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The Global Gender Equality Constitutional Database is a repository of gender equality related provisions in 194 constitutions from around the world. The Database was updated in partnership with the International Bar Association's Human Rights Institute (IBAHRI) and with support from the Swedish International Development Agency (SIDA) and the Government of Japan. Experience its wealth and depth of information by starting your search now.

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Customary Law

Papua New Guinea, English

Nothing in this Part invalidates an emergency law as defined in Part X (emergency powers), but nevertheless so far as is consistent with their purposes and terms all such laws shall be interpreted and applied so as not to affect or derogate a right or freedom referred to in this Division to an extent that is more than is reasonably necessary to deal with the emergency concerned and matters arising out of it, but only so far as is reasonably justifiable in a democratic society having a proper regard for the rights and dignity of mankind. (Sec. 40)

Customary Law

Papua New Guinea, English

(1) Notwithstanding anything to the contrary in any other provision of any law, any act that is done under a valid law but in the particular case-
(a) is harsh or oppressive; or
(b) is not warranted by, or is disproportionate to, the requirements of the particular circumstances or of the particular case; or
(c) is otherwise not, in the particular circumstances, reasonably justifiable in a democratic society having a proper regard for the rights and dignity of mankind, is an unlawful act.
… (Sec. 41)

Customary Law

Papua New Guinea, English

(1) Subject to this Part, an emergency law may make provision for the peace, order and good government of the country to the extent reasonably required for achieving its purpose.
(2) Notwithstanding the provisions of Sections 12 and 13 but subject to Subsections (3) and (4), an emergency law may alter, wholly or partly, and absolutely or subject to conditions, any provision of Division III.3 (basic rights), any Organic Law made for the purposes of any such provision or any other law (other than a Constitutional Law) to the extent reasonably necessary to deal with the emergency concerned, and with matters arising out of it, but only so far as is reasonably justifiable in a democratic society having a proper regard for the rights and dignity of mankind.
(3) An emergency law-
(a) may not alter-
i. Section 35 (right to life); or
ii. Section 36 (freedom from inhuman treatment); or
iii. Section 45 (freedom of conscience, thought and religion); or
iv. Section 50 (right to vote and stand for public office); or
v. Section 55 (equality of citizens); or
vi. Section 56 (other rights and privileges of citizens, and
(b) may provide for internment only in accordance with Division 5 (internment); and
(c) may alter Section 37 (protection of the law) or Section 42 (liberty of the person) only to the extent allowed by Paragraph (b).
(4) In addition, an Emergency Regulation may not alter-
(a) Section 46 (freedom of expression); or
(b) Section 47 (freedom of assembly and association); or
(c) Section 49 (right to privacy); or
(d) Section 51 (right to freedom of information), and may not provide for a sentence of imprisonment for a period exceeding nine months.
(5) In the case of an inconsistency between a valid emergency law and any other law, the law made later prevails. (Sec. 233)

Limitations and/or Derogations

Papua New Guinea, English

WE HEREBY ACKNOWLEDGE that, subject to any restrictions imposed by law on noncitizens, all persons in our country are entitled to the fundamental rights and freedoms of the individual, that is to say, the right, whatever their race, tribe, places of origin, political opinion, colour, creed or sex, but subject to respect for the rights and freedoms of others and for the legitimate public interest,

and have accordingly included in this Constitution provisions designed to afford protection to those rights and freedoms, subject to such limitations on that protection as are contained in those provisions, being limitations primarily designed to ensure that the enjoyment of the acknowledged rights and freedoms by an individual does not prejudice the rights and freedoms of others or the legitimate public interest. (Preamble, Basic Rights)

Limitations and/or Derogations

Papua New Guinea, English


(2) Every person has the right to freedom based on law, and accordingly has a legal right to do any thing that-
(a) does not injure or interfere with the rights and freedoms of others;
… (Sec. 32)

