Constitution of the People’s Republic of China 1982, as amended to 2018


Jurisdiction and Access

The National People’s Congress exercises the following functions and powers:

(2) to supervise the enforcement of the Constitution;
… (Art. 62)

Jurisdiction and Access

The Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress exercises the following functions and powers:
(1) to interpret the Constitution and supervise its enforcement;
...
(7) To annul those administrative rules and regulations, decisions or orders of the State Council that contravene the Constitution or the statutes;
(8) To annul those local regulations or decisions of the organs of state power of provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities directly under the Central Government that contravene the Constitution, the statutes or the administrative rules and regulations;
… (Art. 67)

Education

The state develops socialist educational undertakings and works to raise the scientific and cultural level of the whole nation.
The state runs schools of various types, makes primary education compulsory and universal, develops secondary, vocational and higher education and promotes pre-school education.
The state develops educational facilities of various types in order to wipe out illiteracy and provide political, cultural, scientific, technical and professional education for workers, peasants, state functionaries and other working people. It encourages people to become educated through independent study.
... (Art. 19)

Education

Citizens of the People’s Republic of China have the duty as well as the right to receive education.
The state promotes the all-round moral, intellectual and physical development of children and young people. (Art. 46)

Education


Parents have the duty to rear and educate their minor children, and children who have come of age have the duty to support and assist their parents.
… (Art. 49)

Employment Rights and Protection

The state continuously raises labor productivity, improves economic results and develops the productive forces by enhancing the enthusiasm of the working people, raising the level of their technical skill, disseminating advanced science and technology, improving the systems of economic administration and enterprise operation and management, instituting the socialist system of responsibility in various forms and improving organization of work.
...
The State establishes a sound social security system compatible with the level of economic development. (Art. 14)

Employment Rights and Protection

Citizens of the People's Republic of China have the right as well as the duty to work.
Using various channels, the state creates conditions for employment, strengthens labor protection, improves working conditions and, on the basis of expanded production, increases remuneration for work and social benefits.
Work is the glorious duty of every able-bodied citizen. All working people in State-owned enterprises and in urban and rural economic collectives should perform their tasks with an attitude consonant with their status as masters of the country. The State promotes socialist labor emulation, and commends and rewards model and advanced workers. The State encourages citizens to take part in voluntary labor.
The state provides necessary vocational training to citizens before they are employed. (Art. 42)

Employment Rights and Protection

Working people in the People's Republic of China have the right to rest.
The state expands facilities for rest and recuperation of working people, and prescribes working hours and vacations for workers and staff. (Art. 43)

Employment Rights and Protection

The state prescribes by law the system of retirement for workers and staff in enterprises and undertakings and for functionaries of organs of state. The livelihood of retired personnel is ensured by the state and society. (Art. 44)

Employment Rights and Protection


The State protects the rights and interests of women, applies the principle of equal pay for equal work to men and women alike and trains and selects cadres from among women. (Art. 48)

Equality and Non-Discrimination


All citizens of the People’s Republic of China are equal before the law.
… (Art. 33)

Equality and Non-Discrimination

Women in the People's Republic of China enjoy equal rights with men in all spheres of life, political, economic, cultural and social, and family life.
… (Art. 48)

Obligations of the State


All citizens of the People's Republic of China are equal before the law.
The State respects and preserves human rights.
Every citizen enjoys the rights and at the same time must perform the duties prescribed by the Constitution and the law.(Art. 33)

Obligations of Private Parties

The exercise by citizens of the People's Republic of China of their freedoms and rights may not infringe upon the interests of the state, of society and of the collective, or upon the lawful freedoms and rights of other citizens. (Art. 51)

Judicial Protection


Citizens who have suffered losses through infringement of their civil rights by any state organ or functionary have the right to compensation in accordance with the law. (Art. 41)

Limitations and/or Derogations

The exercise by citizens of the People's Republic of China of their freedoms and rights may not infringe upon the interests of the state, of society and of the collective, or upon the lawful freedoms and rights of other citizens. (Art. 51)

Marriage and Family Life

Women in the People's Republic of China enjoy equal rights with men in all spheres of life, political, economic, cultural and social, and family life.
… (Art. 48)

Marriage and Family Life

Marriage, the family, and mother and child are protected by the state.
Both husband and wife have the duty to practice family planning.
Parents have the duty to rear and educate their minor children, and children who have come of age have the duty to support and assist their parents.
Violation of the freedom of marriage is prohibited. Maltreatment of old people, women and children is prohibited. (Art. 49)

Minorities


The People's Republic of China is a unitary multi-national state built up jointly by the people of all its nationalities. Socialist relations of equality, unity, mutual assistance, and harmony have been established among the nationalities and will continue to be strengthened. In the struggle to safeguard the unity of the nationalities, it is necessary to combat big-nation chauvinism, mainly Han chauvinism, and also necessary to combat local-national chauvinism. The state does its utmost to promote the common prosperity of all nationalities in the country.
… (Preamble)

Minorities

All nationalities in the People’s Republic of China are equal. The State protects the lawful rights and interests of the minority nationalities and upholds and develops a relationship of equality, unity, mutual assistance, and harmony among all of China's nationalities. Discrimination against and oppression of any nationality are prohibited; any acts that undermine the unity of the nationalities or instigate their secession are prohibited.
The state helps the areas inhabited by minority nationalities speed up their economic and cultural development in accordance with the peculiarities and needs of the different minority nationalities.
Regional autonomy is practiced in areas where people of minority nationalities live in compact communities; in these areas organs of self-government are established for the exercise of the right of autonomy. All the national autonomous areas are inalienable parts of the People's Republic of China.
The people of all nationalities have the freedom to use and develop their own spoken and written languages, and to preserve or reform their own ways and customs. (Art. 4)

Minorities

The National People's Congress is composed of deputies elected from the provinces, autonomous regions, municipalities directly under the Central Government, and the special administrative regions, and of deputies elected from the armed forces. All the minority nationalities are entitled to appropriate representation.
… (Art. 59)

Minorities


Minority nationalities are entitled to appropriate representation on the Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress.
… (Art. 65)

Minorities

The State Council exercises the following functions and powers:
...
(11) To direct and administer affairs concerning the nationalities and to safeguard the equal rights of minority nationalities and the right of autonomy of the national autonomous areas;
... (Art. 89)

Minorities

The state gives financial, material and technical assistance to the minority nationalities to accelerate their economic and cultural development.
… (Art. 122)

Minorities

Citizens of all nationalities have the right to use the spoken and written languages of their own nationalities in court proceedings. The people's courts and people's procuratorates should provide translation for any party to the court proceedings who is not familiar with the spoken or written languages in common use in the locality.
In an area where people of a minority nationality live in a compact community or where a number of nationalities live together, hearings should be conducted in the language or languages in common use in the locality; indictments, judgments, notices and other documents should be written, according to actual needs, in the language or languages in common use in the locality. (Art. 139)

