Constitution of Tonga 1875, as amended to 2013


Citizenship and Nationality

Any foreigner after he has resided in the Kingdom for the space of five years or more may with the consent of the King take the oath of allegiance and he may be granted Certificates of Naturalization and all naturalized subjects shall have the same rights and privileges as native born subjects of Tonga with the exception that they shall not be entitled to the rights of hereditary tax allotments or town allotments. (Clause 29)

Citizenship and Nationality

(1) Notwithstanding clause 29 of this Constitution it shall be lawful for the King and the Legislative Assembly to enact specific laws declaring any persons whether or not they have ever resided in Tonga to be or to have become naturalized subjects of Tonga from any date. All persons who are declared to be naturalized subjects of Tonga by any such legislation shall have, and shall be deemed to have had from the effective dates of their naturalizations, the same rights and privileges as other foreigners becoming naturalized subjects of Tonga by the grant to them of Certificates of Naturalization.
… (Clause 29A)

Equality and Non-Discrimination

There shall be but one law in Tonga for chiefs and commoners for non-Tongans and Tongans. No laws shall be enacted for one class and not for another class but the law shall be the same for all the people of this land. (Clause 4)

Marriage and Family Life

Tongan male subjects by birth of or over the age of 16 years may be granted town allotments and tax allotments out of estates granted in pursuance of this Constitution with the consent of or upon consultation with the estate holder and out of the lands of the Crown, by the Minister of Lands. Such allotments shall be hereditary and shall be of such size and at an annual rent as may be determined by law. A widow shall have the right to succeed according to law, to her deceased husband's tax and town allotments. (Clause 113)

Marriage and Family Life

No lease, sub-lease, transfer of a lease or of a sub-lease shall be granted—
(a) without the prior consent of Cabinet where the term is ninety-nine years, or less, or
(b) without the prior consent of Privy Council where the term is over ninety-nine years,
Provided that no consent shall be granted to a lease by a widow of the land of her deceased husband. (Clause 114)

Participation in Public Life and Institutions

All the people have the right to expect that the Government will protect their life liberty and property and therefore it is right for all the people to support and contribute to the Government according to law.
… (Clause 18)

Political Rights and Association

Every Tongan subject of twenty-one years of age or more who is not a noble, is not insane or imbecile and is not disabled by the twenty-third clause shall, if registered as an elector, be entitled to vote in an election for representatives of the people to the Legislative Assembly and on the day appointed for election shall be exempt from summons for debt. A person resident outside of Tonga who is qualified to be an elector may vote at an election only if he is registered as an elector and present in Tonga for the election. (Clause 64)

Head of State

The form of government for this Kingdom is a Constitutional Monarchy under His Majesty King George Tupou V and his successors. (Clause 30)

Head of State

The right and title of King George Tupou I to the Crown and the Throne of this Kingdom were confirmed by the Constitution of 1875 and it was further declared in the said Constitution that the succession to the Crown and Throne should devolve upon David Uga and then upon Wellington Gu and then upon them begotten by him in marriage and if at any time there be no heirs of Wellington Gu the Crown and Throne shall descend in accordance with the following law of succession:
It shall be lawful only for those born in marriage to succeed.
The succession shall be to the eldest male child and the heirs of his body but if he should have no children to the second male child and the heirs of his body and so on until all the male line shall be ended.
Should there be no male child the eldest female child shall succeed and the heirs of her body and if she should have no children it shall descend to the second female child and the heirs of her body until the female line is ended.
And if there shall be none of this line of David Uga lawful descendants by marriage to succeed to the Crown of Tonga it shall descend to William Tungi and his lawful heirs begotten by him in marriage and to their heirs begotten by them.
And if there should be no lawful heir the King shall appoint his heir if the House of Nobles consent to it (the representatives of the people having no voice in the matter) and he shall be publicly declared heir to the Crown during the King's life.
Should there be no heir to the Crown or successor who has been so publicly proclaimed the Prime Minister or in his absence the Cabinet ministers shall convoke the nobles of the Legislative Assembly (the representatives of the people having no voice in the matter) and when they meet the House of Nobles shall choose by ballot some one of the chiefs whom they wish to succeed as King. And he shall succeed as the first of a new dynasty and he and the heirs of his body born in marriage shall possess the Crown according to law.
And in the event of there being none to succeed according to this law the Prime Minister or in his absence the Cabinet ministers shall again convoke the nobles of the Legislative Assembly in accordance with this law and they shall choose one to succeed to the Throne as the first of a new dynasty and so on according to this law for ever. (Clause 32)

Head of State

(1) It shall not be lawful for any member of the Royal Family who is likely to succeed to the throne to marry any person without the consent of the King. And if any person should thus marry the marriage shall not be considered legal and it shall be lawful for the King to cancel the right of such person and his heirs to succeed to the Crown of Tonga. And the next person in succession to him who so marries shall be declared the heir and the offender shall be regarded as dead.
(2) The expression “any member of the Royal Family who is likely to succeed to the throne” in the last preceding sub-clause shall be construed to include all persons born in lawful marriage and related by descent either lineally or collaterally to the King but not more than twenty times removed from the King. (Clause 33)

Head of State

The King is the Sovereign of all the Chiefs and all the people. The person of the King is sacred. He reigns the country but ministers are responsible.
… (Clause 41)

Government

(1) The King shall appoint from amongst the elected representatives a Prime Minister who is recommended by the Legislative Assembly in accordance with the procedure set out in the Schedule to, or clause 50B of, this Constitution.
... (Clause 50A)

Government

(1) The executive authority of the Kingdom shall vest in the Cabinet, which shall be collectively responsible to the Legislative Assembly for the executive functions of the Government.
(2) The Cabinet shall consist of the Prime Minister and such other Ministers who are nominated by the Prime Minister and appointed by the King: Provided that –
(a) the Prime Minister may nominate as Cabinet Ministers not more than 4 persons who are not elected representatives;
(b) the Prime Minister and Cabinet shall be fewer in number than half of the number of elected members of the Legislative Assembly excluding the Speaker.
… (Clause 51)

Government

Representatives of the people shall be chosen by ballot and any person who is qualified to be an elector may nominate as a candidate and be chosen as a representative for the electoral constituency in which he is registered, save that no person may be chosen against whom an order has been made in any court in the Kingdom for the payment of a specific sum of money the whole or any part of which remains outstanding or if ordered to pay by instalments the whole or any part of such instalments remain outstanding on the day on which such person submits his nomination paper to the Returning Officer:
Provided that a person resident outside of Tonga who is qualified to be an elector will qualify as a candidate only if he is present in Tonga for a period of 3 months within the 6 months before the relevant election. (Clause 65)

Legislature

The King and the Legislative Assembly shall have power to enact laws, and the representatives of the nobles and the representatives of the people shall sit as one House.
… (Clause 56)

Legislature

(1) The Legislative Assembly shall be composed of –
(a) the representatives of the nobles;
(b) the representatives of the people; and
(c) all members of the Cabinet.
(2) Cabinet Ministers who are elected representatives shall, unless dismissed after impeachment under clause 75, remain as members of the Legislative Assembly and representatives in their respective electoral constituency during their appointment as Minister. (Clause 59)

Legislature

There shall be elected by the nobles of the Kingdom from their number nine nobles as representatives of the nobles and there shall be elected by electors duly qualified seventeen representatives of the people.
… (Clause 60)

Legislature

Representatives of the people shall be chosen by ballot and any person who is qualified to be an elector may nominate as a candidate and be chosen as a representative for the electoral constituency in which he is registered, save that no person may be chosen against whom an order has been made in any court in the Kingdom for the payment of a specific sum of money the whole or any part of which remains outstanding or if ordered to pay by instalments the whole or any part of such instalments remain outstanding on the day on which such person submits his nomination paper to the Returning Officer:
Provided that a person resident outside of Tonga who is qualified to be an elector will qualify as a candidate only if he is present in Tonga for a period of 3 months within the 6 months before the relevant election. (Clause 65)

Property, Inheritance and Land Tenure

Since it appears to be the will of God that man should be free as He has made all men of one blood therefore shall the people of Tonga and all who sojourn or may sojourn in this Kingdom be free for ever. And all men may use their lives and persons and time to acquire and possess property and to dispose of their labour and the fruit of their hands and to use their own property as they will. (Clause 1)

Property, Inheritance and Land Tenure

No person may succeed to any tofi'a or any title until he has attained the age of twenty one years, save for members of the Royal Family who shall be deemed to have attained maturity at eighteen years of age. (Clause 27)

Property, Inheritance and Land Tenure

All the land is the property of the King and he may at pleasure grant to the nobles and titular chiefs or matabules one or more estates to become their hereditary estates. It is hereby declared by this Constitution that it shall not be lawful for anyone at any time hereafter whether he be the King or any one of the chiefs or the people of this country to sell any land whatever in the Kingdom of Tonga but they may lease it only in accordance with this Constitution and mortgage it in accordance with the Land Act. And this declaration become a covenant binding on the King and chiefs of this Kingdom for themselves and their heirs and successors for ever. (Clause 104)

Property, Inheritance and Land Tenure

The following is the law of succession to hereditary estates and titles:
Children lawfully born in wedlock only may inherit and the eldest male child shall succeed and the heirs of his body but if he have no descendants then the second male child and the heirs of his body and so on until all the male line is ended. Should there be no male child the eldest female child shall succeed and the heirs of her body and if she should have no descendants the second female child and the heirs of her body and so on until the female line is ended. And failing direct heirs the property shall revert to the eldest brother of the owner of the property beginning with the eldest and his heirs in succession to the youngest and their heirs in accordance with the law of inheritance. And if the brothers have no descendants it shall descend to the eldest sister and the female line as provided in the case of the male line. And if these should have no descendants and there should be no legitimate heir it shall revert to the Crown in accordance with the one hundred and twelfth clause. But should a female be next in succession to the title of a noble or of a hereditary chief the next male heir shall inherit the title and estates. But should such female afterwards have a legitimate male issue the title and estates shall revert to the male issue of the female upon the death of the male in possession of the estate:
Provided that the female that is the heir shall occupy the town allotment and the plantation lands appertaining to such title but the hereditary estates that is the lands occupied by the people shall be held by the inheritor of the title. …
And whereas by Tongan custom the noble Niukapu forms part of the 'Ulutolu line, now therefore it is decreed that in the event the holder of the estate and title of Niukapu is not a descendant by blood of the original Niukapu before 1875, such estate and title shall revert at the death of such holder to a descendant by blood of the Niukapu line. (Clause 111)

Property, Inheritance and Land Tenure

Tongan male subjects by birth of or over the age of 16 years may be granted town allotments and tax allotments out of estates granted in pursuance of this Constitution with the consent of or upon consultation with the estate holder and out of the lands of the Crown, by the Minister of Lands. Such allotments shall be hereditary and shall be of such size and at an annual rent as may be determined by law. A widow shall have the right to succeed according to law, to her deceased husband's tax and town allotments. (Clause 113)

Property, Inheritance and Land Tenure

No lease, sub-lease, transfer of a lease or of a sub-lease shall be granted—
(a) without the prior consent of Cabinet where the term is ninety-nine years, or less, or
(b) without the prior consent of Privy Council where the term is over ninety-nine years,
Provided that no consent shall be granted to a lease by a widow of the land of her deceased husband. (Clause 114)

Protection from Violence

No person shall serve another against his will except he be undergoing punishment by law and any slave who may escape from a foreign country to Tonga (unless he be escaping from justice being guilty of homicide or theft or any great crime or involved in debt) shall be free from the moment he sets foot on Tongan soil for no person shall be in servitude under the protection of the flag of Tonga. (Clause 2)

Status of the Constitution

This Constitution is the supreme law of the Kingdom and if any other law is inconsistent with this Constitution, that other law shall, to the extent of the inconsistency, be void. (Clause 82)

Status of International Law

It shall be lawful for the King to make treaties with Foreign States provided that such treaties shall be in accordance with the laws of the Kingdom.
… (Clause 39)

