1. Martial law or a state of emergency can only be declared, in the whole or part of the national territory, in cases of effective or imminent foreign aggression, grave threat or disturbance of the democratic constitutional order, or political calamity.
2. The declaration of martial law cannot affect the right to life, integrity and identity, civil capacity and citizenship, non-retroactivity of penal laws, right to defense of the accused and liberty of conscience and religion.
3. The declaration of a state of emergency can only result in the partial suspension of rights, liberties and guarantees. (Art. 31)