Participation in Public Life and Institutions


The people administer state affairs and manage economic, cultural and social affairs through various channels and in various ways in accordance with the law.
… (Art. 2)

Participation in Public Life and Institutions

Women in the People's Republic of China enjoy equal rights with men in all spheres of life, political, economic, cultural and social, and family life.
The state protects the rights and interests of women, applies the principle of equal pay for equal work for men and women alike and trains and selects cadres from among women. (Art. 48)

Political Rights and Association

All citizens of the People's Republic of China who have reached the age of 18 have the right to vote and stand for election, regardless of nationality, race, sex, occupation, family background, religious belief, education, property status, or length of residence, except persons deprived of political rights according to law. (Art. 34)

Political Rights and Association

Citizens of the People’s Republic of China enjoy freedom of speech, of the press, of assembly, of association, of procession and of demonstration. (Art. 35)

Political Rights and Association

Women in the People's Republic of China enjoy equal rights with men in all spheres of life, political, economic, cultural and social, and family life.
… (Art. 48)

Head of State

The National People’s Congress exercises the following functions and powers:

(4) To elect the President and the Vice-President of the People's Republic of China;
… (Art. 62)

Head of State

The President and Vice-President of the People’s Republic of China are elected by the National People’s Congress.
Citizens of the People’s Republic of China who have the right to vote and to stand for election and who have reached the age of 45 are eligible for election as President or Vice-President of the People’s Republic of China.
… (Art. 79)

Vice-President

The National People’s Congress exercises the following functions and powers:

(4) To elect the President and the Vice-President of the People's Republic of China;
… (Art. 62)

Vice-President

The President and Vice-President of the People’s Republic of China are elected by the National People’s Congress.
Citizens of the People’s Republic of China who have the right to vote and to stand for election and who have reached the age of 45 are eligible for election as President or Vice-President of the People’s Republic of China.
... (Art. 79)

Vice-President

The Vice-President of the People’s Republic of China assists the President in his work.
The Vice-President of the People's Republic of China may exercise such parts of the functions and powers of the President as the President may entrust to him. (Art. 82)

Government

The National People’s Congress exercises the following functions and powers:

(5) To decide on the choice of the Premier of the State Council upon nomination by the President of the People's Republic of China, and to decide on the choice of the Vice-Premiers, State Councilors, Ministers in charge of Ministries or Commissions and the Auditor-General and the Secretary-General of the State Council upon nomination by the Premier;
… (Art. 62)

Government

The State Council, that is, the Central People's Government of the People's Republic of China, is the executive body of the highest organ of state power; it is the highest organ of state administration. (Art. 85)

Government

The State Council is composed of the following:
the Premier,
the Vice-Premiers,
the State Councilors,
the ministers in charge of ministries,
the ministers in charge of commissions,
the Auditor-General,
and the Secretary-General.
… (Art. 86)

Legislature

The National People’s Congress of the People’s Republic of China is the highest organ of state power. Its permanent body is the Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress. (Art. 57)

Legislature

The National People's Congress and its Standing Committee exercise the legislative power of the state. (Art. 58)

Legislature

The National People's Congress is composed of deputies elected from the provinces, autonomous regions, municipalities directly under the Central Government, and the special administrative regions, and of deputies elected from the armed forces. All the minority nationalities are entitled to appropriate representation.
Election of deputies to the National People's Congress is conducted by the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress.
The number of deputies to the National People's Congress and the manner of their election are prescribed by law. (Art. 59)

Property, Inheritance and Land Tenure

Rural collective economic organizations practice the double-tier management system that combines unified and separate operations on the basis of the household-based output- related contracted responsibility system. Various forms of the cooperative economy in rural areas such as producers', supply and marketing, credit and consumers' cooperatives belong to the sector of the socialist economy under collective ownership by the working people. Working people who are members of rural economic collectives have the right, within the limits prescribed by law, to farm plots of cropland and hilly land allotted for private use, engage in household sideline production and raise privately owned livestock.
… (Art. 8)

Property, Inheritance and Land Tenure

Land in the cities is owned by the state.
Land in the rural and suburban areas is owned by collectives except for those portions which belong to the state in accordance with the law; house sites and private plots of cropland and hilly land are also owned by collectives.

No organization or individual may appropriate, buy, sell or otherwise engage in the transfer of land by unlawful means. The right to the use of land may be transferred according to law.
All organizations and individuals who use land must make rational use of the land. (Art. 10)

Property, Inheritance and Land Tenure

Citizens' lawful private property is inviolable.
The State, in accordance with law, protects the rights of citizens to private property and to its inheritance.
… (Art. 13)

Protection from Violence


Maltreatment of old people, women and children is prohibited. (Art. 49)

Public Institutions and Services

The state prescribes by law the system of retirement for workers and staff in enterprises and undertakings and for functionaries of organs of state. The livelihood of retired personnel is ensured by the state and society. (Art. 44)

Public Institutions and Services

Citizens of the People's Republic of China have the right to material assistance from the state and society when they are old, ill or disabled. The state develops the social insurance, social relief and medical and health services that are required to enable citizens to enjoy this right.
The state and society ensure the livelihood of disabled members of the armed forces, provide pensions to the families of martyrs and give preferential treatment to the families of military personnel.
… (Art. 45)

Public Institutions and Services

Marriage, the family and mother and child are protected by the State.
… (Art. 49)

Public Institutions and Services

The State Council exercises the following functions and powers:

(7) To direct and administer the work concerning education, science, culture, public health, physical culture and family planning;
… (Art. 89)

Public Institutions and Services

Within the range of their authority as prescribed by law, local people's governments at or above the county level carry out administrative tasks related to the economy, education, science, culture, public health, physical culture, urban and rural development, finance, civic affairs, law enforcement, minority affairs, administration of justice, and family planning in their respective jurisdictions,
… (Art. 107)

Sexual and Reproductive Rights

The State promotes family planning so that population growth may fit the plans for economic and social development. (Art. 25)

Sexual and Reproductive Rights


Both husband and wife have the duty to practise family planning.
… (Art. 49)

Sexual and Reproductive Rights

The State Council exercises the following functions and powers:

(7) to direct and administer the work concerning … family planning;
… (Art. 89)

Sexual and Reproductive Rights

Within the range of their authority as prescribed by law, local people's governments at or above the county level carry out administrative tasks related to … family planning in their respective jurisdictions,
… (Art. 107)

Status of the Constitution


This Constitution affirms the achievements of the struggles of the Chinese people of all nationalities and defines the basic system and basic tasks of the state in legal form; it is the fundamental law of the state and has supreme legal authority. The people of all nationalities, all state organs, the armed forces, all political parties and public organizations and all enterprises and undertakings in the country must take the Constitution as the basic norm of conduct, and they have the duty to uphold the dignity of the Constitution and ensure its implementation. (Preamble)

