d) to be protected from abuse, neglect, harmful cultural practices, all forms of violence, inhuman treatment and punishment, and hazardous or exploitative labour;
… (Art. 53)

Swahili

(1) Kila mtoto ana haki -

(d) ya kulindwa dhidi ya unyanyasaji, kupuuzwa, desturi mbaya za kitamaduni, kila aina ya ukatili, kitendo na adhabu ya udhalilishaji, na kazi mbaya au ya unyonyaji;
… (Kifungu cha 53)

Protection from Violence

English

...
(2) A political party shall not—
(a) be founded on a religious, linguistic, racial, ethnic, gender or regional basis or seek to engage in advocacy of hatred on any such basis;
(b) engage in or encourage violence by, or intimidation of, its members, supporters, opponents or any other person;
… (Art. 91)

Swahili

...
(2) Chama cha siasa-
(a) hakitaanzishwa kwa msingi wa kidini, lugha, rangi, kabila, jinsia au kikanda au kujihusisha katika uenezi wa chuki kwa msingi wowote kama huo;
(b) kujihusisha au kuchochea vurugu kwa, au kutishia wanachama wake, wafuasi, wapinzani au mtu mwingine yeyote;
… (Kifungu cha 91)

Public Institutions and Services

English

...
(3) All State organs and all public officers have the duty to address the needs of vulnerable groups within society, including women, older members of society, persons with disabilities, children, youth, members of minority or marginalised communities, and members of particular ethnic, religious or cultural communities.
… (Art. 21)

Swahili

...
(3) Vyombo vyote vya Serikali na watumishi wa umma wana wajibu wa kushughulikia mahitaji ya makundi yaliyopo katika mazingira hatarishi katika jamii, ikiwa ni pamoja na wanawake, wazee, watu wenye ulemavu, watoto, vijana, wanajamii wenye uwakilishi mdogo katika jamii au watu waliotengwa na jamii, na watu wa jamii ya kabila, dini au utamaduni fulani.
… (Kifungu cha 21)

Public Institutions and Services

English

1. Every person has the right-

e. to social security; ...
3. The State shall provide appropriate social security to persons who are unable to support themselves and their dependants. (Art. 43)

Swahili

1. Kila mtu ana haki-

e. ya ulinzi wa kijamii; ...
3. Serikali itatoa ulinzi stahiki wa kijamii kwa watu ambao hawawezi kujihudumia na kuwahudumia tegemezi wao. (Kifungu cha 43)

Public Institutions and Services

English

(1) The family is the natural and fundamental unit of society and the necessary basis of social order, and shall enjoy the recognition and protection of the State.
... (Art. 45)

Swahili

(1) Familia ni kiungo cha asili na cha msingi cha jamii na msingi muhimu wa maadili ya kijamii, na itanufaika na kutambuliwa na kulindwa na Serikali.
... (Kifungu cha 45)

Public Institutions and Services

English

The objects of the devolution of government are-

f. to promote social and economic development and the provision of proximate, easily accessible services throughout Kenya;
… (Art. 174)

Swahili

Malengo ya ugatuzi wa serikali ni-

f. kuimarisha maendeleo ya kijamii na kiuchumi na kutoa huduma karibu na wananchi, zinazopatikana kwa urahisi katika nchi nzima ya Kenya;
… (Kifungu cha 174)

Public Institutions and Services

English

The following principles shall guide all aspects of public finance in the Republic—
...
(b) the public finance system shall promote an equitable society, and in particular—

(iii) expenditure shall promote the equitable development of the country, including by making special provision for marginalised groups and areas;
… (Art. 201)

Swahili

Kanuni zifuatazo zitaongoza nyanja zote za fedha za umma katika Jamhuri
...
(b) mfumo wa fedha za umma utaimarisha jamii yenye usawa, na haswa-

(iii) matumizi yataimarisha maendeleo sawa ya nchi, ikiwa ni pamoja na kutunga sheria maalumu kwa ajili ya makundi na maeneo ya pembezoni;
… (Kifungu cha 201)