Limitations and/or Derogations

Papua New Guinea, English

Nothing in this Division7 derogates the rights and freedoms of the individual under any other law and, in particular, an Organic Law or an Act of the Parliament may provide further guarantees of rights and freedoms and may further restrict the limitations that may be placed on, or on the exercise of, any right or freedom (including the limitations that may be imposed under Section 38 (general qualifications on qualified rights)). (Sec. 33)

Religious Law

Papua New Guinea, English

(1) For the purposes of this Subdivision,8 a law that complies with the requirements of this section is a law that is made and certified in accordance with Subsection (2), and that-
(a) regulates or restricts the exercise of a right or freedom referred to in this Subdivision to the extent that the regulation or restriction is necessary-
i. taking account of the National Goals and Directive Principles and the Basic Social Obligations, for the purpose of giving effect to the public interest in-
A. defence; or
B. public safety; or
C. public order; or
D. public welfare; or
E. public health (including animal and plant health); or
F. the protection of children and persons under disability (whether legal or practical); or
G. the development of under-privileged or less advanced groups or areas; or
ii. in order to protect the exercise of the rights and freedoms of others; or
(b) makes reasonable provision for cases where the exercise of one such right may conflict with the exercise of another, to the extent that the law is reasonably justifiable in a democratic society having a proper respect for the rights and dignity of mankind.
(2) For the purposes of Subsection (1), a law must-
(a) be expressed to be a law that is made for that purpose; and
(b) specify the right or freedom that it regulates or restricts; and
(c) be made, and certified by the Speaker in his certificate under Section 110 (certification as to making of laws) to have been made, by an absolute majority.
(3) The burden of showing that a law is a law that complies with the requirements of Subsection (1) is on the party relying on its validity. (Sec. 38)

Government

Papua New Guinea, English

WE HEREBY ACKNOWLEDGE that, subject to any restrictions imposed by law on noncitizens, all persons in our country are entitled to the fundamental rights and freedoms of the individual, that is to say, the right, whatever their race, tribe, places of origin, political opinion, colour, creed or sex, but subject to respect for the rights and freedoms of others and for the legitimate public interest,
… (Preamble, Basic Rights)

Judicial Protection

Papua New Guinea, English

The provisions of this Constitution that recognize rights of individuals (including corporations and associations) as well as those that confer powers or impose duties on public authorities, shall not be left without effect because of the lack of supporting, machinery or procedural laws, but the lack shall, as far as practicable, be supplied by the National Court in the light of the National Goals and Directive Principles, and by way of analogy from other laws, general principles of justice and generally-accepted doctrine. (Sec. 22)

Judicial Protection

Papua New Guinea, English

...
(3) For the purposes of determining whether or not any law, matter or thing is reasonably justified in a democratic society that has a proper regard for the rights and dignity of mankind, a court may have regard to-
(a) the provisions of this Constitution generally, and especially the National Goals and Directive Principles and the Basic Social Obligations; and
(b) the Charter of the United Nations; and
(c) the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and any other declaration, recommendation or decision of the General Assembly of the United Nations concerning human rights and fundamental freedoms; and
(d) the European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms and the Protocols thereto, and any other international conventions, agreements or declarations concerning human rights and fundamental freedoms; and
(e) judgements, reports and opinions of the International Court of Justice, the European Commission of Human Rights, the European Court of Human Rights and other international courts and tribunals dealing with human rights and fundamental freedoms; and
(f) previous laws, practices and judicial decisions and opinions in the country; and
(g) laws, practices and judicial decisions and opinions in other countries; and
(h) the Final Report of the pre-Independence Constitutional Planning Committee dated 13 August 1974 and presented to the pre-Independence House of Assembly on 16 August 1974, as affected by decisions of that House on the report and by decisions of the Constituent Assembly on the draft of this Constitution; and
(i) declarations by the International Commission of Jurists and other similar organizations; and
(j) any other material that the court considers relevant. (Sec. 39)