Status of the Constitution


No law or administrative or local rules and regulations shall contravene the constitution.
All state organs, the armed forces, all political parties and public organizations and all enterprises and undertakings must abide by the Constitution and the law. All acts in violation of the Constitution and the law must be investigated.
No organization or individual may enjoy the privilege of being above the Constitution and the law. (Art. 5)

Status of the Constitution


Every citizen enjoys the rights and at the same time must perform the duties prescribed by the Constitution and the law. (Art. 33)

Status of the Constitution

Citizens of the People's Republic of China must abide by the Constitution and the law, … (Art. 53)

Customary Law


The people of all nationalities have the freedom to use and develop their own spoken and written languages, and to preserve or reform their own ways and customs. (Art. 4)

Women’s Rights

Women in the People's Republic of China enjoy equal rights with men in all spheres of life, political, economic, cultural and social, and family life.
The state protects the rights and interests of women, applies the principle of equal pay for equal work for men and women alike and trains and selects cadres from among women. (Art. 48)

Jurisdiction and Access

全国人民代表大会行使下列职权:

(二)监督宪法的实施;
… (第六十二条)

Jurisdiction and Access

全国人民代表大会常务委员会行使下列职权:
(一)解释宪法,监督宪法的实施;

(七)撤销国务院制定的同宪法、法律相抵触的行政法规、决定和命令;
(八)撤销省、自治区、直辖市国家权力机关制定的同宪法、法律和行政法规相抵触的地方性法规和决议;
… (第六十七条)

Education

国家发展社会主义的教育事业,提高全国人民的科学文化水平。
国家举办各种学校,普及初等义务教育,发展中等教育、职业教育和高等教育,并且发展学前教育。
国家发展各种教育设施,扫除文盲,对工人、农民、国家工作人员和其他劳动者进行政治、文化、科学、技术、业务的教育,鼓励自学成才。
... (第十九条)

Education

中华人民共和国公民有受教育的权利和义务。
国家培养青年、少年、儿童在品德、智力、体质等方面全面发展。 (第四十六条)

Education


父母有抚养教育未成年子女的义务,成年子女有赡养扶助父母的义务。
… (第四十九条)

Employment Rights and Protection

国家通过提高劳动者的积极性和技术水平,推广先进的科学技术,完善经济管理体制和企业经营管理制度,实行各种形式的社会主义责任制,改进劳动组织,以不断提高劳动生产率和经济效益,发展社会生产力。

国家建立健全同经济发展水平相适应的社会保障制度。(第十四条)

Employment Rights and Protection

中华人民共和国公民有劳动的权利和义务。
国家通过各种途径,创造劳动就业条件,加强劳动保护,改善劳动条件,并在发展生产的基础上,提高劳动报酬和福利待遇。
劳动是一切有劳动能力的公民的光荣职责。国有企业和城乡集体经济组织的劳动者都应当以国家主人翁的态度对待自己的劳动。国家提倡社会主义劳动竞赛,奖励劳动模范和先进工作者。国家提倡公民从事义务劳动。
国家对就业前的公民进行必要的劳动就业训练。 (第四十二条)

Employment Rights and Protection

中华人民共和国劳动者有休息的权利。
国家发展劳动者休息和休养的设施,规定职工的工作时间和休假制度。(第四十三条)

Employment Rights and Protection

国家依照法律规定实行企业事业组织的职工和国家机关工作人员的退休制度。退休人员的生活受到国家和社会的保障。(第四十四条)

Employment Rights and Protection


国家保护妇女的权利和利益,实行男女同工同酬,培养和选拔妇女干部。 (第四十八条)

Equality and Non-Discrimination


中华人民共和国公民在法律面前一律平等。
… (第三十三条 )

Equality and Non-Discrimination

中华人民共和国妇女在政治的、经济的、文化的、社会的和家庭的生活等各方面享有同男子平等的权利。
… (第四十八条)

Obligations of the State


中华人民共和国公民在法律面前一切平等。
国家尊重和保障人权。
任何公民享有宪法和法律规定的权利,同时必须履行宪法和法律规定的义务。(第三十三条)

Obligations of Private Parties

中华人民共和国公民在行使自由和权利的时候,不得损害国家的、社会的、集体的利益和其他公民的合法的自由和权利。(第五十一条)

Judicial Protection


由于国家机关和国家工作人员侵犯公民权利而受到损失的人,有依照法律规定取得赔偿的权利。(第四十一条 )

Limitations and/or Derogations

中华人民共和国公民在行使自由和权利的时候,不得损害国家的、社会的、集体的利益和其他公民的合法的自由和权利。(第五十一条)

Marriage and Family Life

中华人民共和国妇女在政治的、经济的、文化的、社会的和家庭的生活等各方面享有同男子平等的权利。
… (第四十八条)

Marriage and Family Life

婚姻、家庭、母亲和儿童受国家的保护。
夫妻双方有实行计划生育的义务。
父母有抚养教育未成年子女的义务,成年子女有赡养扶助父母的义务。
禁止破坏婚姻自由,禁止虐待老人、妇女和儿童。(第四十九条)

Minorities


中华人民共和国是全国各族人民共同缔造的统一的多民族国家。平等团结互助和谐的社会主义民族关系已经确立,并将继续加强。在维护民族团结的斗争中,要反对大民族主义,主要是大汉族主义,也要反对地方民族主义。国家尽一切努力,促进全国各民族的共同繁荣。
… (序言)

Minorities

中华人民共和国各民族一律平等。国家保障各少数民族的合法的权利和利益,维护和发展各民族的平等团结互助和谐关系。禁止对任何民族的歧视和压迫,禁止破坏民族团结和制造民族分裂的行为。
国家根据各少数民族的特点和需要,帮助各少数民族地区加速经济和文化的发展。
各少数民族聚居的地方实行区域自治,设立自治机关,行使自治权。各民族自治地方都是中华人民共和国不可分离的部分。
各民族都有使用和发展自己的语言文字的自由,都有保持或者改革自己的风俗习惯的自由。 (第四条)

Minorities

全国人民代表大会由省、自治区、直辖市、特别行政区和军队选出的代表组成。各少数民族都应当有适当名额的代表。
… (第五十九条)

Minorities


全国人民代表大会常务委员会组成人员中,应当有适当名额的少数民族代表。
… (第六十五条)

Minorities

国务院行使下列职权:

(十一)领导和管理民族事务,保障少数民族的平等权利和民族自治地方的自治权利;
… (第八十九条)

Minorities

国家从财政、物资、技术等方面帮助各少数民族加速发展经济建设和文化建设事业。
… (第一百二十二条)

Minorities

各民族公民都有用本民族语言文字进行诉讼的权利。人民法院和人民检察院对于不通晓当地通用的语言文字的诉讼参与人,应当为他们翻译。
在少数民族聚居或者多民族共同居住的地区,应当用当地通用的语言进行审理;起诉书、判决书、布告和其他文书应当根据实际需要使用当地通用的一种或者几种文字。 (第一百三十九条)