Customary Law

There shall be but one law in Tonga for chiefs and commoners for non-Tongans and Tongans. No laws shall be enacted for one class and not for another class but the law shall be the same for all the people of this land. (Clause 4)

Customary Law

No person may succeed to any tofi'a or any title until he has attained the age of twenty one years, save for members of the Royal Family who shall be deemed to have attained maturity at eighteen years of age. (Clause 27)

Customary Law

The following is the law of succession to hereditary estates and titles:
Children lawfully born in wedlock only may inherit and the eldest male child shall succeed and the heirs of his body but if he have no descendants then the second male child and the heirs of his body and so on until all the male line is ended. Should there be no male child the eldest female child shall succeed and the heirs of her body and if she should have no descendants the second female child and the heirs of her body and so on until the female line is ended. And failing direct heirs the property shall revert to the eldest brother of the owner of the property beginning with the eldest and his heirs in succession to the youngest and their heirs in accordance with the law of inheritance. And if the brothers have no descendants it shall descend to the eldest sister and the female line as provided in the case of the male line. And if these should have no descendants and there should be no legitimate heir it shall revert to the Crown in accordance with the one hundred and twelfth clause. But should a female be next in succession to the title of a noble or of a hereditary chief the next male heir shall inherit the title and estates. But should such female afterwards have a legitimate male issue the title and estates shall revert to the male issue of the female upon the death of the male in possession of the estate:
Provided that the female that is the heir shall occupy the town allotment and the plantation lands appertaining to such title but the hereditary estates that is the lands occupied by the people shall be held by the inheritor of the title. …
And whereas by Tongan custom the noble Niukapu forms part of the 'Ulutolu line, now therefore it is decreed that in the event the holder of the estate and title of Niukapu is not a descendant by blood of the original Niukapu before 1875, such estate and title shall revert at the death of such holder to a descendant by blood of the Niukapu line. (Clause 111)

Citizenship and Nationality

‘E ngofua ki he Fale Alea ke fakamaau ‘a e anga ‘o e kau fakafofonga ‘o e Fale Alea pea neongo ‘e ‘ikai katoa ‘a e Fale Alea ‘e ngofua ki he Fale Alea ke fai ‘a e alea mo fokotu‘u ‘a e ngaahi lao mo e fai ‘a e ngaahi ngaue ‘o kapau ‘oku ‘i ai ‘a e vaeua malie ‘o e kau fakafofonga ‘o e Fale Alea pea kapau ‘oku si‘i hifo ‘i he vaeua malie ‘a e kau fakafofonga ‘o e Fale Alea ‘e tutuku ‘a e Fale Alea ‘o tuku ki ha ‘aho kehe, pea ‘i he ‘enau toe fakataha kapau ‘oku ‘ikai te nau tatau mo e vaeua malie ‘e ngofua ki he Tu‘i pe ‘Eiki Sea ‘o e Fale Alea ke fekau fakamalohi ke katoa mai ‘a e kau fakafofonga ‘o e Fale Alea pea kapau ‘oku ‘i ai ha ni‘ihi ‘oku ‘ikai te nau ha‘u leva ‘e ngofua ke tuut‘u‘uni he Fale Alea hanau tautea ‘i he ‘enau talangata‘a. (Kupu 29)

Citizenship and Nationality

(1) Neongo ‘a e kupu 29 ‘o e Konisitutone ni kuo pau ke fakalao ki he Tu‘i mo e Fale Alea ke fa‘u ha ngaahi lao makehe ‘o fakaha ai ‘oku pe kuo liliu mei ha fa‘ahinga ‘aho pe ‘o hoko ko e tokotaha Tonga ha fa‘ahinga taha pe ‘o tatau ai pe pe kuo ne ‘osi nofo ‘i Tonga pe ‘ikai. Ko e kakai kotoa pe ‘a ia kuo fakaha kuo nau liliu ‘o hoko ko e kakai Tonga ‘e ha fa‘ahinga lao pehee kuo pau ke nau ma‘u pea kuo pau ‘e lau kuo nau ma‘u mei he ngaahi ‘aho ko ia na‘e kamata ngaue‘aki ai ‘enau liliu kakai, ‘a e ngaahi totonu mo e ngaahi faingamalie tatau mo e kau muli kehe kuo nau liliu ‘o hoko ko e kakai Tonga ‘aki hono ‘oatu kiate kinautolu ‘a e ngaahi Tohi Fakamo‘oni Liliu Kakai.
... (Kupu 29A)

Equality and Non-Discrimination

‘E taha pe ‘a e lao ‘o Tonga ni ki he hou‘eiki mo e me‘avale ki he fa‘ahinga kakai kotoa pe ‘oku ‘ikai ko e Tonga mo e Tonga. ‘E ‘ikai fokotu‘u ha lao ‘i he fonua ni ki ha fa‘ahinga pea tuku ha fa‘ahinga ka ‘e taha pe mo mamafa tatau pe ki he kakai kotoa pe ‘o e fonua ni. (Kupu 4)

Marriage and Family Life

Ko e kakai tangata kuo fa‘ele‘i ko e Tonga ‘oku pe laka hake ‘i he 16 honau ta‘u motu‘a ‘e ngofua ke foaki atu ke nau ma‘u ‘api kolo mo ‘api tukuhau mei he ngaahi tofi‘a kuo foaki ‘o fakatatau mo e Konisitutone ‘i he loto ki ai pe ‘i ha feongoongoi mo e ma‘u tofi‘a pea mei he ngaahi tofi‘a ‘o e Pule‘anga, ‘e he Minisita Fonua. Kuo pau ke tukufakaholo ‘a e ngaahi ‘api koia pea ko e me‘a ki hono lahi mo e lisi fakata‘u kuo pau ke tu‘utu‘uni ki ai ‘a e lao. Kuo pau ke ma‘u ‘e he uitou fakatatau ki he lao ‘a e totonu ke ne ma‘u ‘a e ‘api tukuhau mo e ‘api kolo ‘o hono mali kuo pekia. (Kupu 113)

Marriage and Family Life

‘E ‘ikai foaki ha lisi, toe lisi, fetongi ‘o ha lisi pe ‘o ha toe lisi —
(a) kae ‘oua kuo tomu‘a ma‘u ‘a e fakangofua ‘a e Kapineti ‘a ia ko e vaha‘a taimi lisi ‘oku ta‘u ‘e hivangofulumahiva pe si‘isi‘i ange ai, pe
(b) kae ‘oua kuo tomu‘a ma‘u ‘a e fakangofua ‘a e Fakataha Tokoni ‘a ia ko e vaha‘a taimi lisi ‘oku laka hake ‘i he ta‘u ‘e hivangofulumahiva;
Tuku kehe kuo pau he ‘ikai foaki ha fakangofua ki ha lisi ‘e ha uitou ki he kelekele ‘o hono husepaniti kuo pekia. (Kupu 114)

Participation in Public Life and Institutions

‘Oku totonu ke ‘amanaki ‘e he kakai kotoa pe ‘e malu‘i ‘e he Pule‘anga ‘enau mo‘ui mo honau tau‘ataina mo ‘enau koloa.
… (Kupu 18)

Political Rights and Association

Ko e taha Tonga kotoa pe kuo kakato hono ta‘u uofulu ma taha pe lahi ange ‘oku ‘ikai ko ha nopele, ‘oku ‘ikai faha pe vale pea ‘oku ‘ikai fakatapui ia ‘e hono uofulu ma tolu ‘o e kupu, kapau kuo lesisita ko ha taha fili, ‘oku pau ke ngofua ke ne kau ‘i he fili ‘o e kau fakafofonga ‘o e kakai ki he Fale Alea, pea ‘i he ‘aho kuo tu‘utu‘uni ke fai ai ‘a e fili kuo pau ke faka‘ata ia mei hano faka‘ilo ko e ‘uhi ko ha mo‘ua. Ko ha taha ‘oku ‘ikai nofo ‘i Tonga ‘a ia ‘oku ngofua ke hoko ko e taha fili ‘e ngofua ke fili ‘i ha fili ‘o kapau pe ‘oku ‘osi lesisita ko e taha fili pea ‘oku lolotonga ‘i Tonga ki he fili. (Kupu 64)

Head of State

Ko e anga ‘o e fai ‘a e Pule ‘o e Fonua ni ko e Pule‘anga Tu‘i Faka-Konisitutone ‘I he malumalu ‘o ‘Ene ‘Afio ko e Tu‘i ko Tupou VI mo kinautolu ‘e hoko kiate ia. (Kupu 30)

Head of State

‘Oku ma‘u ‘a e Kalauni mo e Nofo‘anga Faka-Tu‘i ‘o e Pule‘anga ni ‘e he ‘Ene ‘Afio ko Kingi Siaosi Tupou I pea ‘oku fakapapau ni ‘e ma‘u ‘e ia pea mo ia na‘e tupu ‘iate ia ‘a Tevita ‘Unga pea mo ia na‘e tupu ai ‘a Uelingatoni Ngu mo kinautolu ‘e tupu ‘iate ia ko ‘ene fānau mali pea ka hala ia ‘o ‘ikai ha hako tupu mali ‘o Uelingatoni Ngu ‘e hoko ‘o hangē ko e lao ‘o e hokohoko ni:
Pea ko ‘eni ‘a e anga ‘o e hokohoko ‘e ngofua ke kau ‘i he hokohoko ni ‘a e fanau tupu mali pe.
Pea ‘e hoko ki he tamasi‘i tangata mo e ngaahi ‘ea ‘o hono sino pea ka hala ia ‘o ‘ikai hano hako ‘e hoko ki hono ua ‘o e tamasi‘i tangata mo e ngaahi ‘ea ‘o hono sino pea fai pehē kae ‘oua kuo ‘osi ‘a e fānau tangata.
Pea ka ‘ikai ha tamasi‘i tangata ‘e hoko ki he ‘uluaki tamasi‘i fefine mo e ngaahi ‘ea ‘o hono sino pea ka hala ia ‘o ‘ikai hano hako ‘e hoko ki hono ua ‘o e tamasi‘i fefine mo e ngaahi ‘ea ‘o hono sino pea fai pehē pe kae ‘oua kuo ‘osi ‘a e fānau fefine.
Pea ka ‘ikai ha taha ‘iate kinautolu ‘o Tevita ‘Unga ko e fanau mali hoko totonu ke hoko ki he Kalauni ‘o e Tu‘i ‘o Tonga ‘e hoko kia Uiliami Tungi pe ko hono ngaahi ‘ea totonu ‘a ia ‘oku tupu ‘i hono sino ko e fānau mali pea mo e ngaahi ‘ea ‘oku tupu ‘iate kinautolu foki.
Pea ka ‘ikai ha ‘ea totonu ‘e fakanofo ‘e he Tu‘i ‘a hono ‘ea kapau ‘oku loto ki ai ‘a e Hou‘eiki Nopele (ka ‘oku ‘ikai kau ai ‘a e kau fakafofonga ‘o e kakai) pea ‘e fakahāhā ko e ‘ea ia ki he Kalauni ‘i he kei lakoifie ‘a e Tu‘i.
Pea ka faifai pea ‘ikai ha ‘ea mo e hoko totonu ki he Kalauni ha taha kuo fakahāhā‘o hangē ko e tu‘utu‘uni ni ‘e fakataha leva ‘e he Palemia pea ka mama‘o ia ‘e ‘i he Kapineti (ko e kau Minisita) ‘a e Hou‘eiki Nopele ‘o e Fale Alea (pea ‘e ‘ikai kau ai ‘a e kau fakafofonga ‘o e kakai) pea ka fakataha ‘e fili ‘e he hou‘eiki Nopele ‘o e Fale Alea ‘aki ‘a e paloti ha taha ‘o e Hou‘eiki ‘a ia ‘oku nau loto ki ai ke hoko ko e Tu‘i pea ‘e hoko ia ko e kamata‘anga ‘o e Ha‘a Tu‘i fo‘ou pea ‘e ma’u ‘e hono ngaahi ‘ea ‘oku tupu ‘iate ia ‘i hono sino ko e fānau mali ‘a e Kalauni ‘o hangē ko e lao ni
Pea ka faifai pea ‘ikai ha hoko ‘iate kinautolu ‘o hangē ko e lao ni ‘e toe fakataha ‘e he Palemia pea ka mama‘o ia ‘e ‘i he Kapineti mo e Hou‘eiki Nopele ‘o e Fale Alea ‘o hangē ko e tu‘utu‘uni ni pea te nau toe fili ha taha ke hoko ki he Kalauni ko e kamata‘anga ‘o e Ha‘a Tu‘i fo‘ou pea ‘e fai pehē ai pe ‘o hangē ko e lao ni ‘o lauikuonga. (Kupu 32)