Public Institutions and Services

English


9. Pre-primary education, village polytechnics, homecraft centres and childcare facilities.
… (Fourth Schedule - Distribution of Functions between the National Government and the County Governments, Part 2 – County Governments)

Swahili


9. Elimu ya awali, vituo vya mafunzo mbalimbali kijijini, vituo vya ufundi na vituo vya malezi ya watoto.
… (Kiambatisho cha Nne - Mgawanyo wa Kazi kati ya Serikali ya Kitaifa na Serikali za Kaunti, Sehemu ya 2 - Serikali za Kaunti)

Sexual and Reproductive Rights

English

(1) Every person has the right to life.
(2) The life of a person begins at conception.
(3) A person shall not be deprived of life intentionally, except to the extent authorised by this Constitution or other written law.
(4) Abortion is not permitted unless, in the opinion of a trained health professional, there is need for emergency treatment, or the life or health of the mother is in danger, or if permitted by any other written law. (Art. 26)

Swahili

(1) Kila mtu ana haki ya kuishi.
(2) Maisha ya mtu huanza wakati wa kutungwa mimba.
(3) Mtu hataondolewa maisha kwa kukusudia, isipokuwa kwa kiwango kilichoidhinishwa na Katiba hii au sheria nyingineyo iliyoandikwa.
(4) Utoaji wa mimba haruhusiwi isipokuwa, kwa maoni ya mtaalamu wa afya, kuna haja ya matibabu ya dharura, au maisha au afya ya mama iko hatarini, au ikiwa inaruhusiwa na sheria nyingine yoyote iliyoandikwa. (Kifungu cha 26)

Sexual and Reproductive Rights

English

(1) Every person has the right—
(a) to the highest attainable standard of health, which includes the right to health care services, including reproductive health care;
… (Art. 43)

Swahili

(1) Kila mtu ana haki -
(a) ya kuwa na afya ya kiwango cha juu zaidi, ambacho hujumuisha haki ya kupata huduma za afya, ikiwa ni pamoja na huduma ya afya ya uzazi;
… (Kifungu cha 43)

Status of the Constitution

English

(1) This Constitution is the supreme law of the Republic and binds all persons and all State organs at both levels of government.

(4) Any law, including customary law, that is inconsistent with this Constitution is void to the extent of the inconsistency, and any act or omission in contravention of this Constitution is invalid.
... (Art. 2)

Swahili

(1) Katiba hii ni sheria kuu ya Jamhuri na inawafunga watu wote na vyombo vyote vya Serikali katika ngazi zote mbili za serikali.

(4) Sheria yoyote, pamoja na sheria ya kijadi, ambayo inapingana na Katiba hii ni batili kwa kiwango cha kupingana, na kitendo chochote au uondoaji unaovunja Katiba hii ni batili.
... (Kifungu cha 2)

Status of the Constitution

English

(1) Every person has an obligation to respect, uphold and defend this Constitution.
… (Art. 3)

Swahili

(1) Kila mtu ana jukumu la kuheshimu, kulinda na kutetea Katiba hii.
… (Kifungu cha 3)

Status of the Constitution

English


(3) Traditional dispute resolution mechanisms shall not be used in a way that—
...
(c) is inconsistent with this Constitution or any written law. (Art. 159)

Swahili


(3) Njia za kijadi za utatuzi wa migogoro hazitatumika kwa njia ambayo—
...
(c) zinapingana na Katiba hii au sheria yoyote iliyoandikwa. (Kifungu cha 159)

Status of International Law

English


(5) The general rules of international law shall form part of the law of Kenya.
(6) Any treaty or convention ratified by Kenya shall form part of the law of Kenya under this Constitution. (Art. 2)

Swahili


(5) Kanuni za jumla za sheria za kimataifa zitakuwa sehemu ya sheria ya Kenya.
(6) Makubaliano au mkataba wowote ulioridhiwa na Kenya utakuwa sehemu ya sheria ya Kenya chini ya Katiba hii. (Kifungu cha 2)