Participation in Public Life and Institutions


人民依照法律规定,通过各种途径和形式,管理国家事务,管理经济和文化事业,管理社会事务。
… (第二条)

Participation in Public Life and Institutions

中华人民共和国妇女在政治的、经济的、文化的、社会的和家庭的生活等各方面享有同男子平等的权利。
国家保护妇女的权利和利益,实行男女同工同酬,培养和选拔妇女干部。(第四十八条)

Political Rights and Association

中华人民共和国年满十八周岁的公民,不分民族、种族、性别、职业、家庭出身、宗教信仰、教育程度、财产状况、居住期限,都有选举权和被选举权;但是依照法律被剥夺政治权利的人除外。(第三十四条)

Political Rights and Association

中华人民共和国公民有言论、出版、集会、结社、游行、示威的自由。(第三十五条)

Political Rights and Association

中华人民共和国妇女在政治的、经济的、文化的、社会的和家庭的生活等各方面享有同男子平等的权利。
… (第四十八条)

Head of State

全国人民代表大会行使下列职权:

(四)选举中华人民共和国主席、副主席;
… (第六十二条)

Head of State

中华人民共和国主席、副主席由全国人民代表大会选举。
有选举权和被选举权的年满四十五周岁的中华人民共和国公民可以被选为中华人民共和国主席、副主席。
… (第七十九条)

Vice-President

全国人民代表大会行使下列职权:

(四)选举中华人民共和国主席、副主席;
… (第六十二条)

Vice-President

中华人民共和国主席、副主席由全国人民代表大会选举。
有选举权和被选举权的年满四十五周岁的中华人民共和国公民可以被选为中华人民共和国主席、副主席。
… (第七十九条)

Vice-President

中华人民共和国副主席协助主席工作。
中华人民共和国副主席受主席的委托,可以代行主席的部分职权。(第八十二条)

Government

全国人民代表大会行使下列职权:

(五)根据中华人民共和国主席的提名,决定国务院总理的人选;根据国务院总理的提名,决定国务院副总理、国务委员、各部部长、各委员会主任、审计长、秘书长的人选;
… (第六十二条)

Government

中华人民共和国国务院,即中央人民政府,是最高国家权力机关的执行机关,是最高国家行政机关。(第八十五条)

Government

国务院由下列人员组成:
总理,
副总理若干人,
国务委员若干人,
各部部长,
各委员会主任,
审计长,
秘书长。
… (第八十六条)

Legislature

中华人民共和国全国人民代表大会是最高国家权力机关。它的常设机关是全国人民代表大会常务委员会。(第五十七条)

Legislature

全国人民代表大会和全国人民代表大会常务委员会行使国家立法权。(第五十八条)

Legislature

全国人民代表大会由省、自治区、直辖市、特别行政区和军队选出的代表组成。各少数民族都应当有适当名额的代表。
全国人民代表大会代表的选举由全国人民代表大会常务委员会主持。
全国人民代表大会代表名额和代表产生办法由法律规定。(第五十九条)

Property, Inheritance and Land Tenure

农村集体经济组织实行家庭承包经营为基础、统分结合的双层经营体制。农村中的生产、供销、信用、消费等各种形式的合作经济,是社会主义劳动群众集体所有制经济。参加农村集体经济组织的劳动者,有权在法律规定的范围内经营自留地、自留山、家庭副业和饲养自留畜。
… (第八条)

Property, Inheritance and Land Tenure

城市的土地属于国家所有。
农村和城市郊区的土地,除由法律规定属于国家所有的以外,属于集体所有;宅基地和自留地、自留山,也属于集体所有。

任何组织或者个人不得侵占、买卖或者以其他形式非法转让土地。土地的使用权可以依照法律的规定转让。
一切使用土地的组织和个人必须合理地利用土地。(第十条)

Property, Inheritance and Land Tenure

公民的合法的私有财产不受侵犯。
国家依照法律规定保护公民的私有财产权和继承权。
… (第十三条)

Protection from Violence


禁止破坏婚姻自由,禁止虐待老人、妇女和儿童。(第四十九条)

Public Institutions and Services

国家依照法律规定实行企业事业组织的职工和国家机关工作人员的退休制度。退休人员的生活受到国家和社会的保障。(第四十四条)

Public Institutions and Services

中华人民共和国公民在年老、疾病或者丧失劳动能力的情况下,有从国家和社会获得物质帮助的权利。国家发展为公民享受这些权利所需要的社会保险、社会救济和医疗卫生事业。
国家和社会保障残废军人的生活,抚恤烈士家属,优待军人家属。
… (第四十五条)

Public Institutions and Services

婚姻、家庭、母亲和儿童受国家的保护。
… (第四十九条)

Public Institutions and Services

国务院行使下列职权:

(七)领导和管理教育、科学、文化、卫生、体育和计划生育工作;
… (第八十九条)

Public Institutions and Services

县级以上地方各级人民政府依照法律规定的权限,管理本行政区域内的经济、教育、科学、文化、卫生、体育事业、城乡建设事业和财政、民政、公安、民族事务、司法行政、计划生育等行政工作,发布决定和命令,任免、培训、考核和奖惩行政工作人员。
… (第一百零七条)

Sexual and Reproductive Rights

国家推行计划生育,使人口的增长同经济和社会发展计划相适应。(第二十五条)

Sexual and Reproductive Rights


夫妻双方有实行计划生育的义务。
… (第四十九条)

Sexual and Reproductive Rights

国务院行使下列职权:

(七)领导和管理 … 计划生育工作;
… (第八十九条)

Sexual and Reproductive Rights

县级以上地方各级人民政府依照法律规定的权限,管理本行政区域内的 … 计划生育
… (第一百零七条)

Status of the Constitution


本宪法以法律的形式确认了中国各族人民奋斗的成果,规定了国家的根本制度和根本任务,是国家的根本法,具有最高的法律效力。全国各族人民、一切国家机关和武装力量、各政党和各社会团体、各企业事业组织,都必须以宪法为根本的活动准则,并且负有维护宪法尊严、保证宪法实施的职责。(序言)

Status of the Constitution

...
一切法律、行政法规和地方性法规都不得同宪法相抵触。
一切国家机关和武装力量、各政党和各社会团体、各企业事业组织都必须遵守宪法和法律。一切违反宪法和法律的行为,必须予以追究。
任何组织或者个人都不得有超越宪法和法律的特权。(第五条 )

Status of the Constitution


任何公民享有宪法和法律规定的权利,同时必须履行宪法和法律规定的义务。(第三十三条)

Status of the Constitution

中华人民共和国公民必须遵守宪法和法律, … (第五十三条)

Customary Law


各民族都有使用和发展自己的语言文字的自由,都有保持或者改革自己的风俗习惯的自由 (第四条)

Women’s Rights

中华人民共和国妇女在政治的、经济的、文化的、社会的和家庭的生活等各方面享有同男子平等的权利。
国家保护妇女的权利和利益,实行男女同工同酬,培养和选拔妇女干部。(第四十八条)