Head of State

(1) ‘E ‘ikai si‘i ngofua ki ha taha ‘o e famili ‘o e Tu‘i ha taha ‘e faifai pea ngali hoko ki he Kalauni ke mali mo ha taha ‘oku ‘ikai loto ki ai ‘a e Tu‘i. Pea ka fai ha mali pehē‘e ‘ikai lau ko e mali fakalao ia pea ‘e ngofua ki he Tu‘i ke liliu ‘a e totonu ‘o e tokotaha ko ia ke ‘oua ‘aupito na‘a hoko ia ki he Kalauni ‘o Tonga pe ko hono hako. Pea ka fai ia ‘e ma‘u ia ‘e ia ‘oku hoko ki he tokotaha ko ia pea lau ko e ‘ea ia pea ko e talangata‘a ‘e lau ia ‘o hange kuo mate.
(2) Ko e kupu‘i lea ko “ha taha ‘e faifai pea ngali hoko ki he kalauni” ‘i he kupusi‘i faka‘osi kimu‘a angé, kuo pau ke faka‘uhinga‘i ia ke fakakau‘i ai ‘a kinautolu kotoa pē kuo fanau‘i ‘i he mali fakalao pea ‘oku fehokotaki ta‘ata‘a mo e Tu‘i ‘i he hohoko ‘o e hako tukufakaholo, pe hako ofi tahá ka he ‘ikai ke lahi hake ‘i he toko uofulu hono mama‘o ‘i he fakahokohoko mei he Tu‘i. (Kupu 33)

Head of State

Ko e Tu‘i ko e Pule ‘o e kau Nopele mo e kakai kotoa pe. ‘Oku toputapu ‘a e sino ‘o e Tu‘i. ‘Oku ‘iate ia ‘a hono pule ‘o e fonua ka ‘oku ‘i he ‘ene kau Minisita ‘a hono fai ‘a e ngaue ‘o e fonua (responsible). Neongo ‘e fokotu‘u ‘e he Fale Alea ‘a e ngaahi lao ‘e ‘ikai ke hoko kae ‘oua kuo ‘ai ki ai ‘e he Tu‘i hono huafa.
... (Kupu 41)

Government

(1) Kuo pau ke fakanofo ‘e he Tu‘i mei he kau fakafofonga kuo fili ha Palemia ‘a ia kuo fokotu‘u atu ‘e he Fale Alea ‘o fakatatau ki he founga ngaue kuo fokotu‘u atu ‘i he Tepile ki he, pe kupu 50B ‘o e, Konisitutone ko eni.
… (Kupu 50A)

Government

(1) Kuo pau ke ‘i he Kapineti ‘a e mafai pule ‘o e Fonua, ‘a ia kuo pau ke nau ma‘u ‘a e ngafa ‘o e fengaue‘aki fakataha mo e taliui ki he Fale Alea ‘a e ngaahi fatongia pule ‘o e Pule‘anga.
(2) Kuo pau ke kau atu ki he Kapineti ‘a e Palemia mo e kau Minisita kehe ko ia kuo fokotu‘u ‘e he Palemia pea fakanofo ‘e he Tu‘i: Ka kuo pau —
(a) ‘e ngofua ke fokotu‘u ‘e he Palemia ‘o ‘ikai lahi hake ‘i he toko 4 ‘a ia ‘oku ‘ikai ko ha kau fakafofonga kuo fili ko e kau Minisita ‘o e Kapineti;
(b) ko e Palemia mo e Kapineti ke si‘i hifo honau tokolahi ‘i he vaeua ‘o e tokolahi ‘o e kau memipa ‘o e Fale Alea kuo fili, ‘o ‘ikai ke kau ai ‘a e Sea.
... (Kupu 51)

Government

‘E fai ‘a e fili ‘o e kau fakafofonga ‘o e kakai ‘aki ‘a e paloti pea ‘ilonga ha taha kuo fakangofua ke fili ‘e ngofua ke fokotu‘u ia koe kanititeiti pea ke fili ia ko e fakafofonga ma‘ae vahenga fili ‘a ia kuo lesisita ki ai, kae kehe kuo pau he ‘ikai fili ha taha ‘a ia kuo fai ki ai ha tu‘utu‘uni ‘i ha Fakamaau‘anga ‘i he Pule‘anga ke totongi ha pa‘anga kuo tuhu‘i pau ‘a ia ko hono kotoa pe konga ‘o ia ‘oku te‘eki ke totongi pe kuo tu‘utu‘uni ke totongi fakakongokonga ‘a e kotoa pe ha konga ‘o e pa‘anga ‘oku te‘eki ke totongi fakakongokonga ko ia ‘i he ‘aho ‘oku ‘oatu ai ‘e he toko taha ko ia ‘ene pepa fili ki he ‘Ofisa Faifili:
Ka kuo pau ko ha taha ‘oku ‘ikai nofo ‘i Tonga ‘a ia ‘oku ngofua ke hoko ko e taha fili ‘e ‘i ai pe ‘ene mafai ke hoko ko ha kanititeiti kapau ‘oku ne ‘i Tonga ‘i ha vaha‘a taimi ko e mahina ‘e tolu ‘i loto ‘i he mahina ‘e ono kimu‘a ‘i he fili felave‘i ko ia. (Kupu 65)

Legislature

‘Oku ‘i he Tu‘i mo e Fale Alea ke fokotu‘u ‘a e ngaahi lao, pea ‘e nofo fakataha ‘a e hou‘eiki nopele mo e kau fakafofonga ‘o e kakai ‘i he fale pe taha.
… (Kupu 56)

Legislature

(1) Ko e Fale Alea kuo pau ke kau ki ai ‘a e —
(a) kau fakafofonga ‘o e kau nopele;
(b) kau fakafofonga ‘o e kakai; mo e
(c) kotoa ‘o e kau memipa ‘o e Kapineti.
(2) Kuo pau ki he kau Minisita ‘o e Kapineti ‘a ia ko e kau fakafofonga kuo fili, tukukehe ka tuku ki tu‘a hili hono faka‘ilo ‘i he kupu 75, ke hoko atu pe ko e kau memipa ‘o e Fale Alea pea kei fakafofonga pe ‘i honau vahenga fili takitaha lolotonga honau fakanofo ko e Minisita. (Kupu 59)

Legislature

‘E fili ‘e he kau nopele ‘o e Pule‘anga mei he kau nopele ha toko hiva ko e kau fakafofonga nopele pea ‘e fili ‘e he kakai ‘oku ‘ata fakalao ha toko hongofulu ma fitu ko e kau fakafofonga kakai.
… (Kupu 60)

Legislature

‘E fai ‘a e fili ‘o e kau fakafofonga ‘o e kakai ‘aki ‘a e paloti pea ‘ilonga ha taha kuo fakangofua ke fili ‘e ngofua ke fokotu‘u ia koe kanititeiti pea ke fili ia ko e fakafofonga ma‘ae vahenga fili ‘a ia kuo lesisita ki ai, kae kehe kuo pau he ‘ikai fili ha taha ‘a ia kuo fai ki ai ha tu‘utu‘uni ‘i ha Fakamaau‘anga ‘i he Pule‘anga ke totongi ha pa‘anga kuo tuhu‘i pau ‘a ia ko hono kotoa pe konga ‘o ia ‘oku te‘eki ke totongi pe kuo tu‘utu‘uni ke totongi fakakongokonga ‘a e kotoa pe ha konga ‘o e pa‘anga ‘oku te‘eki ke totongi fakakongokonga ko ia ‘i he ‘aho ‘oku ‘oatu ai ‘e he toko taha ko ia ‘ene pepa fili ki he ‘Ofisa Faifili:
Ka kuo pau ko ha taha ‘oku ‘ikai nofo ‘i Tonga ‘a ia ‘oku ngofua ke hoko ko e taha fili ‘e ‘i ai pe ‘ene mafai ke hoko ko ha kanititeiti kapau ‘oku ne ‘i Tonga ‘i ha vaha‘a taimi ko e mahina ‘e tolu ‘i loto ‘i he mahina ‘e ono kimu‘a ‘i he fili felave‘i ko ia. (Kupu 65)

Property, Inheritance and Land Tenure

Ko e me‘a ‘i he ha mai ko e finangalo ‘o e ‘Otua ke tau‘atāina ‘a e tangata ko e me‘a ‘i he ‘ene ngaohi ‘o toto pe taha ‘a e kakai kotoa pe ko ia ‘e tau‘ataina ‘o ta‘engata ‘a e kakai Tonga mo e kakai kotoa pe ‘oku nofo ni pea ‘e nofo ‘i he Pule’anga ni. Pea ‘e ‘atā ki he kakai kotoa pe ‘enau mo‘ui mo honau sino mo honau taimi ke kumi mo ma‘u koloa pea ke fa‘iteliha ki he ngaue mo e fua ‘o honau nima pea ke pule‘i tāfataha pe ‘e kinautolu ‘a e ngaahi me‘a ‘anautolu. (Kupu 1)

Property, Inheritance and Land Tenure

‘E ‘ikai ha taha ‘e ngofua ke hoko ko e ‘ea ki ha tofi‘a pe ha hingoa kae ‘oua kuo kakato hono uofulu mā taha ta‘u, tuku kehe ‘a kinautolu ‘i he fāmili ‘o e Tu‘i ‘a ia kuo pau ke lau kuo nau a‘u ki he ta‘u fakalao ‘i he ta‘u ‘e hongofulu-mā-valu. (Kupu 27)

Property, Inheritance and Land Tenure

‘Oku ‘i he Tu‘i ‘a e fonua kotoa pe mo e kelekele mo e ngaahi tofi‘a mo e ngaahi ‘api pea ‘oku ngofua kiate ia ke finangalo ke tuku ki ha hou‘eiki nopele mo ha hou‘eiki ma‘u hingoa pe ha kau matapule ‘oku ne finangalo ki ai ha tofi‘a pe ko ha ngaahi tofi‘a ke hoko ko honau ngaahi tofi‘a ke tukufakaholo. ‘Oku toe fakapapau ‘i he Konisitutone ni ‘e tapu ‘aupito ‘aupito ‘o ta‘engata ki ha toko taha pe ko e Tu‘i pe ko ha taha ‘o e hou‘eiki mo e kakai ‘o e fonua ni ke fakatau ha konga si‘i ‘o e kelekele ‘o e Pule‘anga ‘o Tonga ngata pe ke lisi ‘o hange ‘oku tu‘u ‘i he Konisitutone pea ke mokisi (mortgage) ia ‘o fakatatau ki he Lao ‘o e Kelekele. Pea ‘e hoko ‘a e tohi ni ko e fuakava fakapapau ‘e he Tu‘i mo e hou‘eiki ‘o e Pule‘anga ni koe‘uhi ko kinautolu mo kinautolu ‘e hoko kiate kinautolu ‘o lauikuonga. (Kupu 104)