Status of International Law

English


(4) The State shall enact and implement legislation to fulfil its international obligations in respect of human rights and fundamental freedoms. (Art. 21)

Swahili


(4) Serikali itatunga na kutekeleza sheria ili itimize majukumu yake ya kimataifa kuhusu haki za binadamu na uhuru wa msingi. (Kifungu cha 21)

Status of International Law

English

(1) There is established the Kenya National Human Rights and Equality Commission.
(2) The functions of the Commission are—

(g) to act as the principal organ of the State in ensuring compliance with obligations under treaties and conventions relating to human rights;
… (Art. 59)

Swahili

(1) Kuna Tume ya Kitaifa ya Haki za Binadamu na Usawa ya Kenya.
(2) Kazi za Tume ni-

(g) kufanya kazi kama chombo kikuu cha Serikali katika kuhakikisha uzingatiaji wa majukumu chini ya makubaliano na mikataba inayohusu haki za binadamu;
… (Kifungu cha 59)

Religious Law

English

We, the people of Kenya -
ACKNOWLEDGING the supremacy of the Almighty God of all creation:
… (Preamble)

Swahili

Sisi, watu wa Kenya -
TUKIKIRI ukuu wa Mungu Mwenyezi muumbaji wa viumbe vyote:
… (Utangulizi)

Religious Law

English

There shall be no State religion. (Art. 8)

Swahili

Hakutakuwa na dini ya serikali. (Kifungu cha 8)

Religious Law

English

...
(4) The provisions of this Chapter13 on equality shall be qualified to the extent strictly necessary for the application of Muslim law before the Kadhis’ courts, to persons who profess the Muslim religion, in matters relating to personal status, marriage, divorce and inheritance.
… (Art. 24)

Swahili

...
(4) Vifungu katika Sura hii kwa usawa vitatumika kwa kiwango ambacho ni lazima kabisa kutumia sharia ya Kiislamu mbele ya mahakama za Kadhi, kwa watu ambao ni waumini wa dini ya Kiisilamu, katika maswala yanayohusu hadhi binafsi, ndoa, talaka na urithi.
… (Kifungu cha 24)

Religious Law

English

...
(4) Parliament shall enact legislation that recognises—
(a) marriages concluded under any tradition, or system of religious, personal or family law; and
(b) any system of personal and family law under any tradition, or adhered to by persons professing a particular religion,
to the extent that any such marriages or systems of law are consistent with this Constitution. (Art. 45)

Swahili

...
(4) Bunge litatunga sheria inayotambua-
(a) ndoa zilizofungwa chini ya utamaduni wowote, au mfumo wa sheria za kidini, za binafsi au za familia; na
(b) mfumo wowote wa sheria binafsi au familia chini ya utamaduni wowote, au inazingatiwa na watu ambao ni waumini wa dini fulani,
kwa kiwango kwamba ndoa yoyote ya namna hiyo au mifumo ya sheria haipingani na Katiba hii. (Kifungu cha 45)

Religious Law

English

(1) There shall be a Chief Kadhi and such number, being not fewer than three, of other Kadhis as may be prescribed under an Act of Parliament.
(2) A person shall not be qualified to be appointed to hold or act in the office of Kadhi unless the person—
(a) professes the Muslim religion; and
(b) possesses such knowledge of the Muslim law applicable to any sects of Muslims as qualifies the person, in the opinion of the Judicial Service Commission, to hold a Kadhi’s court.
(3) Parliament shall establish Kadhis’ courts, each of which shall have the jurisdiction and powers conferred on it by legislation, subject to clause (5).
(4) The Chief Kadhi and the other Kadhis, or the Chief Kadhi and such of the other Kadhis (not being fewer than three in number) as may be prescribed under an Act of Parliament, shall each be empowered to hold a Kadhi’s court having jurisdiction within Kenya.
(5) The jurisdiction of a Kadhis’ court shall be limited to the determination of questions of Muslim law relating to personal status, marriage, divorce or inheritance in proceedings in which all the parties profess the Muslim religion and submit to the jurisdiction of the Kadhi’s courts. (Art. 170)