Jurisdiction and Access

English

The National People’s Congress exercises the following functions and powers:

(2) to supervise the enforcement of the Constitution;
… (Art. 62)

Chinese

全国人民代表大会行使下列职权:

(二)监督宪法的实施;
… (第六十二条)

Jurisdiction and Access

English

The Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress exercises the following functions and powers:
(1) to interpret the Constitution and supervise its enforcement;
...
(7) To annul those administrative rules and regulations, decisions or orders of the State Council that contravene the Constitution or the statutes;
(8) To annul those local regulations or decisions of the organs of state power of provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities directly under the Central Government that contravene the Constitution, the statutes or the administrative rules and regulations;
… (Art. 67)

Chinese

全国人民代表大会常务委员会行使下列职权:
(一)解释宪法,监督宪法的实施;

(七)撤销国务院制定的同宪法、法律相抵触的行政法规、决定和命令;
(八)撤销省、自治区、直辖市国家权力机关制定的同宪法、法律和行政法规相抵触的地方性法规和决议;
… (第六十七条)

Education

English

The state develops socialist educational undertakings and works to raise the scientific and cultural level of the whole nation.
The state runs schools of various types, makes primary education compulsory and universal, develops secondary, vocational and higher education and promotes pre-school education.
The state develops educational facilities of various types in order to wipe out illiteracy and provide political, cultural, scientific, technical and professional education for workers, peasants, state functionaries and other working people. It encourages people to become educated through independent study.
... (Art. 19)

Chinese

国家发展社会主义的教育事业,提高全国人民的科学文化水平。
国家举办各种学校,普及初等义务教育,发展中等教育、职业教育和高等教育,并且发展学前教育。
国家发展各种教育设施,扫除文盲,对工人、农民、国家工作人员和其他劳动者进行政治、文化、科学、技术、业务的教育,鼓励自学成才。
... (第十九条)

Education

English

Citizens of the People’s Republic of China have the duty as well as the right to receive education.
The state promotes the all-round moral, intellectual and physical development of children and young people. (Art. 46)

Chinese

中华人民共和国公民有受教育的权利和义务。
国家培养青年、少年、儿童在品德、智力、体质等方面全面发展。 (第四十六条)

Education

English


Parents have the duty to rear and educate their minor children, and children who have come of age have the duty to support and assist their parents.
… (Art. 49)

Chinese


父母有抚养教育未成年子女的义务,成年子女有赡养扶助父母的义务。
… (第四十九条)

Employment Rights and Protection

English

The state continuously raises labor productivity, improves economic results and develops the productive forces by enhancing the enthusiasm of the working people, raising the level of their technical skill, disseminating advanced science and technology, improving the systems of economic administration and enterprise operation and management, instituting the socialist system of responsibility in various forms and improving organization of work.
...
The State establishes a sound social security system compatible with the level of economic development. (Art. 14)

Chinese

国家通过提高劳动者的积极性和技术水平,推广先进的科学技术,完善经济管理体制和企业经营管理制度,实行各种形式的社会主义责任制,改进劳动组织,以不断提高劳动生产率和经济效益,发展社会生产力。

国家建立健全同经济发展水平相适应的社会保障制度。(第十四条)

Employment Rights and Protection

English

Citizens of the People's Republic of China have the right as well as the duty to work.
Using various channels, the state creates conditions for employment, strengthens labor protection, improves working conditions and, on the basis of expanded production, increases remuneration for work and social benefits.
Work is the glorious duty of every able-bodied citizen. All working people in State-owned enterprises and in urban and rural economic collectives should perform their tasks with an attitude consonant with their status as masters of the country. The State promotes socialist labor emulation, and commends and rewards model and advanced workers. The State encourages citizens to take part in voluntary labor.
The state provides necessary vocational training to citizens before they are employed. (Art. 42)

Chinese

中华人民共和国公民有劳动的权利和义务。
国家通过各种途径,创造劳动就业条件,加强劳动保护,改善劳动条件,并在发展生产的基础上,提高劳动报酬和福利待遇。
劳动是一切有劳动能力的公民的光荣职责。国有企业和城乡集体经济组织的劳动者都应当以国家主人翁的态度对待自己的劳动。国家提倡社会主义劳动竞赛,奖励劳动模范和先进工作者。国家提倡公民从事义务劳动。
国家对就业前的公民进行必要的劳动就业训练。 (第四十二条)

Employment Rights and Protection

English

Working people in the People's Republic of China have the right to rest.
The state expands facilities for rest and recuperation of working people, and prescribes working hours and vacations for workers and staff. (Art. 43)

Chinese

中华人民共和国劳动者有休息的权利。
国家发展劳动者休息和休养的设施,规定职工的工作时间和休假制度。(第四十三条)

Employment Rights and Protection

English

The state prescribes by law the system of retirement for workers and staff in enterprises and undertakings and for functionaries of organs of state. The livelihood of retired personnel is ensured by the state and society. (Art. 44)

Chinese

国家依照法律规定实行企业事业组织的职工和国家机关工作人员的退休制度。退休人员的生活受到国家和社会的保障。(第四十四条)

Employment Rights and Protection

English


The State protects the rights and interests of women, applies the principle of equal pay for equal work to men and women alike and trains and selects cadres from among women. (Art. 48)

Chinese


国家保护妇女的权利和利益,实行男女同工同酬,培养和选拔妇女干部。 (第四十八条)

Equality and Non-Discrimination

English


All citizens of the People’s Republic of China are equal before the law.
… (Art. 33)

Chinese


中华人民共和国公民在法律面前一律平等。
… (第三十三条 )

Equality and Non-Discrimination

English

Women in the People's Republic of China enjoy equal rights with men in all spheres of life, political, economic, cultural and social, and family life.
… (Art. 48)

Chinese

中华人民共和国妇女在政治的、经济的、文化的、社会的和家庭的生活等各方面享有同男子平等的权利。
… (第四十八条)

Obligations of the State

English


All citizens of the People's Republic of China are equal before the law.
The State respects and preserves human rights.
Every citizen enjoys the rights and at the same time must perform the duties prescribed by the Constitution and the law.(Art. 33)

Chinese


中华人民共和国公民在法律面前一切平等。
国家尊重和保障人权。
任何公民享有宪法和法律规定的权利,同时必须履行宪法和法律规定的义务。(第三十三条)

Obligations of Private Parties

English

The exercise by citizens of the People's Republic of China of their freedoms and rights may not infringe upon the interests of the state, of society and of the collective, or upon the lawful freedoms and rights of other citizens. (Art. 51)

Chinese

中华人民共和国公民在行使自由和权利的时候,不得损害国家的、社会的、集体的利益和其他公民的合法的自由和权利。(第五十一条)

Judicial Protection

English


Citizens who have suffered losses through infringement of their civil rights by any state organ or functionary have the right to compensation in accordance with the law. (Art. 41)