Property, Inheritance and Land Tenure

Ko eni ‘a e lao ‘o e hokohoko ki he ngaahi tofi‘a mo e ngaahi hingoa tukufakaholo: ‘E ngofua ke kau ‘i he hokohoko ni ‘a e fanau tupu mali pe ‘e hoko ki he ‘uluaki tamasi‘i tangata mo e ngaahi ‘ea ‘o hono sino pea ka hala ia ‘o ‘ikai hano hako ‘e hoko ki hono ua ‘o e tamasi‘i tangata mo e ngaahi ‘ea ‘o hono sino pea fai pehe kae ‘oua kuo ‘osi ‘a e fanau tangata. Ka ‘ikai ha tamasi‘i tangata ‘e hoko ki he ‘uluaki tamasi‘i fefine mo e ngaahi ‘ea ‘o hono sino pea fai pehe kae ‘oua kuo ‘osi ‘a e fanau fefine. Ka hala ia ‘o ‘ikai ha hako ‘e foki ki he ngaahi tokoua tangata ‘o ia ‘a ia na‘e ‘o‘ona ‘a e tofi‘a pea fai mei he ‘uluaki ‘o a‘u ki he ki mui pea mo honau hako ‘o hange ko e lao ‘o e hokohoko. Pea ka hala ‘a e ngaahi tokoua tangata pea ka ‘ikai ha taha tonu tupu mali ‘iate kinautolu ‘e foki ki he Pule‘anga ‘o hange ko hono teau ma hongofulu ma ua ‘o e kupu. Pea koe‘uhi na‘a faifai pea hoko ha fefine ko e ‘ea ki ha hingoa ‘o ha nopele pea ka pehe ‘e hoko ‘a e tangata ‘oku hoko ki he fefine ‘o ma‘u ‘a e hingoa mo e lakanga ko ia pea ka faifai pea ma‘u ha hako tangata ‘e he fefine ko ia pea ka pekia ‘a e tangata na‘e ma‘u ‘a e hingoa ‘e toki foki ki he hako ‘o e fefine ko ia:
Pea ‘e ‘i he fefine ko e ‘ea ‘a e tofi‘a tukufakaholo ‘a e ‘api kolo mo e ‘api ‘i ‘uta ka ko e tofi‘a lahi ‘oku nofo ai ‘a e kakai ‘e ma‘u ‘e he tangata ‘e ma‘u ‘a e hingoa ko ia. Koe‘uhi ‘i he anga faka-Tonga na‘e fa‘a ngaue‘aki ma‘u ha ngofua ke lava ha tamasi‘i ohi ‘o hoko ki ha ngaahi tofi‘a mo ha ngaahi hingoa ‘o ‘ene tamai- ‘i-he-ohi ko ia ai ‘oku tu‘utu‘uni mamafa heni ka pekia ha taha ‘oku ne ma‘u ha tofi‘a pe hingoa ‘a ia ko ‘ene ma‘u ‘a e tofi‘a pe hingoa ko ia koe‘uhi ko e hako ia ‘i he toto ‘o e tamasi‘i ohi ko ia kuo pau ke foki ‘a e tofi‘a mo e hingoa ko ia ‘o hange ko e ngaahi tu‘utu‘uni ‘a e kupu ni pea kapau ‘oku ‘ikai ha hako ‘i he toto pehe ‘oku kei mo‘ui ‘oku pau ke ngaue‘aki ‘a e ngaahi tu‘utu‘uni ‘a e kupu ‘oku hoko leva mai pe ki heni.
Pea koe‘uhi ko e fatungamotu‘a ‘o Tonga ‘oku kau ai ‘a e Nopele Niukapu ki he laine ‘o e ‘Ulutolu, ko ia ‘oku tu‘utu‘uni ai heni ka hoko ‘o ma‘u ‘a e tofi‘a tukufakaholo mo e hingoa ‘o e Niukapu ‘e ha taha ‘oku ‘ikai ko ha hako ‘i he toto ‘o e ‘uluaki Niukapu ki mu‘a ‘i he 1875, kuo pau ke foki ‘a e tofi‘a tukufakaholo mo e hingoa ko ia ‘i ha pekia ‘a e taha ‘oku ne ma‘u ki ha hako ‘i he toto ‘o e laine Niukapu. (Kupu 111)

Property, Inheritance and Land Tenure

Ko e kakai tangata kuo fa‘ele‘i ko e Tonga ‘oku pe laka hake ‘i he 16 honau ta‘u motu‘a ‘e ngofua ke foaki atu ke nau ma‘u ‘api kolo mo ‘api tukuhau mei he ngaahi tofi‘a kuo foaki ‘o fakatatau mo e Konisitutone ‘i he loto ki ai pe ‘i ha feongoongoi mo e ma‘u tofi‘a pea mei he ngaahi tofi‘a ‘o e Pule‘anga, ‘e he Minisita Fonua. Kuo pau ke tukufakaholo ‘a e ngaahi ‘api koia pea ko e me‘a ki hono lahi mo e lisi fakata‘u kuo pau ke tu‘utu‘uni ki ai ‘a e lao. Kuo pau ke ma‘u ‘e he uitou fakatatau ki he lao ‘a e totonu ke ne ma‘u ‘a e ‘api tukuhau mo e ‘api kolo ‘o hono mali kuo pekia. (Kupu 113)

Property, Inheritance and Land Tenure

‘E ‘ikai foaki ha lisi, toe lisi, fetongi ‘o ha lisi pe ‘o ha toe lisi —
(a) kae ‘oua kuo tomu‘a ma‘u ‘a e fakangofua ‘a e Kapineti ‘a ia ko e vaha‘a taimi lisi ‘oku ta‘u ‘e hivangofulumahiva pe si‘isi‘i ange ai, pe
(b) kae ‘oua kuo tomu‘a ma‘u ‘a e fakangofua ‘a e Fakataha Tokoni ‘a ia ko e vaha‘a taimi lisi ‘oku laka hake ‘i he ta‘u ‘e hivangofulumahiva;
Tuku kehe kuo pau he ‘ikai foaki ha fakangofua ki ha lisi ‘e ha uitou ki he kelekele ‘o hono husepaniti kuo pekia. (Kupu 114)

Protection from Violence

‘E ‘ikai ngaue fakatamaio‘eiki ‘e ha taha ki ha toko taha kapau ‘oku ‘ikai te ne loto ki ai ngata pe ‘i he ‘ene mo‘ua ki he lao pea ka hola ha popula mei ha fonua kehe ki Tonga ni (kapau ‘oku ‘ikai ko e hola mei he lao ‘o ha fonua ko e me‘a ‘i he ‘ene fakapo pe kaiha‘a pe ‘i he fai ha me‘a lahi pehē pe ha mo‘ua) te ne tau‘atāina leva ‘i he ‘ene tu‘uta ki Tonga ni koe‘uhi ‘e ‘ikai ‘aupito nofo fakapopula ha toko taha ‘oku nofo ‘i he malumalu ‘o e fuka ‘o Tonga. (Kupu 2)

Status of the Constitution

Koe Konisitutone ni ko e lao pule ia ‘o e Pule‘anga ni pea kapau ‘oku ‘i ai ha lao kehe ‘oku faikehekehe mo e Konisitutone, ko e lao kehe ko ia kuopau ke ta‘e‘aonga ia, ‘o fakatatau ki he ngata‘anga ‘o e faikehekehe ko ia. (Kupu 82)

Status of International Law

‘E ngofua ki he Tu‘i ke fai ‘a e ngaahi talite mo e ngaahi Pule‘anga Muli ka ‘oku ‘ikai ngofua ke ne fai ‘a e ngaahi talite ‘oku fai kehe mo e ngaahi lao ‘o e Pule‘anga ni.
… (Kupu 39)

Customary Law

‘E taha pe ‘a e lao ‘o Tonga ni ki he hou‘eiki mo e me‘avale ki he fa‘ahinga kakai kotoa pe ‘oku ‘ikai ko e Tonga mo e Tonga. ‘E ‘ikai fokotu‘u ha lao ‘i he fonua ni ki ha fa‘ahinga pea tuku ha fa‘ahinga ka ‘e taha pe mo mamafa tatau pe ki he kakai kotoa pe ‘o e fonua ni. (Kupu 4)

Customary Law

‘E ‘ikai ha taha ‘e ngofua ke hoko ko e ‘ea ki ha tofi‘a pe ha hingoa kae ‘oua kuo kakato hono uofulu mā taha ta‘u, tuku kehe ‘a kinautolu ‘i he fāmili ‘o e Tu‘i ‘a ia kuo pau ke lau kuo nau a‘u ki he ta‘u fakalao ‘i he ta‘u ‘e hongofulu-mā-valu. (Kupu 27)

Customary Law

Ko eni ‘a e lao ‘o e hokohoko ki he ngaahi tofi‘a mo e ngaahi hingoa tukufakaholo:
‘E ngofua ke kau ‘i he hokohoko ni ‘a e fanau tupu mali pe ‘e hoko ki he ‘uluaki tamasi‘i tangata mo e ngaahi ‘ea ‘o hono sino pea ka hala ia ‘o ‘ikai hano hako ‘e hoko ki hono ua ‘o e tamasi‘i tangata mo e ngaahi ‘ea ‘o hono sino pea fai pehe kae ‘oua kuo ‘osi ‘a e fanau tangata. Ka ‘ikai ha tamasi‘i tangata ‘e hoko ki he ‘uluaki tamasi‘i fefine mo e ngaahi ‘ea ‘o hono sino pea fai pehe kae ‘oua kuo ‘osi ‘a e fanau fefine. Ka hala ia ‘o ‘ikai ha hako ‘e foki ki he ngaahi tokoua tangata ‘o ia ‘a ia na‘e ‘o‘ona ‘a e tofi‘a pea fai mei he ‘uluaki ‘o a‘u ki he ki mui pea mo honau hako ‘o hange ko e lao ‘o e hokohoko. Pea ka hala ‘a e ngaahi tokoua tangata pea ka ‘ikai ha taha tonu tupu mali ‘iate kinautolu ‘e foki ki he Pule‘anga ‘o hange ko hono teau ma hongofulu ma ua ‘o e kupu. Pea koe‘uhi na‘a faifai pea hoko ha fefine ko e ‘ea ki ha hingoa ‘o ha nopele pea ka pehe ‘e hoko ‘a e tangata ‘oku hoko ki he fefine ‘o ma‘u ‘a e hingoa mo e lakanga ko ia pea ka faifai pea ma‘u ha hako tangata ‘e he fefine ko ia pea ka pekia ‘a e tangata na‘e ma‘u ‘a e hingoa ‘e toki foki ki he hako ‘o e fefine ko ia:
Pea ‘e ‘i he fefine ko e ‘ea ‘a e tofi‘a tukufakaholo ‘a e ‘api kolo mo e ‘api ‘i ‘uta ka ko e tofi‘a lahi ‘oku nofo ai ‘a e kakai ‘e ma‘u ‘e he tangata ‘e ma‘u ‘a e hingoa ko ia. Koe‘uhi ‘i he anga faka-Tonga na‘e fa‘a ngaue‘aki ma‘u ha ngofua ke lava ha tamasi‘i ohi ‘o hoko ki ha ngaahi tofi‘a mo ha ngaahi hingoa ‘o ‘ene tamai- ‘i-he-ohi ko ia ai ‘oku tu‘utu‘uni mamafa heni ka pekia ha taha ‘oku ne ma‘u ha tofi‘a pe hingoa ‘a ia ko ‘ene ma‘u ‘a e tofi‘a pe hingoa ko ia koe‘uhi ko e hako ia ‘i he toto ‘o e tamasi‘i ohi ko ia kuo pau ke foki ‘a e tofi‘a mo e hingoa ko ia ‘o hange ko e ngaahi tu‘utu‘uni ‘a e kupu ni pea kapau ‘oku ‘ikai ha hako ‘i he toto pehe ‘oku kei mo‘ui ‘oku pau ke ngaue‘aki ‘a e ngaahi tu‘utu‘uni ‘a e kupu ‘oku hoko leva mai pe ki heni.
Pea koe‘uhi ko e fatungamotu‘a ‘o Tonga ‘oku kau ai ‘a e Nopele Niukapu ki he laine ‘o e ‘Ulutolu, ko ia ‘oku tu‘utu‘uni ai heni ka hoko ‘o ma‘u ‘a e tofi‘a tukufakaholo mo e hingoa ‘o e Niukapu ‘e ha taha ‘oku ‘ikai ko ha hako ‘i he toto ‘o e ‘uluaki Niukapu ki mu‘a ‘i he 1875, kuo pau ke foki ‘a e tofi‘a tukufakaholo mo e hingoa ko ia ‘i ha pekia ‘a e taha ‘oku ne ma‘u ki ha hako ‘i he toto ‘o e laine Niukapu. (Kupu 111)