Swahili

(1) Kutakuwa na Kadhi Mkuu na idadi hiyo, hiatakuwa chini ya Makadhi wengine watatu, kama inavyoweza kuamriwa chini ya Sheria ya Bunge.
(2) Mtu hatakuwa na sifa ya kuteuliwa kushikilia au kufanya kazi katika ofisi ya Kadhi isipokuwa mtu huyo—
(a) ni muumini wa dini ya Kiislamu; na
(b) anayo maarifa ya sheria ya Kiislamu inayotumika kwa madhehebu yoyote ya Waislamu yanayompa sifa mtu huyo, kwa maoni ya Tume ya Huduma ya Mahakama, ya kushikilia mahakama ya Kadhi.
(3) Bunge litaunda mahakama za Kadhi, ambazo kila moja itakuwa na mamlaka na madaraka yatakayotolewa na sheria, kwa mujibu wa ibara ya (5).
(4) Kadhi Mkuu na Makadhi wengineo, au Kadhi Mkuu na baadhi ya Makadhi wengine (hawatakuwa chini ya idadi ya watu watatu) kama inavyoweza kuamriwa chini ya Sheria ya Bunge, kila mmoja atawezeshwa kushikilia mahakama ya Kadhi yenye mamlaka ndani ya Kenya.
(5) Mamlaka ya Mahakama ya Kadhi yatakuwa na mipaka itakayoishia katika kuamua shauri la sheria ya Kiisilamu inayohusiana na hadhi binafsi, ndoa, talaka au urithi katika kesi ambazo kwazo pande zote ni waumini wa dini ya Kiislamu na wanaitii mamlaka ya mahakama za Kadhi. (Kifungu cha 170)

Customary Law

English


(4) Any law, including customary law, that is inconsistent with this Constitution is void to the extent of the inconsistency, and any act or omission in contravention of this Constitution is invalid.
… (Art. 2)

Swahili


(4) Sheria yoyote, pamoja na sheria ya kijadi, ambayo inapingana na Katiba hii ni batili kwa kiwango cha kupingana, na kitendo chochote au uondoaji unaovunja Katiba hii ni batili.
… (Kifungu cha 2)

Customary Law

English

...
(4) Parliament shall enact legislation that recognises—
(a) marriages concluded under any tradition, or system of religious, personal or family law; and
(b) any system of personal and family law under any tradition, or adhered to by persons professing a particular religion,
to the extent that any such marriages or systems of law are consistent with this Constitution. (Art. 45)

Swahili

...
(4) Bunge litatunga sheria inayotambua-
(a) ndoa zilizofungwa chini ya utamaduni wowote, au mfumo wa sheria za kidini, za binafsi au za familia; na
(b) mfumo wowote wa sheria binafsi au familia chini ya utamaduni wowote, au inazingatiwa na watu ambao ni waumini wa dini fulani,
kwa kiwango kwamba ndoa yoyote ya namna hiyo au mifumo ya sheria haipingani na Katiba hii. (Kifungu cha 45)

Customary Law

English

(1) Land in Kenya shall be held, used and managed in a manner that is equitable, efficient, productive and sustainable, and in accordance with the following principles—

(f) elimination of gender discrimination in law, customs and practices related to land and property in land;
… (Art. 60)

Swahili

(1) Ardhi nchini Kenya itashikiliwa, kutumiwa na kusimamiwa kwa njia ambayo ni yenye usawa, fanisi, yenye tija na endelevu, na kwa kufuata kanuni zifuatazo-

(f) uondoaji wa ubaguzi wa kijinsia katika sheria, mila na desturi zinazohusiana na ardhi na mali katika ardhi;
… (Kifungu cha 60)

Customary Law

English

...
(2) In exercising judicial authority, the courts and tribunals shall be guided by the following principles—

(c) alternative forms of dispute resolution including reconciliation, mediation, arbitration and traditional dispute resolution mechanisms shall be promoted, subject to clause (3);