Chinese


由于国家机关和国家工作人员侵犯公民权利而受到损失的人,有依照法律规定取得赔偿的权利。(第四十一条 )

Limitations and/or Derogations

English

The exercise by citizens of the People's Republic of China of their freedoms and rights may not infringe upon the interests of the state, of society and of the collective, or upon the lawful freedoms and rights of other citizens. (Art. 51)

Chinese

中华人民共和国公民在行使自由和权利的时候,不得损害国家的、社会的、集体的利益和其他公民的合法的自由和权利。(第五十一条)

Marriage and Family Life

English

Women in the People's Republic of China enjoy equal rights with men in all spheres of life, political, economic, cultural and social, and family life.
… (Art. 48)

Chinese

中华人民共和国妇女在政治的、经济的、文化的、社会的和家庭的生活等各方面享有同男子平等的权利。
… (第四十八条)

Marriage and Family Life

English

Marriage, the family, and mother and child are protected by the state.
Both husband and wife have the duty to practice family planning.
Parents have the duty to rear and educate their minor children, and children who have come of age have the duty to support and assist their parents.
Violation of the freedom of marriage is prohibited. Maltreatment of old people, women and children is prohibited. (Art. 49)

Chinese

婚姻、家庭、母亲和儿童受国家的保护。
夫妻双方有实行计划生育的义务。
父母有抚养教育未成年子女的义务,成年子女有赡养扶助父母的义务。
禁止破坏婚姻自由,禁止虐待老人、妇女和儿童。(第四十九条)

Minorities

English


The People's Republic of China is a unitary multi-national state built up jointly by the people of all its nationalities. Socialist relations of equality, unity, mutual assistance, and harmony have been established among the nationalities and will continue to be strengthened. In the struggle to safeguard the unity of the nationalities, it is necessary to combat big-nation chauvinism, mainly Han chauvinism, and also necessary to combat local-national chauvinism. The state does its utmost to promote the common prosperity of all nationalities in the country.
… (Preamble)

Chinese


中华人民共和国是全国各族人民共同缔造的统一的多民族国家。平等团结互助和谐的社会主义民族关系已经确立,并将继续加强。在维护民族团结的斗争中,要反对大民族主义,主要是大汉族主义,也要反对地方民族主义。国家尽一切努力,促进全国各民族的共同繁荣。
… (序言)

Minorities

English

All nationalities in the People’s Republic of China are equal. The State protects the lawful rights and interests of the minority nationalities and upholds and develops a relationship of equality, unity, mutual assistance, and harmony among all of China's nationalities. Discrimination against and oppression of any nationality are prohibited; any acts that undermine the unity of the nationalities or instigate their secession are prohibited.
The state helps the areas inhabited by minority nationalities speed up their economic and cultural development in accordance with the peculiarities and needs of the different minority nationalities.
Regional autonomy is practiced in areas where people of minority nationalities live in compact communities; in these areas organs of self-government are established for the exercise of the right of autonomy. All the national autonomous areas are inalienable parts of the People's Republic of China.
The people of all nationalities have the freedom to use and develop their own spoken and written languages, and to preserve or reform their own ways and customs. (Art. 4)

Chinese

中华人民共和国各民族一律平等。国家保障各少数民族的合法的权利和利益,维护和发展各民族的平等团结互助和谐关系。禁止对任何民族的歧视和压迫,禁止破坏民族团结和制造民族分裂的行为。
国家根据各少数民族的特点和需要,帮助各少数民族地区加速经济和文化的发展。
各少数民族聚居的地方实行区域自治,设立自治机关,行使自治权。各民族自治地方都是中华人民共和国不可分离的部分。
各民族都有使用和发展自己的语言文字的自由,都有保持或者改革自己的风俗习惯的自由。 (第四条)

Minorities

English

The National People's Congress is composed of deputies elected from the provinces, autonomous regions, municipalities directly under the Central Government, and the special administrative regions, and of deputies elected from the armed forces. All the minority nationalities are entitled to appropriate representation.
… (Art. 59)

Chinese

全国人民代表大会由省、自治区、直辖市、特别行政区和军队选出的代表组成。各少数民族都应当有适当名额的代表。
… (第五十九条)

Minorities

English


Minority nationalities are entitled to appropriate representation on the Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress.
… (Art. 65)

Chinese


全国人民代表大会常务委员会组成人员中,应当有适当名额的少数民族代表。
… (第六十五条)

Minorities

English

The State Council exercises the following functions and powers:
...
(11) To direct and administer affairs concerning the nationalities and to safeguard the equal rights of minority nationalities and the right of autonomy of the national autonomous areas;
... (Art. 89)

Chinese

国务院行使下列职权:

(十一)领导和管理民族事务,保障少数民族的平等权利和民族自治地方的自治权利;
… (第八十九条)

Minorities

English

The state gives financial, material and technical assistance to the minority nationalities to accelerate their economic and cultural development.
… (Art. 122)

Chinese

国家从财政、物资、技术等方面帮助各少数民族加速发展经济建设和文化建设事业。
… (第一百二十二条)

Minorities

English

Citizens of all nationalities have the right to use the spoken and written languages of their own nationalities in court proceedings. The people's courts and people's procuratorates should provide translation for any party to the court proceedings who is not familiar with the spoken or written languages in common use in the locality.
In an area where people of a minority nationality live in a compact community or where a number of nationalities live together, hearings should be conducted in the language or languages in common use in the locality; indictments, judgments, notices and other documents should be written, according to actual needs, in the language or languages in common use in the locality. (Art. 139)

Chinese

各民族公民都有用本民族语言文字进行诉讼的权利。人民法院和人民检察院对于不通晓当地通用的语言文字的诉讼参与人,应当为他们翻译。
在少数民族聚居或者多民族共同居住的地区,应当用当地通用的语言进行审理;起诉书、判决书、布告和其他文书应当根据实际需要使用当地通用的一种或者几种文字。 (第一百三十九条)

Participation in Public Life and Institutions

English


The people administer state affairs and manage economic, cultural and social affairs through various channels and in various ways in accordance with the law.
… (Art. 2)

Chinese


人民依照法律规定,通过各种途径和形式,管理国家事务,管理经济和文化事业,管理社会事务。
… (第二条)

Participation in Public Life and Institutions

English

Women in the People's Republic of China enjoy equal rights with men in all spheres of life, political, economic, cultural and social, and family life.
The state protects the rights and interests of women, applies the principle of equal pay for equal work for men and women alike and trains and selects cadres from among women. (Art. 48)

Chinese

中华人民共和国妇女在政治的、经济的、文化的、社会的和家庭的生活等各方面享有同男子平等的权利。
国家保护妇女的权利和利益,实行男女同工同酬,培养和选拔妇女干部。(第四十八条)