Citizenship and Nationality

English

Any foreigner after he has resided in the Kingdom for the space of five years or more may with the consent of the King take the oath of allegiance and he may be granted Certificates of Naturalization and all naturalized subjects shall have the same rights and privileges as native born subjects of Tonga with the exception that they shall not be entitled to the rights of hereditary tax allotments or town allotments. (Clause 29)

Tongan

‘E ngofua ki he Fale Alea ke fakamaau ‘a e anga ‘o e kau fakafofonga ‘o e Fale Alea pea neongo ‘e ‘ikai katoa ‘a e Fale Alea ‘e ngofua ki he Fale Alea ke fai ‘a e alea mo fokotu‘u ‘a e ngaahi lao mo e fai ‘a e ngaahi ngaue ‘o kapau ‘oku ‘i ai ‘a e vaeua malie ‘o e kau fakafofonga ‘o e Fale Alea pea kapau ‘oku si‘i hifo ‘i he vaeua malie ‘a e kau fakafofonga ‘o e Fale Alea ‘e tutuku ‘a e Fale Alea ‘o tuku ki ha ‘aho kehe, pea ‘i he ‘enau toe fakataha kapau ‘oku ‘ikai te nau tatau mo e vaeua malie ‘e ngofua ki he Tu‘i pe ‘Eiki Sea ‘o e Fale Alea ke fekau fakamalohi ke katoa mai ‘a e kau fakafofonga ‘o e Fale Alea pea kapau ‘oku ‘i ai ha ni‘ihi ‘oku ‘ikai te nau ha‘u leva ‘e ngofua ke tuut‘u‘uni he Fale Alea hanau tautea ‘i he ‘enau talangata‘a. (Kupu 29)

Citizenship and Nationality

English

(1) Notwithstanding clause 29 of this Constitution it shall be lawful for the King and the Legislative Assembly to enact specific laws declaring any persons whether or not they have ever resided in Tonga to be or to have become naturalized subjects of Tonga from any date. All persons who are declared to be naturalized subjects of Tonga by any such legislation shall have, and shall be deemed to have had from the effective dates of their naturalizations, the same rights and privileges as other foreigners becoming naturalized subjects of Tonga by the grant to them of Certificates of Naturalization.
… (Clause 29A)

Tongan

(1) Neongo ‘a e kupu 29 ‘o e Konisitutone ni kuo pau ke fakalao ki he Tu‘i mo e Fale Alea ke fa‘u ha ngaahi lao makehe ‘o fakaha ai ‘oku pe kuo liliu mei ha fa‘ahinga ‘aho pe ‘o hoko ko e tokotaha Tonga ha fa‘ahinga taha pe ‘o tatau ai pe pe kuo ne ‘osi nofo ‘i Tonga pe ‘ikai. Ko e kakai kotoa pe ‘a ia kuo fakaha kuo nau liliu ‘o hoko ko e kakai Tonga ‘e ha fa‘ahinga lao pehee kuo pau ke nau ma‘u pea kuo pau ‘e lau kuo nau ma‘u mei he ngaahi ‘aho ko ia na‘e kamata ngaue‘aki ai ‘enau liliu kakai, ‘a e ngaahi totonu mo e ngaahi faingamalie tatau mo e kau muli kehe kuo nau liliu ‘o hoko ko e kakai Tonga ‘aki hono ‘oatu kiate kinautolu ‘a e ngaahi Tohi Fakamo‘oni Liliu Kakai.
... (Kupu 29A)

Equality and Non-Discrimination

English

There shall be but one law in Tonga for chiefs and commoners for non-Tongans and Tongans. No laws shall be enacted for one class and not for another class but the law shall be the same for all the people of this land. (Clause 4)

Tongan

‘E taha pe ‘a e lao ‘o Tonga ni ki he hou‘eiki mo e me‘avale ki he fa‘ahinga kakai kotoa pe ‘oku ‘ikai ko e Tonga mo e Tonga. ‘E ‘ikai fokotu‘u ha lao ‘i he fonua ni ki ha fa‘ahinga pea tuku ha fa‘ahinga ka ‘e taha pe mo mamafa tatau pe ki he kakai kotoa pe ‘o e fonua ni. (Kupu 4)

Marriage and Family Life

English

Tongan male subjects by birth of or over the age of 16 years may be granted town allotments and tax allotments out of estates granted in pursuance of this Constitution with the consent of or upon consultation with the estate holder and out of the lands of the Crown, by the Minister of Lands. Such allotments shall be hereditary and shall be of such size and at an annual rent as may be determined by law. A widow shall have the right to succeed according to law, to her deceased husband's tax and town allotments. (Clause 113)

Tongan

Ko e kakai tangata kuo fa‘ele‘i ko e Tonga ‘oku pe laka hake ‘i he 16 honau ta‘u motu‘a ‘e ngofua ke foaki atu ke nau ma‘u ‘api kolo mo ‘api tukuhau mei he ngaahi tofi‘a kuo foaki ‘o fakatatau mo e Konisitutone ‘i he loto ki ai pe ‘i ha feongoongoi mo e ma‘u tofi‘a pea mei he ngaahi tofi‘a ‘o e Pule‘anga, ‘e he Minisita Fonua. Kuo pau ke tukufakaholo ‘a e ngaahi ‘api koia pea ko e me‘a ki hono lahi mo e lisi fakata‘u kuo pau ke tu‘utu‘uni ki ai ‘a e lao. Kuo pau ke ma‘u ‘e he uitou fakatatau ki he lao ‘a e totonu ke ne ma‘u ‘a e ‘api tukuhau mo e ‘api kolo ‘o hono mali kuo pekia. (Kupu 113)

Marriage and Family Life

English

No lease, sub-lease, transfer of a lease or of a sub-lease shall be granted—
(a) without the prior consent of Cabinet where the term is ninety-nine years, or less, or
(b) without the prior consent of Privy Council where the term is over ninety-nine years,
Provided that no consent shall be granted to a lease by a widow of the land of her deceased husband. (Clause 114)

Tongan

‘E ‘ikai foaki ha lisi, toe lisi, fetongi ‘o ha lisi pe ‘o ha toe lisi —
(a) kae ‘oua kuo tomu‘a ma‘u ‘a e fakangofua ‘a e Kapineti ‘a ia ko e vaha‘a taimi lisi ‘oku ta‘u ‘e hivangofulumahiva pe si‘isi‘i ange ai, pe
(b) kae ‘oua kuo tomu‘a ma‘u ‘a e fakangofua ‘a e Fakataha Tokoni ‘a ia ko e vaha‘a taimi lisi ‘oku laka hake ‘i he ta‘u ‘e hivangofulumahiva;
Tuku kehe kuo pau he ‘ikai foaki ha fakangofua ki ha lisi ‘e ha uitou ki he kelekele ‘o hono husepaniti kuo pekia. (Kupu 114)

Participation in Public Life and Institutions

English

All the people have the right to expect that the Government will protect their life liberty and property and therefore it is right for all the people to support and contribute to the Government according to law.
… (Clause 18)

Tongan

‘Oku totonu ke ‘amanaki ‘e he kakai kotoa pe ‘e malu‘i ‘e he Pule‘anga ‘enau mo‘ui mo honau tau‘ataina mo ‘enau koloa.
… (Kupu 18)

Political Rights and Association

English

Every Tongan subject of twenty-one years of age or more who is not a noble, is not insane or imbecile and is not disabled by the twenty-third clause shall, if registered as an elector, be entitled to vote in an election for representatives of the people to the Legislative Assembly and on the day appointed for election shall be exempt from summons for debt. A person resident outside of Tonga who is qualified to be an elector may vote at an election only if he is registered as an elector and present in Tonga for the election. (Clause 64)

Tongan

Ko e taha Tonga kotoa pe kuo kakato hono ta‘u uofulu ma taha pe lahi ange ‘oku ‘ikai ko ha nopele, ‘oku ‘ikai faha pe vale pea ‘oku ‘ikai fakatapui ia ‘e hono uofulu ma tolu ‘o e kupu, kapau kuo lesisita ko ha taha fili, ‘oku pau ke ngofua ke ne kau ‘i he fili ‘o e kau fakafofonga ‘o e kakai ki he Fale Alea, pea ‘i he ‘aho kuo tu‘utu‘uni ke fai ai ‘a e fili kuo pau ke faka‘ata ia mei hano faka‘ilo ko e ‘uhi ko ha mo‘ua. Ko ha taha ‘oku ‘ikai nofo ‘i Tonga ‘a ia ‘oku ngofua ke hoko ko e taha fili ‘e ngofua ke fili ‘i ha fili ‘o kapau pe ‘oku ‘osi lesisita ko e taha fili pea ‘oku lolotonga ‘i Tonga ki he fili. (Kupu 64)

Head of State

English

The form of government for this Kingdom is a Constitutional Monarchy under His Majesty King George Tupou V and his successors. (Clause 30)

Tongan

Ko e anga ‘o e fai ‘a e Pule ‘o e Fonua ni ko e Pule‘anga Tu‘i Faka-Konisitutone ‘I he malumalu ‘o ‘Ene ‘Afio ko e Tu‘i ko Tupou VI mo kinautolu ‘e hoko kiate ia. (Kupu 30)

Head of State

English

The right and title of King George Tupou I to the Crown and the Throne of this Kingdom were confirmed by the Constitution of 1875 and it was further declared in the said Constitution that the succession to the Crown and Throne should devolve upon David Uga and then upon Wellington Gu and then upon them begotten by him in marriage and if at any time there be no heirs of Wellington Gu the Crown and Throne shall descend in accordance with the following law of succession:
It shall be lawful only for those born in marriage to succeed.
The succession shall be to the eldest male child and the heirs of his body but if he should have no children to the second male child and the heirs of his body and so on until all the male line shall be ended.
Should there be no male child the eldest female child shall succeed and the heirs of her body and if she should have no children it shall descend to the second female child and the heirs of her body until the female line is ended.
And if there shall be none of this line of David Uga lawful descendants by marriage to succeed to the Crown of Tonga it shall descend to William Tungi and his lawful heirs begotten by him in marriage and to their heirs begotten by them.
And if there should be no lawful heir the King shall appoint his heir if the House of Nobles consent to it (the representatives of the people having no voice in the matter) and he shall be publicly declared heir to the Crown during the King's life.
Should there be no heir to the Crown or successor who has been so publicly proclaimed the Prime Minister or in his absence the Cabinet ministers shall convoke the nobles of the Legislative Assembly (the representatives of the people having no voice in the matter) and when they meet the House of Nobles shall choose by ballot some one of the chiefs whom they wish to succeed as King. And he shall succeed as the first of a new dynasty and he and the heirs of his body born in marriage shall possess the Crown according to law.
And in the event of there being none to succeed according to this law the Prime Minister or in his absence the Cabinet ministers shall again convoke the nobles of the Legislative Assembly in accordance with this law and they shall choose one to succeed to the Throne as the first of a new dynasty and so on according to this law for ever. (Clause 32)

