The Mexican Nation is one and indivisible.
The Nation has pluri-cultural composition based originally on its indigenous peoples[,] who are those who are descended from populations that inhabited the present territory of the country at the beginning of colonization and who preserve their own social, economic, cultural and political institutions, or part of them.
Consciousness of one's indigenous identity will be a fundamental criterion for determining to whom the provisions concerning indigenous peoples are applied.
Communities composed of an indigenous people, [are] those that form a social, economic and cultural unity, living in a territory and that recognized their own authorities in accordance with their habits [usos] and customs.
The right of the indigenous peoples to self-determination will be exercised within a constitutional framework of autonomy that assures the national unity. The recognition of indigenous peoples and communities will be [included] in the constitutions and laws of the federative entities, which must take into account, in addition to the general principles established in the preceding paragraphs of thisarticle, ethno-linguistic criteria and physical settlement.
A. This Constitution recognizes and guarantees the right of indigenous peoples and communities to self-determination and, consequently, to the autonomy to:
I. Decide on their internal forms of coexistence and social, economic, political and cultural organization.
II. Apply their own normative systems in the regulation and solution of their internal conflicts, subject to the general principles of this Constitution, respecting individual guarantees, human rights and, in relevant manner, the dignity and integrity of women. The law will establish the cases and procedures of validation by the corresponding judges or courts.
III. Elect according to their traditional norms, procedures and practices, to the authorities or representatives for the exercise of their own forms of internal government, guaranteeing the participation of women in conditions of equity as opposed to men, in a framework that respects the federal pact and the sovereignty of the States.
IV. Preserve and enrich their languages, knowledge and all the elements that constitute their culture and identity.
V. Preserve and improve the habitat and preserve the integrity of their lands in the terms established in this Constitution.
VI. Accede, with respect to the forms and modalities of ownership and tenancy of the land established in this Constitution and in the laws of the matter, as well as the rights acquired by third parties or by members of the community, to the preferential use and enjoyment of the natural resources of the places [lugares] that the communities inhabit and occupy, except those that correspond to the strategic areas, in terms of this Constitution. For these effects the communities may associate in terms of law.
VII. Elect, in the municipalities with indigenous population, representatives to the ayuntamientos [local or town councils].
The constitutions and laws of the federative entities recognize and regulate these rights in the municipalities, with the aim of strengthening the political participation and representation in accordance with their traditions and internal norms.
VIII. Accede fully to jurisdictions of the State. To guarantee this right, in all the trials and proceedings in which they are parties, individually or collectively, their cultural customs and specifications must be taken into account respecting the precepts of this Constitution. The indigenous peoples have at all times the right to be assisted by interpreters and defenders who have knowledge of their language and culture.
The constitutions and laws of the federative entities will establish the characteristics of self-determination and autonomy that best express the situations and aspirations of the indigenous peoples in each entity, as well as the norms for the recognition of the indigenous communities as entities of public interest.
B. The Federation, the States and the Municipalities, to promote the equality of opportunities of the indigenous peoples and to eliminate any discriminatory practice, will establish institutions and determine the policies necessary to guarantee the effectiveness of the rights of the indigenous peoples and the full development of their peoples and communities, which must be designed and operated in conjunction with them.
To reduce the gaps and shortfalls that affect the indigenous peoples and communities, these authorities, have the obligation to:
I. Promote regional development in the indigenous zones with the objective to strengthen the local economies and to improve the living conditions of their peoples, through coordinated actions between the three orders [órdenes] of government, with the participation of the communities. The municipal authorities will determine[,] equitably[,] the budget allocations that the communities administer directly for specific purposes.
II. Guarantee and increase the levels of schooling, favoring bilingual and intercultural education, literacy, completion of basic education, productive training and media superior [high school] and superior [college] education. To establish a system of scholarships for indigenous students at all levels. To define and to develop educational programs of regional content that recognize the cultural heritage of their peoples, in accordance with the laws of the matter and in consultation with the indigenous communities. To promote respect and understanding of the diverse cultures existing in the Nation.
III. Assuring the effective access to health services by the expansion of the coverage of the national system, properly using traditional medicine, as well as to support the nutrition of the indigenous peoples through food [alimentación] programs, especially for the infant population.
IV. Improve the conditions of the indigenous communities and of their spaces for living and recreation, through actions that facilitate the access to public and private financing for the construction and improvement of housing, as well as extending coverage of the basic social services.
V. Facilitate the incorporation of indigenous women to development, through support to productive projects, the protection of their health, the provision of incentives to encourage their education and their participation in decision-making related to community life.
VI. Extend the communications network that enables the integration of the communities, through the construction and expansion of routes of communication [vías de comunicación] and telecommunication. Establish conditions so that the indigenous peoples and communities may acquire, operate and administer the media of communication, in the terms that the laws of the matter determine.
VII. Supporting the productive activities and the sustainable development of the indigenous communities through actions to achieve the sufficiency of their economic income, the application of incentives for public and private investments that promote job creation, the incorporation of technologies to enhance their own productive capacity, as well as to assure equitable access to the systems of supply and commercialization.
VIII. Establish social policies to protect the migrants of the indigenous peoples, both within the national territory and abroad, through actions to guarantee the labor rights of agricultural day laborers; to improve the conditions of health of women; to support with special programs of education and nutrition the children and youth of migrant families; to see to the respect of their human rights and to promote the diffusion of their cultures.
IX. Consult with the indigenous peoples in elaboration of the National Plan of Development and [those of] the states and municipalities and, where appropriate, incorporate the recommendations and proposals that are made.
To guarantee the compliance with the obligations specified in this part, the Chamber of Deputies of the Congress of the Union, the legislatures of the federative entities and the ayuntamientos, within the domain [ámbito] of their respective competences, will establish the specific allocations [partidas] designated to fulfill these obligations in the budget of expenditures that approves them, as well as forms and procedures by which the communities participate in the exercise and the monitoring of them.
Without prejudice to the rights established in favor of indigenous [persons], their communities and peoples, every community comparable to them will have in this regard the same rights and [those] as the law establishes. (Art. 2)