Political Rights and Association

English

All citizens of the People's Republic of China who have reached the age of 18 have the right to vote and stand for election, regardless of nationality, race, sex, occupation, family background, religious belief, education, property status, or length of residence, except persons deprived of political rights according to law. (Art. 34)

Chinese

中华人民共和国年满十八周岁的公民,不分民族、种族、性别、职业、家庭出身、宗教信仰、教育程度、财产状况、居住期限,都有选举权和被选举权;但是依照法律被剥夺政治权利的人除外。(第三十四条)

Political Rights and Association

English

Citizens of the People’s Republic of China enjoy freedom of speech, of the press, of assembly, of association, of procession and of demonstration. (Art. 35)

Chinese

中华人民共和国公民有言论、出版、集会、结社、游行、示威的自由。(第三十五条)

Political Rights and Association

English

Women in the People's Republic of China enjoy equal rights with men in all spheres of life, political, economic, cultural and social, and family life.
… (Art. 48)

Chinese

中华人民共和国妇女在政治的、经济的、文化的、社会的和家庭的生活等各方面享有同男子平等的权利。
… (第四十八条)

Head of State

English

The National People’s Congress exercises the following functions and powers:

(4) To elect the President and the Vice-President of the People's Republic of China;
… (Art. 62)

Chinese

全国人民代表大会行使下列职权:

(四)选举中华人民共和国主席、副主席;
… (第六十二条)

Head of State

English

The President and Vice-President of the People’s Republic of China are elected by the National People’s Congress.
Citizens of the People’s Republic of China who have the right to vote and to stand for election and who have reached the age of 45 are eligible for election as President or Vice-President of the People’s Republic of China.
… (Art. 79)

Chinese

中华人民共和国主席、副主席由全国人民代表大会选举。
有选举权和被选举权的年满四十五周岁的中华人民共和国公民可以被选为中华人民共和国主席、副主席。
… (第七十九条)

Vice-President

English

The National People’s Congress exercises the following functions and powers:

(4) To elect the President and the Vice-President of the People's Republic of China;
… (Art. 62)

Chinese

全国人民代表大会行使下列职权:

(四)选举中华人民共和国主席、副主席;
… (第六十二条)

Vice-President

English

The President and Vice-President of the People’s Republic of China are elected by the National People’s Congress.
Citizens of the People’s Republic of China who have the right to vote and to stand for election and who have reached the age of 45 are eligible for election as President or Vice-President of the People’s Republic of China.
... (Art. 79)

Chinese

中华人民共和国主席、副主席由全国人民代表大会选举。
有选举权和被选举权的年满四十五周岁的中华人民共和国公民可以被选为中华人民共和国主席、副主席。
… (第七十九条)

Vice-President

English

The Vice-President of the People’s Republic of China assists the President in his work.
The Vice-President of the People's Republic of China may exercise such parts of the functions and powers of the President as the President may entrust to him. (Art. 82)

Chinese

中华人民共和国副主席协助主席工作。
中华人民共和国副主席受主席的委托,可以代行主席的部分职权。(第八十二条)

Government

English

The National People’s Congress exercises the following functions and powers:

(5) To decide on the choice of the Premier of the State Council upon nomination by the President of the People's Republic of China, and to decide on the choice of the Vice-Premiers, State Councilors, Ministers in charge of Ministries or Commissions and the Auditor-General and the Secretary-General of the State Council upon nomination by the Premier;
… (Art. 62)

Chinese

全国人民代表大会行使下列职权:

(五)根据中华人民共和国主席的提名,决定国务院总理的人选;根据国务院总理的提名,决定国务院副总理、国务委员、各部部长、各委员会主任、审计长、秘书长的人选;
… (第六十二条)

Government

English

The State Council, that is, the Central People's Government of the People's Republic of China, is the executive body of the highest organ of state power; it is the highest organ of state administration. (Art. 85)

Chinese

中华人民共和国国务院,即中央人民政府,是最高国家权力机关的执行机关,是最高国家行政机关。(第八十五条)

Government

English

The State Council is composed of the following:
the Premier,
the Vice-Premiers,
the State Councilors,
the ministers in charge of ministries,
the ministers in charge of commissions,
the Auditor-General,
and the Secretary-General.
… (Art. 86)

Chinese

国务院由下列人员组成:
总理,
副总理若干人,
国务委员若干人,
各部部长,
各委员会主任,
审计长,
秘书长。
… (第八十六条)

Legislature

English

The National People’s Congress of the People’s Republic of China is the highest organ of state power. Its permanent body is the Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress. (Art. 57)

Chinese

中华人民共和国全国人民代表大会是最高国家权力机关。它的常设机关是全国人民代表大会常务委员会。(第五十七条)

Legislature

English

The National People's Congress and its Standing Committee exercise the legislative power of the state. (Art. 58)

Chinese

全国人民代表大会和全国人民代表大会常务委员会行使国家立法权。(第五十八条)

Legislature

English

The National People's Congress is composed of deputies elected from the provinces, autonomous regions, municipalities directly under the Central Government, and the special administrative regions, and of deputies elected from the armed forces. All the minority nationalities are entitled to appropriate representation.
Election of deputies to the National People's Congress is conducted by the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress.
The number of deputies to the National People's Congress and the manner of their election are prescribed by law. (Art. 59)

Chinese

全国人民代表大会由省、自治区、直辖市、特别行政区和军队选出的代表组成。各少数民族都应当有适当名额的代表。
全国人民代表大会代表的选举由全国人民代表大会常务委员会主持。
全国人民代表大会代表名额和代表产生办法由法律规定。(第五十九条)

Property, Inheritance and Land Tenure

English

Rural collective economic organizations practice the double-tier management system that combines unified and separate operations on the basis of the household-based output- related contracted responsibility system. Various forms of the cooperative economy in rural areas such as producers', supply and marketing, credit and consumers' cooperatives belong to the sector of the socialist economy under collective ownership by the working people. Working people who are members of rural economic collectives have the right, within the limits prescribed by law, to farm plots of cropland and hilly land allotted for private use, engage in household sideline production and raise privately owned livestock.
… (Art. 8)

Chinese

农村集体经济组织实行家庭承包经营为基础、统分结合的双层经营体制。农村中的生产、供销、信用、消费等各种形式的合作经济,是社会主义劳动群众集体所有制经济。参加农村集体经济组织的劳动者,有权在法律规定的范围内经营自留地、自留山、家庭副业和饲养自留畜。
… (第八条)

Property, Inheritance and Land Tenure

English

Land in the cities is owned by the state.
Land in the rural and suburban areas is owned by collectives except for those portions which belong to the state in accordance with the law; house sites and private plots of cropland and hilly land are also owned by collectives.