Tongan

‘Oku ma‘u ‘a e Kalauni mo e Nofo‘anga Faka-Tu‘i ‘o e Pule‘anga ni ‘e he ‘Ene ‘Afio ko Kingi Siaosi Tupou I pea ‘oku fakapapau ni ‘e ma‘u ‘e ia pea mo ia na‘e tupu ‘iate ia ‘a Tevita ‘Unga pea mo ia na‘e tupu ai ‘a Uelingatoni Ngu mo kinautolu ‘e tupu ‘iate ia ko ‘ene fānau mali pea ka hala ia ‘o ‘ikai ha hako tupu mali ‘o Uelingatoni Ngu ‘e hoko ‘o hangē ko e lao ‘o e hokohoko ni:
Pea ko ‘eni ‘a e anga ‘o e hokohoko ‘e ngofua ke kau ‘i he hokohoko ni ‘a e fanau tupu mali pe.
Pea ‘e hoko ki he tamasi‘i tangata mo e ngaahi ‘ea ‘o hono sino pea ka hala ia ‘o ‘ikai hano hako ‘e hoko ki hono ua ‘o e tamasi‘i tangata mo e ngaahi ‘ea ‘o hono sino pea fai pehē kae ‘oua kuo ‘osi ‘a e fānau tangata.
Pea ka ‘ikai ha tamasi‘i tangata ‘e hoko ki he ‘uluaki tamasi‘i fefine mo e ngaahi ‘ea ‘o hono sino pea ka hala ia ‘o ‘ikai hano hako ‘e hoko ki hono ua ‘o e tamasi‘i fefine mo e ngaahi ‘ea ‘o hono sino pea fai pehē pe kae ‘oua kuo ‘osi ‘a e fānau fefine.
Pea ka ‘ikai ha taha ‘iate kinautolu ‘o Tevita ‘Unga ko e fanau mali hoko totonu ke hoko ki he Kalauni ‘o e Tu‘i ‘o Tonga ‘e hoko kia Uiliami Tungi pe ko hono ngaahi ‘ea totonu ‘a ia ‘oku tupu ‘i hono sino ko e fānau mali pea mo e ngaahi ‘ea ‘oku tupu ‘iate kinautolu foki.
Pea ka ‘ikai ha ‘ea totonu ‘e fakanofo ‘e he Tu‘i ‘a hono ‘ea kapau ‘oku loto ki ai ‘a e Hou‘eiki Nopele (ka ‘oku ‘ikai kau ai ‘a e kau fakafofonga ‘o e kakai) pea ‘e fakahāhā ko e ‘ea ia ki he Kalauni ‘i he kei lakoifie ‘a e Tu‘i.
Pea ka faifai pea ‘ikai ha ‘ea mo e hoko totonu ki he Kalauni ha taha kuo fakahāhā‘o hangē ko e tu‘utu‘uni ni ‘e fakataha leva ‘e he Palemia pea ka mama‘o ia ‘e ‘i he Kapineti (ko e kau Minisita) ‘a e Hou‘eiki Nopele ‘o e Fale Alea (pea ‘e ‘ikai kau ai ‘a e kau fakafofonga ‘o e kakai) pea ka fakataha ‘e fili ‘e he hou‘eiki Nopele ‘o e Fale Alea ‘aki ‘a e paloti ha taha ‘o e Hou‘eiki ‘a ia ‘oku nau loto ki ai ke hoko ko e Tu‘i pea ‘e hoko ia ko e kamata‘anga ‘o e Ha‘a Tu‘i fo‘ou pea ‘e ma’u ‘e hono ngaahi ‘ea ‘oku tupu ‘iate ia ‘i hono sino ko e fānau mali ‘a e Kalauni ‘o hangē ko e lao ni
Pea ka faifai pea ‘ikai ha hoko ‘iate kinautolu ‘o hangē ko e lao ni ‘e toe fakataha ‘e he Palemia pea ka mama‘o ia ‘e ‘i he Kapineti mo e Hou‘eiki Nopele ‘o e Fale Alea ‘o hangē ko e tu‘utu‘uni ni pea te nau toe fili ha taha ke hoko ki he Kalauni ko e kamata‘anga ‘o e Ha‘a Tu‘i fo‘ou pea ‘e fai pehē ai pe ‘o hangē ko e lao ni ‘o lauikuonga. (Kupu 32)

Head of State

English

(1) It shall not be lawful for any member of the Royal Family who is likely to succeed to the throne to marry any person without the consent of the King. And if any person should thus marry the marriage shall not be considered legal and it shall be lawful for the King to cancel the right of such person and his heirs to succeed to the Crown of Tonga. And the next person in succession to him who so marries shall be declared the heir and the offender shall be regarded as dead.
(2) The expression “any member of the Royal Family who is likely to succeed to the throne” in the last preceding sub-clause shall be construed to include all persons born in lawful marriage and related by descent either lineally or collaterally to the King but not more than twenty times removed from the King. (Clause 33)

Tongan

(1) ‘E ‘ikai si‘i ngofua ki ha taha ‘o e famili ‘o e Tu‘i ha taha ‘e faifai pea ngali hoko ki he Kalauni ke mali mo ha taha ‘oku ‘ikai loto ki ai ‘a e Tu‘i. Pea ka fai ha mali pehē‘e ‘ikai lau ko e mali fakalao ia pea ‘e ngofua ki he Tu‘i ke liliu ‘a e totonu ‘o e tokotaha ko ia ke ‘oua ‘aupito na‘a hoko ia ki he Kalauni ‘o Tonga pe ko hono hako. Pea ka fai ia ‘e ma‘u ia ‘e ia ‘oku hoko ki he tokotaha ko ia pea lau ko e ‘ea ia pea ko e talangata‘a ‘e lau ia ‘o hange kuo mate.
(2) Ko e kupu‘i lea ko “ha taha ‘e faifai pea ngali hoko ki he kalauni” ‘i he kupusi‘i faka‘osi kimu‘a angé, kuo pau ke faka‘uhinga‘i ia ke fakakau‘i ai ‘a kinautolu kotoa pē kuo fanau‘i ‘i he mali fakalao pea ‘oku fehokotaki ta‘ata‘a mo e Tu‘i ‘i he hohoko ‘o e hako tukufakaholo, pe hako ofi tahá ka he ‘ikai ke lahi hake ‘i he toko uofulu hono mama‘o ‘i he fakahokohoko mei he Tu‘i. (Kupu 33)

Head of State

English

The King is the Sovereign of all the Chiefs and all the people. The person of the King is sacred. He reigns the country but ministers are responsible.
… (Clause 41)

Tongan

Ko e Tu‘i ko e Pule ‘o e kau Nopele mo e kakai kotoa pe. ‘Oku toputapu ‘a e sino ‘o e Tu‘i. ‘Oku ‘iate ia ‘a hono pule ‘o e fonua ka ‘oku ‘i he ‘ene kau Minisita ‘a hono fai ‘a e ngaue ‘o e fonua (responsible). Neongo ‘e fokotu‘u ‘e he Fale Alea ‘a e ngaahi lao ‘e ‘ikai ke hoko kae ‘oua kuo ‘ai ki ai ‘e he Tu‘i hono huafa.
... (Kupu 41)

Government

English

(1) The King shall appoint from amongst the elected representatives a Prime Minister who is recommended by the Legislative Assembly in accordance with the procedure set out in the Schedule to, or clause 50B of, this Constitution.
... (Clause 50A)

Tongan

(1) Kuo pau ke fakanofo ‘e he Tu‘i mei he kau fakafofonga kuo fili ha Palemia ‘a ia kuo fokotu‘u atu ‘e he Fale Alea ‘o fakatatau ki he founga ngaue kuo fokotu‘u atu ‘i he Tepile ki he, pe kupu 50B ‘o e, Konisitutone ko eni.
… (Kupu 50A)

Government

English

(1) The executive authority of the Kingdom shall vest in the Cabinet, which shall be collectively responsible to the Legislative Assembly for the executive functions of the Government.
(2) The Cabinet shall consist of the Prime Minister and such other Ministers who are nominated by the Prime Minister and appointed by the King: Provided that –
(a) the Prime Minister may nominate as Cabinet Ministers not more than 4 persons who are not elected representatives;
(b) the Prime Minister and Cabinet shall be fewer in number than half of the number of elected members of the Legislative Assembly excluding the Speaker.
… (Clause 51)

Tongan

(1) Kuo pau ke ‘i he Kapineti ‘a e mafai pule ‘o e Fonua, ‘a ia kuo pau ke nau ma‘u ‘a e ngafa ‘o e fengaue‘aki fakataha mo e taliui ki he Fale Alea ‘a e ngaahi fatongia pule ‘o e Pule‘anga.
(2) Kuo pau ke kau atu ki he Kapineti ‘a e Palemia mo e kau Minisita kehe ko ia kuo fokotu‘u ‘e he Palemia pea fakanofo ‘e he Tu‘i: Ka kuo pau —
(a) ‘e ngofua ke fokotu‘u ‘e he Palemia ‘o ‘ikai lahi hake ‘i he toko 4 ‘a ia ‘oku ‘ikai ko ha kau fakafofonga kuo fili ko e kau Minisita ‘o e Kapineti;
(b) ko e Palemia mo e Kapineti ke si‘i hifo honau tokolahi ‘i he vaeua ‘o e tokolahi ‘o e kau memipa ‘o e Fale Alea kuo fili, ‘o ‘ikai ke kau ai ‘a e Sea.
... (Kupu 51)

Government

English

Representatives of the people shall be chosen by ballot and any person who is qualified to be an elector may nominate as a candidate and be chosen as a representative for the electoral constituency in which he is registered, save that no person may be chosen against whom an order has been made in any court in the Kingdom for the payment of a specific sum of money the whole or any part of which remains outstanding or if ordered to pay by instalments the whole or any part of such instalments remain outstanding on the day on which such person submits his nomination paper to the Returning Officer:
Provided that a person resident outside of Tonga who is qualified to be an elector will qualify as a candidate only if he is present in Tonga for a period of 3 months within the 6 months before the relevant election. (Clause 65)

Tongan

‘E fai ‘a e fili ‘o e kau fakafofonga ‘o e kakai ‘aki ‘a e paloti pea ‘ilonga ha taha kuo fakangofua ke fili ‘e ngofua ke fokotu‘u ia koe kanititeiti pea ke fili ia ko e fakafofonga ma‘ae vahenga fili ‘a ia kuo lesisita ki ai, kae kehe kuo pau he ‘ikai fili ha taha ‘a ia kuo fai ki ai ha tu‘utu‘uni ‘i ha Fakamaau‘anga ‘i he Pule‘anga ke totongi ha pa‘anga kuo tuhu‘i pau ‘a ia ko hono kotoa pe konga ‘o ia ‘oku te‘eki ke totongi pe kuo tu‘utu‘uni ke totongi fakakongokonga ‘a e kotoa pe ha konga ‘o e pa‘anga ‘oku te‘eki ke totongi fakakongokonga ko ia ‘i he ‘aho ‘oku ‘oatu ai ‘e he toko taha ko ia ‘ene pepa fili ki he ‘Ofisa Faifili:
Ka kuo pau ko ha taha ‘oku ‘ikai nofo ‘i Tonga ‘a ia ‘oku ngofua ke hoko ko e taha fili ‘e ‘i ai pe ‘ene mafai ke hoko ko ha kanititeiti kapau ‘oku ne ‘i Tonga ‘i ha vaha‘a taimi ko e mahina ‘e tolu ‘i loto ‘i he mahina ‘e ono kimu‘a ‘i he fili felave‘i ko ia. (Kupu 65)

Legislature

English

The King and the Legislative Assembly shall have power to enact laws, and the representatives of the nobles and the representatives of the people shall sit as one House.
… (Clause 56)

Tongan

‘Oku ‘i he Tu‘i mo e Fale Alea ke fokotu‘u ‘a e ngaahi lao, pea ‘e nofo fakataha ‘a e hou‘eiki nopele mo e kau fakafofonga ‘o e kakai ‘i he fale pe taha.
… (Kupu 56)

Legislature

English

(1) The Legislative Assembly shall be composed of –
(a) the representatives of the nobles;
(b) the representatives of the people; and
(c) all members of the Cabinet.
(2) Cabinet Ministers who are elected representatives shall, unless dismissed after impeachment under clause 75, remain as members of the Legislative Assembly and representatives in their respective electoral constituency during their appointment as Minister. (Clause 59)

Tongan

(1) Ko e Fale Alea kuo pau ke kau ki ai ‘a e —
(a) kau fakafofonga ‘o e kau nopele;
(b) kau fakafofonga ‘o e kakai; mo e
(c) kotoa ‘o e kau memipa ‘o e Kapineti.
(2) Kuo pau ki he kau Minisita ‘o e Kapineti ‘a ia ko e kau fakafofonga kuo fili, tukukehe ka tuku ki tu‘a hili hono faka‘ilo ‘i he kupu 75, ke hoko atu pe ko e kau memipa ‘o e Fale Alea pea kei fakafofonga pe ‘i honau vahenga fili takitaha lolotonga honau fakanofo ko e Minisita. (Kupu 59)