(3) Traditional dispute resolution mechanisms shall not be used in a way that—
(a) contravenes the Bill of Rights;
(b) is repugnant to justice and morality or results in outcomes that are repugnant to justice or morality; or
(c) is inconsistent with this Constitution or any written law. (Art. 159)

Swahili

...
(2) Katika kutumia mamlaka ya mahakama, mahakama na mabaraza yataongozwa na kanuni zifuatazo-

(c) njia mbadala za utatuzi wa mgogoro ikiwa ni pamoja na maridhiano, upatanishi, usuluhishi na njia za kijadi za utatuzi wa mgogoro zitahamasishwa, kwa kuzingatia ibara ya (3) ;

(3) Njia za kijadi za utatuzi wa mgogoro hazitatumika kwa njia ambayo—
(a) inakiuka Sheria ya Haki za Binadamu;
(b) inakinzana na haki na maadili au husababisha matokeo ambayo yanakinzana na haki au maadili; au
(c) ni kinyume cha Katiba hii au sheria yoyote iliyoandikwa. (Kifungu cha 159)

1

Constitution of the Republic of Kenya 2010 (English). According to Art.7 "… 2. The official languages of the Republic are Kiswahili and English. …"

2

Constitution of the Republic of Kenya 2010 (Swahili). UN Women in-house translation (2020).
Links to all sites last visited 31 March 2021

3

According to Art. 260: “‘Affirmative action’ includes any measure designed to overcome or ameliorate an inequity or the systemic denial or infringement of a right or fundamental freedom;...”.

4

According to Art. 248: “(2) The commissions are— (a) the Kenya National Human Rights and Equality Commission; (b) the National Land Commission; (c) the Independent Electoral and Boundaries Commission; (d) the Parliamentary Service Commission; (e) the Judicial Service Commission; (f) the Commission on Revenue Allocation; (g) the Public Service Commission; (h) the Salaries and Remuneration Commission; (i) the Teachers Service Commission; and (j) the National Police Service Commission.”

5

According to Art. 260: “‘Affirmative action’ includes any measure designed to overcome or ameliorate an inequity or the systemic denial or infringement of a right or fundamental freedom;...”.

6

According to Art. 248: “(2) The commissions are— (a) the Kenya National Human Rights and Equality Commission; (b) the National Land Commission; (c) the Independent Electoral and Boundaries Commission; (d) the Parliamentary Service Commission; (e) the Judicial Service Commission; (f) the Commission on Revenue Allocation; (g) the Public Service Commission; (h) the Salaries and Remuneration Commission; (i) the Teachers Service Commission; and (j) the National Police Service Commission.”

7

Chapter 4 on Bill of Rights.

8

According to Art. 260: “‘Affirmative action’ includes any measure designed to overcome or ameliorate an inequity or the systemic denial or infringement of a right or fundamental freedom;...”.

9

According to Art. 248: “(2) The commissions are— (a) the Kenya National Human Rights and Equality Commission; (b) the National Land Commission; (c) the Independent Electoral and Boundaries Commission; (d) the Parliamentary Service Commission; (e) the Judicial Service Commission; (f) the Commission on Revenue Allocation; (g) the Public Service Commission; (h) the Salaries and Remuneration Commission; (i) the Teachers Service Commission; and (j) the National Police Service Commission.”

10

According to Art. 260: “‘Affirmative action’ includes any measure designed to overcome or ameliorate an inequity or the systemic denial or infringement of a right or fundamental freedom;...”.

11

According to Art. 248: “(2) The commissions are— (a) the Kenya National Human Rights and Equality Commission; (b) the National Land Commission; (c) the Independent Electoral and Boundaries Commission; (d) the Parliamentary Service Commission; (e) the Judicial Service Commission; (f) the Commission on Revenue Allocation; (g) the Public Service Commission; (h) the Salaries and Remuneration Commission; (i) the Teachers Service Commission; and (j) the National Police Service Commission.”

12

Chapter 4 on Bill of Rights.

13

Chapter 4 on Bill of Rights.