No organization or individual may appropriate, buy, sell or otherwise engage in the transfer of land by unlawful means. The right to the use of land may be transferred according to law.
All organizations and individuals who use land must make rational use of the land. (Art. 10)

Chinese

城市的土地属于国家所有。
农村和城市郊区的土地,除由法律规定属于国家所有的以外,属于集体所有;宅基地和自留地、自留山,也属于集体所有。

任何组织或者个人不得侵占、买卖或者以其他形式非法转让土地。土地的使用权可以依照法律的规定转让。
一切使用土地的组织和个人必须合理地利用土地。(第十条)

Property, Inheritance and Land Tenure

English

Citizens' lawful private property is inviolable.
The State, in accordance with law, protects the rights of citizens to private property and to its inheritance.
… (Art. 13)

Chinese

公民的合法的私有财产不受侵犯。
国家依照法律规定保护公民的私有财产权和继承权。
… (第十三条)

Protection from Violence

English


Maltreatment of old people, women and children is prohibited. (Art. 49)

Chinese


禁止破坏婚姻自由,禁止虐待老人、妇女和儿童。(第四十九条)

Public Institutions and Services

English

The state prescribes by law the system of retirement for workers and staff in enterprises and undertakings and for functionaries of organs of state. The livelihood of retired personnel is ensured by the state and society. (Art. 44)

Chinese

国家依照法律规定实行企业事业组织的职工和国家机关工作人员的退休制度。退休人员的生活受到国家和社会的保障。(第四十四条)

Public Institutions and Services

English

Citizens of the People's Republic of China have the right to material assistance from the state and society when they are old, ill or disabled. The state develops the social insurance, social relief and medical and health services that are required to enable citizens to enjoy this right.
The state and society ensure the livelihood of disabled members of the armed forces, provide pensions to the families of martyrs and give preferential treatment to the families of military personnel.
… (Art. 45)

Chinese

中华人民共和国公民在年老、疾病或者丧失劳动能力的情况下,有从国家和社会获得物质帮助的权利。国家发展为公民享受这些权利所需要的社会保险、社会救济和医疗卫生事业。
国家和社会保障残废军人的生活,抚恤烈士家属,优待军人家属。
… (第四十五条)

Public Institutions and Services

English

Marriage, the family and mother and child are protected by the State.
… (Art. 49)

Chinese

婚姻、家庭、母亲和儿童受国家的保护。
… (第四十九条)

Public Institutions and Services

English

The State Council exercises the following functions and powers:

(7) To direct and administer the work concerning education, science, culture, public health, physical culture and family planning;
… (Art. 89)

Chinese

国务院行使下列职权:

(七)领导和管理教育、科学、文化、卫生、体育和计划生育工作;
… (第八十九条)

Public Institutions and Services

English

Within the range of their authority as prescribed by law, local people's governments at or above the county level carry out administrative tasks related to the economy, education, science, culture, public health, physical culture, urban and rural development, finance, civic affairs, law enforcement, minority affairs, administration of justice, and family planning in their respective jurisdictions,
… (Art. 107)

Chinese

县级以上地方各级人民政府依照法律规定的权限,管理本行政区域内的经济、教育、科学、文化、卫生、体育事业、城乡建设事业和财政、民政、公安、民族事务、司法行政、计划生育等行政工作,发布决定和命令,任免、培训、考核和奖惩行政工作人员。
… (第一百零七条)

Sexual and Reproductive Rights

English

The State promotes family planning so that population growth may fit the plans for economic and social development. (Art. 25)

Chinese

国家推行计划生育,使人口的增长同经济和社会发展计划相适应。(第二十五条)

Sexual and Reproductive Rights

English


Both husband and wife have the duty to practise family planning.
… (Art. 49)

Chinese


夫妻双方有实行计划生育的义务。
… (第四十九条)

Sexual and Reproductive Rights

English

The State Council exercises the following functions and powers:

(7) to direct and administer the work concerning … family planning;
… (Art. 89)

Chinese

国务院行使下列职权:

(七)领导和管理 … 计划生育工作;
… (第八十九条)

Sexual and Reproductive Rights

English

Within the range of their authority as prescribed by law, local people's governments at or above the county level carry out administrative tasks related to … family planning in their respective jurisdictions,
… (Art. 107)

Chinese

县级以上地方各级人民政府依照法律规定的权限,管理本行政区域内的 … 计划生育
… (第一百零七条)

Status of the Constitution

English


This Constitution affirms the achievements of the struggles of the Chinese people of all nationalities and defines the basic system and basic tasks of the state in legal form; it is the fundamental law of the state and has supreme legal authority. The people of all nationalities, all state organs, the armed forces, all political parties and public organizations and all enterprises and undertakings in the country must take the Constitution as the basic norm of conduct, and they have the duty to uphold the dignity of the Constitution and ensure its implementation. (Preamble)

Chinese


本宪法以法律的形式确认了中国各族人民奋斗的成果,规定了国家的根本制度和根本任务,是国家的根本法,具有最高的法律效力。全国各族人民、一切国家机关和武装力量、各政党和各社会团体、各企业事业组织,都必须以宪法为根本的活动准则,并且负有维护宪法尊严、保证宪法实施的职责。(序言)

Status of the Constitution

English


No law or administrative or local rules and regulations shall contravene the constitution.
All state organs, the armed forces, all political parties and public organizations and all enterprises and undertakings must abide by the Constitution and the law. All acts in violation of the Constitution and the law must be investigated.
No organization or individual may enjoy the privilege of being above the Constitution and the law. (Art. 5)

Chinese

...
一切法律、行政法规和地方性法规都不得同宪法相抵触。
一切国家机关和武装力量、各政党和各社会团体、各企业事业组织都必须遵守宪法和法律。一切违反宪法和法律的行为,必须予以追究。
任何组织或者个人都不得有超越宪法和法律的特权。(第五条 )

Status of the Constitution

English


Every citizen enjoys the rights and at the same time must perform the duties prescribed by the Constitution and the law. (Art. 33)

Chinese


任何公民享有宪法和法律规定的权利,同时必须履行宪法和法律规定的义务。(第三十三条)

Status of the Constitution

English

Citizens of the People's Republic of China must abide by the Constitution and the law, … (Art. 53)

Chinese

中华人民共和国公民必须遵守宪法和法律, … (第五十三条)

Customary Law

English


The people of all nationalities have the freedom to use and develop their own spoken and written languages, and to preserve or reform their own ways and customs. (Art. 4)

Chinese


各民族都有使用和发展自己的语言文字的自由,都有保持或者改革自己的风俗习惯的自由 (第四条)

Women’s Rights

English

Women in the People's Republic of China enjoy equal rights with men in all spheres of life, political, economic, cultural and social, and family life.
The state protects the rights and interests of women, applies the principle of equal pay for equal work for men and women alike and trains and selects cadres from among women. (Art. 48)

Chinese

中华人民共和国妇女在政治的、经济的、文化的、社会的和家庭的生活等各方面享有同男子平等的权利。
国家保护妇女的权利和利益,实行男女同工同酬,培养和选拔妇女干部。(第四十八条)

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Links to all sites last visited 31 March 2021

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There is a discrepancy between the English and Chinese texts.