Legislature

English

There shall be elected by the nobles of the Kingdom from their number nine nobles as representatives of the nobles and there shall be elected by electors duly qualified seventeen representatives of the people.
… (Clause 60)

Tongan

‘E fili ‘e he kau nopele ‘o e Pule‘anga mei he kau nopele ha toko hiva ko e kau fakafofonga nopele pea ‘e fili ‘e he kakai ‘oku ‘ata fakalao ha toko hongofulu ma fitu ko e kau fakafofonga kakai.
… (Kupu 60)

Legislature

English

Representatives of the people shall be chosen by ballot and any person who is qualified to be an elector may nominate as a candidate and be chosen as a representative for the electoral constituency in which he is registered, save that no person may be chosen against whom an order has been made in any court in the Kingdom for the payment of a specific sum of money the whole or any part of which remains outstanding or if ordered to pay by instalments the whole or any part of such instalments remain outstanding on the day on which such person submits his nomination paper to the Returning Officer:
Provided that a person resident outside of Tonga who is qualified to be an elector will qualify as a candidate only if he is present in Tonga for a period of 3 months within the 6 months before the relevant election. (Clause 65)

Tongan

‘E fai ‘a e fili ‘o e kau fakafofonga ‘o e kakai ‘aki ‘a e paloti pea ‘ilonga ha taha kuo fakangofua ke fili ‘e ngofua ke fokotu‘u ia koe kanititeiti pea ke fili ia ko e fakafofonga ma‘ae vahenga fili ‘a ia kuo lesisita ki ai, kae kehe kuo pau he ‘ikai fili ha taha ‘a ia kuo fai ki ai ha tu‘utu‘uni ‘i ha Fakamaau‘anga ‘i he Pule‘anga ke totongi ha pa‘anga kuo tuhu‘i pau ‘a ia ko hono kotoa pe konga ‘o ia ‘oku te‘eki ke totongi pe kuo tu‘utu‘uni ke totongi fakakongokonga ‘a e kotoa pe ha konga ‘o e pa‘anga ‘oku te‘eki ke totongi fakakongokonga ko ia ‘i he ‘aho ‘oku ‘oatu ai ‘e he toko taha ko ia ‘ene pepa fili ki he ‘Ofisa Faifili:
Ka kuo pau ko ha taha ‘oku ‘ikai nofo ‘i Tonga ‘a ia ‘oku ngofua ke hoko ko e taha fili ‘e ‘i ai pe ‘ene mafai ke hoko ko ha kanititeiti kapau ‘oku ne ‘i Tonga ‘i ha vaha‘a taimi ko e mahina ‘e tolu ‘i loto ‘i he mahina ‘e ono kimu‘a ‘i he fili felave‘i ko ia. (Kupu 65)

Property, Inheritance and Land Tenure

English

Since it appears to be the will of God that man should be free as He has made all men of one blood therefore shall the people of Tonga and all who sojourn or may sojourn in this Kingdom be free for ever. And all men may use their lives and persons and time to acquire and possess property and to dispose of their labour and the fruit of their hands and to use their own property as they will. (Clause 1)

Tongan

Ko e me‘a ‘i he ha mai ko e finangalo ‘o e ‘Otua ke tau‘atāina ‘a e tangata ko e me‘a ‘i he ‘ene ngaohi ‘o toto pe taha ‘a e kakai kotoa pe ko ia ‘e tau‘ataina ‘o ta‘engata ‘a e kakai Tonga mo e kakai kotoa pe ‘oku nofo ni pea ‘e nofo ‘i he Pule’anga ni. Pea ‘e ‘atā ki he kakai kotoa pe ‘enau mo‘ui mo honau sino mo honau taimi ke kumi mo ma‘u koloa pea ke fa‘iteliha ki he ngaue mo e fua ‘o honau nima pea ke pule‘i tāfataha pe ‘e kinautolu ‘a e ngaahi me‘a ‘anautolu. (Kupu 1)

Property, Inheritance and Land Tenure

English

No person may succeed to any tofi'a or any title until he has attained the age of twenty one years, save for members of the Royal Family who shall be deemed to have attained maturity at eighteen years of age. (Clause 27)

Tongan

‘E ‘ikai ha taha ‘e ngofua ke hoko ko e ‘ea ki ha tofi‘a pe ha hingoa kae ‘oua kuo kakato hono uofulu mā taha ta‘u, tuku kehe ‘a kinautolu ‘i he fāmili ‘o e Tu‘i ‘a ia kuo pau ke lau kuo nau a‘u ki he ta‘u fakalao ‘i he ta‘u ‘e hongofulu-mā-valu. (Kupu 27)

Property, Inheritance and Land Tenure

English

All the land is the property of the King and he may at pleasure grant to the nobles and titular chiefs or matabules one or more estates to become their hereditary estates. It is hereby declared by this Constitution that it shall not be lawful for anyone at any time hereafter whether he be the King or any one of the chiefs or the people of this country to sell any land whatever in the Kingdom of Tonga but they may lease it only in accordance with this Constitution and mortgage it in accordance with the Land Act. And this declaration become a covenant binding on the King and chiefs of this Kingdom for themselves and their heirs and successors for ever. (Clause 104)

Tongan

‘Oku ‘i he Tu‘i ‘a e fonua kotoa pe mo e kelekele mo e ngaahi tofi‘a mo e ngaahi ‘api pea ‘oku ngofua kiate ia ke finangalo ke tuku ki ha hou‘eiki nopele mo ha hou‘eiki ma‘u hingoa pe ha kau matapule ‘oku ne finangalo ki ai ha tofi‘a pe ko ha ngaahi tofi‘a ke hoko ko honau ngaahi tofi‘a ke tukufakaholo. ‘Oku toe fakapapau ‘i he Konisitutone ni ‘e tapu ‘aupito ‘aupito ‘o ta‘engata ki ha toko taha pe ko e Tu‘i pe ko ha taha ‘o e hou‘eiki mo e kakai ‘o e fonua ni ke fakatau ha konga si‘i ‘o e kelekele ‘o e Pule‘anga ‘o Tonga ngata pe ke lisi ‘o hange ‘oku tu‘u ‘i he Konisitutone pea ke mokisi (mortgage) ia ‘o fakatatau ki he Lao ‘o e Kelekele. Pea ‘e hoko ‘a e tohi ni ko e fuakava fakapapau ‘e he Tu‘i mo e hou‘eiki ‘o e Pule‘anga ni koe‘uhi ko kinautolu mo kinautolu ‘e hoko kiate kinautolu ‘o lauikuonga. (Kupu 104)

Property, Inheritance and Land Tenure

English

The following is the law of succession to hereditary estates and titles:
Children lawfully born in wedlock only may inherit and the eldest male child shall succeed and the heirs of his body but if he have no descendants then the second male child and the heirs of his body and so on until all the male line is ended. Should there be no male child the eldest female child shall succeed and the heirs of her body and if she should have no descendants the second female child and the heirs of her body and so on until the female line is ended. And failing direct heirs the property shall revert to the eldest brother of the owner of the property beginning with the eldest and his heirs in succession to the youngest and their heirs in accordance with the law of inheritance. And if the brothers have no descendants it shall descend to the eldest sister and the female line as provided in the case of the male line. And if these should have no descendants and there should be no legitimate heir it shall revert to the Crown in accordance with the one hundred and twelfth clause. But should a female be next in succession to the title of a noble or of a hereditary chief the next male heir shall inherit the title and estates. But should such female afterwards have a legitimate male issue the title and estates shall revert to the male issue of the female upon the death of the male in possession of the estate:
Provided that the female that is the heir shall occupy the town allotment and the plantation lands appertaining to such title but the hereditary estates that is the lands occupied by the people shall be held by the inheritor of the title. …
And whereas by Tongan custom the noble Niukapu forms part of the 'Ulutolu line, now therefore it is decreed that in the event the holder of the estate and title of Niukapu is not a descendant by blood of the original Niukapu before 1875, such estate and title shall revert at the death of such holder to a descendant by blood of the Niukapu line. (Clause 111)

Tongan

Ko eni ‘a e lao ‘o e hokohoko ki he ngaahi tofi‘a mo e ngaahi hingoa tukufakaholo: ‘E ngofua ke kau ‘i he hokohoko ni ‘a e fanau tupu mali pe ‘e hoko ki he ‘uluaki tamasi‘i tangata mo e ngaahi ‘ea ‘o hono sino pea ka hala ia ‘o ‘ikai hano hako ‘e hoko ki hono ua ‘o e tamasi‘i tangata mo e ngaahi ‘ea ‘o hono sino pea fai pehe kae ‘oua kuo ‘osi ‘a e fanau tangata. Ka ‘ikai ha tamasi‘i tangata ‘e hoko ki he ‘uluaki tamasi‘i fefine mo e ngaahi ‘ea ‘o hono sino pea fai pehe kae ‘oua kuo ‘osi ‘a e fanau fefine. Ka hala ia ‘o ‘ikai ha hako ‘e foki ki he ngaahi tokoua tangata ‘o ia ‘a ia na‘e ‘o‘ona ‘a e tofi‘a pea fai mei he ‘uluaki ‘o a‘u ki he ki mui pea mo honau hako ‘o hange ko e lao ‘o e hokohoko. Pea ka hala ‘a e ngaahi tokoua tangata pea ka ‘ikai ha taha tonu tupu mali ‘iate kinautolu ‘e foki ki he Pule‘anga ‘o hange ko hono teau ma hongofulu ma ua ‘o e kupu. Pea koe‘uhi na‘a faifai pea hoko ha fefine ko e ‘ea ki ha hingoa ‘o ha nopele pea ka pehe ‘e hoko ‘a e tangata ‘oku hoko ki he fefine ‘o ma‘u ‘a e hingoa mo e lakanga ko ia pea ka faifai pea ma‘u ha hako tangata ‘e he fefine ko ia pea ka pekia ‘a e tangata na‘e ma‘u ‘a e hingoa ‘e toki foki ki he hako ‘o e fefine ko ia:
Pea ‘e ‘i he fefine ko e ‘ea ‘a e tofi‘a tukufakaholo ‘a e ‘api kolo mo e ‘api ‘i ‘uta ka ko e tofi‘a lahi ‘oku nofo ai ‘a e kakai ‘e ma‘u ‘e he tangata ‘e ma‘u ‘a e hingoa ko ia. Koe‘uhi ‘i he anga faka-Tonga na‘e fa‘a ngaue‘aki ma‘u ha ngofua ke lava ha tamasi‘i ohi ‘o hoko ki ha ngaahi tofi‘a mo ha ngaahi hingoa ‘o ‘ene tamai- ‘i-he-ohi ko ia ai ‘oku tu‘utu‘uni mamafa heni ka pekia ha taha ‘oku ne ma‘u ha tofi‘a pe hingoa ‘a ia ko ‘ene ma‘u ‘a e tofi‘a pe hingoa ko ia koe‘uhi ko e hako ia ‘i he toto ‘o e tamasi‘i ohi ko ia kuo pau ke foki ‘a e tofi‘a mo e hingoa ko ia ‘o hange ko e ngaahi tu‘utu‘uni ‘a e kupu ni pea kapau ‘oku ‘ikai ha hako ‘i he toto pehe ‘oku kei mo‘ui ‘oku pau ke ngaue‘aki ‘a e ngaahi tu‘utu‘uni ‘a e kupu ‘oku hoko leva mai pe ki heni.
Pea koe‘uhi ko e fatungamotu‘a ‘o Tonga ‘oku kau ai ‘a e Nopele Niukapu ki he laine ‘o e ‘Ulutolu, ko ia ‘oku tu‘utu‘uni ai heni ka hoko ‘o ma‘u ‘a e tofi‘a tukufakaholo mo e hingoa ‘o e Niukapu ‘e ha taha ‘oku ‘ikai ko ha hako ‘i he toto ‘o e ‘uluaki Niukapu ki mu‘a ‘i he 1875, kuo pau ke foki ‘a e tofi‘a tukufakaholo mo e hingoa ko ia ‘i ha pekia ‘a e taha ‘oku ne ma‘u ki ha hako ‘i he toto ‘o e laine Niukapu. (Kupu 111)

Property, Inheritance and Land Tenure

English

Tongan male subjects by birth of or over the age of 16 years may be granted town allotments and tax allotments out of estates granted in pursuance of this Constitution with the consent of or upon consultation with the estate holder and out of the lands of the Crown, by the Minister of Lands. Such allotments shall be hereditary and shall be of such size and at an annual rent as may be determined by law. A widow shall have the right to succeed according to law, to her deceased husband's tax and town allotments. (Clause 113)

Tongan

Ko e kakai tangata kuo fa‘ele‘i ko e Tonga ‘oku pe laka hake ‘i he 16 honau ta‘u motu‘a ‘e ngofua ke foaki atu ke nau ma‘u ‘api kolo mo ‘api tukuhau mei he ngaahi tofi‘a kuo foaki ‘o fakatatau mo e Konisitutone ‘i he loto ki ai pe ‘i ha feongoongoi mo e ma‘u tofi‘a pea mei he ngaahi tofi‘a ‘o e Pule‘anga, ‘e he Minisita Fonua. Kuo pau ke tukufakaholo ‘a e ngaahi ‘api koia pea ko e me‘a ki hono lahi mo e lisi fakata‘u kuo pau ke tu‘utu‘uni ki ai ‘a e lao. Kuo pau ke ma‘u ‘e he uitou fakatatau ki he lao ‘a e totonu ke ne ma‘u ‘a e ‘api tukuhau mo e ‘api kolo ‘o hono mali kuo pekia. (Kupu 113)

Property, Inheritance and Land Tenure

English

No lease, sub-lease, transfer of a lease or of a sub-lease shall be granted—
(a) without the prior consent of Cabinet where the term is ninety-nine years, or less, or
(b) without the prior consent of Privy Council where the term is over ninety-nine years,
Provided that no consent shall be granted to a lease by a widow of the land of her deceased husband. (Clause 114)

Tongan

‘E ‘ikai foaki ha lisi, toe lisi, fetongi ‘o ha lisi pe ‘o ha toe lisi —
(a) kae ‘oua kuo tomu‘a ma‘u ‘a e fakangofua ‘a e Kapineti ‘a ia ko e vaha‘a taimi lisi ‘oku ta‘u ‘e hivangofulumahiva pe si‘isi‘i ange ai, pe
(b) kae ‘oua kuo tomu‘a ma‘u ‘a e fakangofua ‘a e Fakataha Tokoni ‘a ia ko e vaha‘a taimi lisi ‘oku laka hake ‘i he ta‘u ‘e hivangofulumahiva;
Tuku kehe kuo pau he ‘ikai foaki ha fakangofua ki ha lisi ‘e ha uitou ki he kelekele ‘o hono husepaniti kuo pekia. (Kupu 114)

Protection from Violence

English

No person shall serve another against his will except he be undergoing punishment by law and any slave who may escape from a foreign country to Tonga (unless he be escaping from justice being guilty of homicide or theft or any great crime or involved in debt) shall be free from the moment he sets foot on Tongan soil for no person shall be in servitude under the protection of the flag of Tonga. (Clause 2)

Tongan

‘E ‘ikai ngaue fakatamaio‘eiki ‘e ha taha ki ha toko taha kapau ‘oku ‘ikai te ne loto ki ai ngata pe ‘i he ‘ene mo‘ua ki he lao pea ka hola ha popula mei ha fonua kehe ki Tonga ni (kapau ‘oku ‘ikai ko e hola mei he lao ‘o ha fonua ko e me‘a ‘i he ‘ene fakapo pe kaiha‘a pe ‘i he fai ha me‘a lahi pehē pe ha mo‘ua) te ne tau‘atāina leva ‘i he ‘ene tu‘uta ki Tonga ni koe‘uhi ‘e ‘ikai ‘aupito nofo fakapopula ha toko taha ‘oku nofo ‘i he malumalu ‘o e fuka ‘o Tonga. (Kupu 2)

Status of the Constitution

English

This Constitution is the supreme law of the Kingdom and if any other law is inconsistent with this Constitution, that other law shall, to the extent of the inconsistency, be void. (Clause 82)

Tongan

Koe Konisitutone ni ko e lao pule ia ‘o e Pule‘anga ni pea kapau ‘oku ‘i ai ha lao kehe ‘oku faikehekehe mo e Konisitutone, ko e lao kehe ko ia kuopau ke ta‘e‘aonga ia, ‘o fakatatau ki he ngata‘anga ‘o e faikehekehe ko ia. (Kupu 82)

Status of International Law

English

It shall be lawful for the King to make treaties with Foreign States provided that such treaties shall be in accordance with the laws of the Kingdom.
… (Clause 39)

Tongan

‘E ngofua ki he Tu‘i ke fai ‘a e ngaahi talite mo e ngaahi Pule‘anga Muli ka ‘oku ‘ikai ngofua ke ne fai ‘a e ngaahi talite ‘oku fai kehe mo e ngaahi lao ‘o e Pule‘anga ni.
… (Kupu 39)

Customary Law

English

There shall be but one law in Tonga for chiefs and commoners for non-Tongans and Tongans. No laws shall be enacted for one class and not for another class but the law shall be the same for all the people of this land. (Clause 4)

Tongan

‘E taha pe ‘a e lao ‘o Tonga ni ki he hou‘eiki mo e me‘avale ki he fa‘ahinga kakai kotoa pe ‘oku ‘ikai ko e Tonga mo e Tonga. ‘E ‘ikai fokotu‘u ha lao ‘i he fonua ni ki ha fa‘ahinga pea tuku ha fa‘ahinga ka ‘e taha pe mo mamafa tatau pe ki he kakai kotoa pe ‘o e fonua ni. (Kupu 4)

Customary Law

English

No person may succeed to any tofi'a or any title until he has attained the age of twenty one years, save for members of the Royal Family who shall be deemed to have attained maturity at eighteen years of age. (Clause 27)

Tongan

‘E ‘ikai ha taha ‘e ngofua ke hoko ko e ‘ea ki ha tofi‘a pe ha hingoa kae ‘oua kuo kakato hono uofulu mā taha ta‘u, tuku kehe ‘a kinautolu ‘i he fāmili ‘o e Tu‘i ‘a ia kuo pau ke lau kuo nau a‘u ki he ta‘u fakalao ‘i he ta‘u ‘e hongofulu-mā-valu. (Kupu 27)

Customary Law

English

The following is the law of succession to hereditary estates and titles:
Children lawfully born in wedlock only may inherit and the eldest male child shall succeed and the heirs of his body but if he have no descendants then the second male child and the heirs of his body and so on until all the male line is ended. Should there be no male child the eldest female child shall succeed and the heirs of her body and if she should have no descendants the second female child and the heirs of her body and so on until the female line is ended. And failing direct heirs the property shall revert to the eldest brother of the owner of the property beginning with the eldest and his heirs in succession to the youngest and their heirs in accordance with the law of inheritance. And if the brothers have no descendants it shall descend to the eldest sister and the female line as provided in the case of the male line. And if these should have no descendants and there should be no legitimate heir it shall revert to the Crown in accordance with the one hundred and twelfth clause. But should a female be next in succession to the title of a noble or of a hereditary chief the next male heir shall inherit the title and estates. But should such female afterwards have a legitimate male issue the title and estates shall revert to the male issue of the female upon the death of the male in possession of the estate:
Provided that the female that is the heir shall occupy the town allotment and the plantation lands appertaining to such title but the hereditary estates that is the lands occupied by the people shall be held by the inheritor of the title. …
And whereas by Tongan custom the noble Niukapu forms part of the 'Ulutolu line, now therefore it is decreed that in the event the holder of the estate and title of Niukapu is not a descendant by blood of the original Niukapu before 1875, such estate and title shall revert at the death of such holder to a descendant by blood of the Niukapu line. (Clause 111)

Tongan

Ko eni ‘a e lao ‘o e hokohoko ki he ngaahi tofi‘a mo e ngaahi hingoa tukufakaholo:
‘E ngofua ke kau ‘i he hokohoko ni ‘a e fanau tupu mali pe ‘e hoko ki he ‘uluaki tamasi‘i tangata mo e ngaahi ‘ea ‘o hono sino pea ka hala ia ‘o ‘ikai hano hako ‘e hoko ki hono ua ‘o e tamasi‘i tangata mo e ngaahi ‘ea ‘o hono sino pea fai pehe kae ‘oua kuo ‘osi ‘a e fanau tangata. Ka ‘ikai ha tamasi‘i tangata ‘e hoko ki he ‘uluaki tamasi‘i fefine mo e ngaahi ‘ea ‘o hono sino pea fai pehe kae ‘oua kuo ‘osi ‘a e fanau fefine. Ka hala ia ‘o ‘ikai ha hako ‘e foki ki he ngaahi tokoua tangata ‘o ia ‘a ia na‘e ‘o‘ona ‘a e tofi‘a pea fai mei he ‘uluaki ‘o a‘u ki he ki mui pea mo honau hako ‘o hange ko e lao ‘o e hokohoko. Pea ka hala ‘a e ngaahi tokoua tangata pea ka ‘ikai ha taha tonu tupu mali ‘iate kinautolu ‘e foki ki he Pule‘anga ‘o hange ko hono teau ma hongofulu ma ua ‘o e kupu. Pea koe‘uhi na‘a faifai pea hoko ha fefine ko e ‘ea ki ha hingoa ‘o ha nopele pea ka pehe ‘e hoko ‘a e tangata ‘oku hoko ki he fefine ‘o ma‘u ‘a e hingoa mo e lakanga ko ia pea ka faifai pea ma‘u ha hako tangata ‘e he fefine ko ia pea ka pekia ‘a e tangata na‘e ma‘u ‘a e hingoa ‘e toki foki ki he hako ‘o e fefine ko ia:
Pea ‘e ‘i he fefine ko e ‘ea ‘a e tofi‘a tukufakaholo ‘a e ‘api kolo mo e ‘api ‘i ‘uta ka ko e tofi‘a lahi ‘oku nofo ai ‘a e kakai ‘e ma‘u ‘e he tangata ‘e ma‘u ‘a e hingoa ko ia. Koe‘uhi ‘i he anga faka-Tonga na‘e fa‘a ngaue‘aki ma‘u ha ngofua ke lava ha tamasi‘i ohi ‘o hoko ki ha ngaahi tofi‘a mo ha ngaahi hingoa ‘o ‘ene tamai- ‘i-he-ohi ko ia ai ‘oku tu‘utu‘uni mamafa heni ka pekia ha taha ‘oku ne ma‘u ha tofi‘a pe hingoa ‘a ia ko ‘ene ma‘u ‘a e tofi‘a pe hingoa ko ia koe‘uhi ko e hako ia ‘i he toto ‘o e tamasi‘i ohi ko ia kuo pau ke foki ‘a e tofi‘a mo e hingoa ko ia ‘o hange ko e ngaahi tu‘utu‘uni ‘a e kupu ni pea kapau ‘oku ‘ikai ha hako ‘i he toto pehe ‘oku kei mo‘ui ‘oku pau ke ngaue‘aki ‘a e ngaahi tu‘utu‘uni ‘a e kupu ‘oku hoko leva mai pe ki heni.
Pea koe‘uhi ko e fatungamotu‘a ‘o Tonga ‘oku kau ai ‘a e Nopele Niukapu ki he laine ‘o e ‘Ulutolu, ko ia ‘oku tu‘utu‘uni ai heni ka hoko ‘o ma‘u ‘a e tofi‘a tukufakaholo mo e hingoa ‘o e Niukapu ‘e ha taha ‘oku ‘ikai ko ha hako ‘i he toto ‘o e ‘uluaki Niukapu ki mu‘a ‘i he 1875, kuo pau ke foki ‘a e tofi‘a tukufakaholo mo e hingoa ko ia ‘i ha pekia ‘a e taha ‘oku ne ma‘u ki ha hako ‘i he toto ‘o e laine Niukapu. (Kupu 111)